Oonopidae Simon

Edward, Karen L. & Harvey, Mark S., 2014, Australian Goblin Spiders Of The Genus Ischnothyreus (Araneae, Oonopidae), Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2014 (389), pp. 1-144: 7-13

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1206/865.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/E466E016-FFAC-FFB0-FF16-7EF53EFFFEFD

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Felipe

scientific name

Oonopidae Simon
status

 

Family Oonopidae Simon   Subfamily Oonopinae Simon   Ischnothyreus Simon  

Ischnaspis Simon, 1891: 562   (type species Ischnaspis peltifer Simon, 1891   , by monotypy) (preoccupied by Ischnaspis Douglas, 1887   ; Hemiptera   ).

Ischnothyreus Simon, 1893: 298   (replacement name for Ischnaspis   ).

Ischnothyrella Saaristo, 2001: 348   (type species by original designation Ischnothyreus jivani Benoit, 1979   ). Synonymized by Platnick et al. (2012a: 6).

DIAGNOSIS: Ischnothryeus are small to medium-sized (1.4–3.5), scutate oonopids. The most distinctive characteristic of the members of this genus are the small, darkly colored, heavily sclerotized palps of the male spiders, held close to the mouthparts on the sternum (figs. 1H, 7H). The rest of the body and appendages are only weakly sclerotized, with dorsal and ventral scutes partially covering the abdomen to varying degrees (figs. 1A–F, 7A–F). Strong spines are positioned on the femora, tibiae, and metatarsi of legs I and II (figs. 20F, 27A–F, 29A–F, 38A, B). Eyes are relatively large, mostly touching each other, forming a ring (figs. 1G, 2A, 7G). The cymbium and bulb of the male pedipalps are fused but with a clearly defined seam. The bulb is usually elongated and gradually tapering, usually with an obtusely bent embolic region (figs. 4A, B, 8A, B). The female genitalia is unique with a median convoluted duct starting from the epigastric furrow, winding posteriorly, usually ending in a funnellike atrium (figs. 1I, 4F, 7I, 8F).

DESCRIPTION: Total length of males, 1.20– 1.81, of females, 1.34–2.22. CEPHALOTHO- RAX: Male carapace with dark brown eggshaped patches behind eyes (exceptions noted in text), female carapace without any pattern, usually ovoid in dorsal view (fig. 35B), pars cephalica usually highly elevated in males (figs. 2A, 20A, 34A), slightly elevated in females (figs. 35A, C), surface of carapace usually reticulate to some degree (fig. 34B), with rounded posterolateral corners, posterolateral edge without pits, posterior margin not bulging below posterior rim, posterolateral surface without spikes, thorax without depressions, fovea absent, without radiating rows of pits; lateral margin straight, smooth, without denticles; nonmarginal pars cephalica setae needlelike; plumose setae near posterior margin of pars thoracica absent; nonmarginal pars cephalica setae dark, present, scattered; nonmarginal pars thoracica setae absent; marginal setae absent. Clypeus margin unmodified, vertical in lateral view; setae present, needlelike (figs. 34C, D, 35C, D). Chilum absent. Eyes six, well developed, ALE usually largest, circular, PME usually oval; posterior eye row procurved from front, usually procurved from above but sometimes straight (fig. 35B); ALE usually touching, PME touching throughout most of their length, PLE-PME touching. Sternum not fused to carapace, median concavity absent, distance between coxae approximately equal, without radial furrows between coxae I–II, II–III, III–IV, radial furrow opposite coxae III absent, surface smooth, without pits, microsculpture absent, sickle-shaped structures absent, anterior margin unmodified, posterior margin not extending posteriorly of coxae IV, anterior corner unmodified, lateral margin without infracoxal grooves, extensions of precoxal triangles present, lateral margins unmodified, without posterior hump; setae sparse, needlelike, originating from surface, without hair tufts. Chelicerae usually directed medially; retromargin, promargin without teeth; fang without toothlike projections, tip unmodified; setae needlelike, evenly scattered; paturon distal region unmodified, posterior surface unmodified, anterior surface sometimes modified in males, promargin with medial denticles (figs. 2D, 37A–D), laminate groove absent; female fang without prominent basal process; male fang sometimes with prominent basal process (figs. 4C, D, 8C, D, 65C, D). Labium triangular or elongated hexagonal, subdistal portion with unmodified setae (fig. 18C). Endites posteromedian part unmodified. Serrula present in single row in female (fig. 2F), appears modified in males (figs. 18E, F, 37E, F). ABDOMEN: Ovoid to cylindrical (figs. 20A, 34E, F, 35F), without long posterior extension, rounded posteriorly, interscutal membrane with setae, without rows of small sclerotized platelets; dorsum soft portions without color pattern and generally white. Book lung covers large, without setae, anterolateral edge unmodified. Posterior spiracles not connected by groove. Pedicel tube short (fig. 34F), unmodified, scutopedicel region unmodified, scutum extending far dorsal of pedicel in males, not extending far dorsal of pedicel in females, plumose hairs absent, matted setae on anterior ventral abdomen in pedicel area absent, cuticular outgrowths near pedicel absent. Dorsal scutum weakly sclerotized, without color pattern, anterior half without projecting denticles, not fused to epigastric scutum. Epigastric scutum weakly sclerotized, surrounding pedicel, not protruding. Male postepigastric scutum weakly sclerotized, short, almost rectangular, anterior margin unmodified, without posteriorly directed lateral apodemes, fused to epigastric scutum. Female postepigastric scutum small, not fused to epigastric scutum, separated by epigastric furrow (figs. 1I, 4F), without lateral joints, with short, posteriorly directed apodemes. Spinneret scutum present, incomplete ring, with fringe of needlelike setae. Supraanal scutum absent. Dorsum, epigastric area, and postepigastric area setae present, uniform, needlelike. Dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets present in females, absent in males. Interscutal membrane with setae. Colulus present. Spinnerets scanned only in I. puruntatmeri   , sp. nov., I. crenulatus   , sp. nov., and I. bifidus   , sp. nov; female ALS with one major ampullate gland spigot surrounded by three smaller spigots, PMS with four spigots, PLS with six to eight spigots (figs. 3C, D, 21E–H, 38E, F), and male ALS with one major ampullate gland spigot surrounded by three smaller spigots, PMS with one spigot, and PLS with three spigots (figs. 3A, B, 38C, D); spigots elongate. LEGS: Femur IV not thickened, same size as femora I–III, patella plus tibia I usually shorter than carapace, tibia IV specialized hairs on ventral apex absent, tibia IV ventral scopula absent, metatarsi III and IV weak ventral scopula absent. Leg spines present (figs. 20F, 38A, B). Claws (examined in detail for I. crenulatus   , sp. nov., only). Tarsi I to IV superior claws with three or four teeth on lateral surface of proclaw and retroclaw (figs. 41A–F). Tarsi I to IV without inferior claw. Tibiae each with three trichobothria, metatarsi each with one (figs. 40A–C, 20D), male palpal tibia usually with three dorsal trichobothria (figs. 20C, 40E, F); trichobothrial bases longitudinally narrowed but rounded in male palp (figs. 20C, 40A, F), aperture internal texture not gratelike, hood covered by numerous low, closely spaced ridges (fig. 40A–C). Tarsal organ of legs I and II with three sensillae and legs III and IV with two sensillae (figs. 20E, 39B–D). Slit sensilla visible on leg IV (fig. 39E, F). Female palp without claws or spines, tarsus unmodified, patella without prolateral row of ridges (fig. 39A). GENITALIA: Male epigastric region with large sperm pore, triangular with rounded angles, situated at level of anterior spiracles, unmodified (fig. 3E); furrow without Ω- shaped insertions, without modified setae. Male palp of normal size, strongly sclerotized, right and left palps symmetrical; embolus prolateral excavation absent; trochanter normal size, with ventral projection; femur normal size, attaching to patella basally, without posteriorly rounded lateral dilation; patella not enlarged, without prolateral row of ridges, setae unmodified; cymbium ovoid in dorsal view, fused with bulb but with clearly defined seam between, not extending beyond distal tip of bulb, plumose setae absent, distal patch of setae absent, without stout setae; bulb tapering apically (figs. 2B, 21A–C, 36F). Short, thin sperm duct visible beneath chitin starting posterior to embolic region (fig. 4A, B), ending subdistally at dark colored region on ventral surface, assumed to be embolus opening (embolus opening in fig. 4A, B), embolic region usually obtusely bent; small spiniform conductor sometimes visible near putative embolus opening; embolic region sometimes with large modified projections or processes (fig. 4A, B, E). Female genitalia with medial convoluted duct (fig. 4F) starting from epigastric furrow, winding posteriorly to end anterior to depression or funnellike atrium (epigynal atrium in figs. 3F, 4F, 21D, 35E); sometimes with process or processes (figs. 8F, 17J, 65F) that partly overlie anterior or posterior portion of atrium.

DISTRIBUTION: Australia, Papua New Guinea, Pacific Islands, Asia, America, Middle East, Europe, Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles.

KEY TO AUSTRALIAN SPECIES OF ISCHNOTHYREUS  

(males unknown for I. nourlangie   , sp. nov., I. florence   , sp. nov, I. bualveus   , sp. nov.)

1. Males........................... 2

– Females........................ 32

2. Subdistal tip of fang with swollen process (fig. 8C, D).......... I. tumidus   , sp. nov.

– Subdistal tip of fang unmodified (e.g., fig. 4C, D)....................... 3

3. Anterior face of chelicerae modified with complex processes (figs. 19A, B, 22C, 23G– H, 24C)......................... 4

– Anterior face of chelicerae unmodified (e.g., figs. 4C, 30C, 57C)................. 5

4. Anterior process on chelicerae bifurcated (figs. 19A, B, 22C)..... I. bifidus   , sp. nov.

– Anterior process on chelicerae nonbifurcated, digitiform (fig. 24C)... I. hoplophorus   , sp. nov.

5. Fang with medial modification (figs. 10C, D, 28D, 75D)....................... 6

– Fang without medial modification (e.g., figs. 4C, 30C, 57C)................. 8

6. Fang with dorsal nonsclerotized, sharp triangular incision (fig. 10D); embolic region of palp enlarged and clublike (fig. 10A, B, E)........................ I. culleni   , sp. nov.

– Fang with medial rounded sclerotized process (figs. 28D, 75D); palp embolic region not enlarged and clublike (figs. 28A, B, 75A, B)................................7

7. Fang basal process large, complex (fig. 75C, D).................. I. arcus   , sp. nov.

– Fang basal process absent (fig. 28C, D)...................... I. ker   , sp. nov.

8. Fang basal process absent (figs. 14C, D, 26C, D, 30C, D, 32C, D)................. 9

– Fang basal process present (figs. 4C, D, 16C, D, 52D)........................ 19

9. Palp bulbous in shape, elongate embolic region bent obtusely at right angles, tapering to round- ed tip (fig. 55A, B)...... I. piricius   , sp. nov.

– Palp elongate, tapering apically (e.g., figs. 12A, 14A, 30A)................ 10

10. Palp with number of processes, embolic region complex, split into numerous structures (figs. 26A, 30A, B, 32A, B, 42A, B, E, 44A, B, E)...................... 11

– Palp embolic region with one or two less complex processes (figs. 12A, 14A)..... 17

11. Lateral process situated medially on palpal bulb (figs. 26A, E, 30A, E)........... 12

– Complex processes situated subdistally on palpal bulb (figs. 32E, 42E, 44E, 46E)... 13

12. Palpal bulb lateral process long, embolic region not obtusely bent or tapered (fig. 26A, B, E)............... I. digitus   , sp. nov.

– Palpal bulb lateral process very short, small stub, embolic region split into number broad, rounded processes (fig. 30A, B, E)........................ I. binorbis   , sp. nov.

13. Basal part of fang flattened ( Edward and Harvey, 2009: figs. 8, 9); labium not heavily sclerotized ( Edward and Harvey, 2009: fig. 3)......... I. darwini Edward and Harvey  

– Basal part of fang normal (figs. 32C, D, 37D, 42C, D, 44C, D, 46C, D); labium much more heavily sclerotized than sternum (figs. 31F, 33H, 43H, 45H).................. 14

14. Subdistal embolic region of palp with backward facing triangular hornlike process (figs. 44A, B, 46A, B, E)............ 15

– Not as above (figs. 44A, B, 46A, B, E).... 16

15. Subdistal embolic region of palp extremely broad and enlarged, triangular in shape in dorsal view (fig. 32E).......... I. boonjee   , sp. nov.

– Subdistal embolic region of palp divided into two main processes, digitiform process pro- jected laterally (fig. 42A, B, E)......................... I. crenulatus   , sp. nov.

16. Subdistal embolic region of palp with one large and one smaller dorsal hornlike process (fig. 44A, B)........ I. cornuatus   , sp. nov.

– Subdistal embolic region of palp with one dorsal hornlike process and two smaller lateral processes (fig. 46A, B, E)............................. I. corniculatum   , sp. nov.

17. Distal embolic region of palp broad and short, extending about 1/3 length of bulb (fig. 12A, B)....... I. meidamon   , sp. nov.

– Distal embolic region of palp obtusely bent at right angle (figs. 14A, B, 50A, B)...... 18

18. Distal embolic region of palp long, obtusely bent tip longer than wide (fig. 14A, B).................... I. comicus   , sp. nov.

– Distal embolic region of palp broad, obtusely bent tip about as wide as long (fig. 50A, B)......................... I. eacham   , sp. nov.

19. Cheliceral fang with very prominent basal process (figs. 16C, D, 65C, D, 71C, D, 73D).... 20

– Cheliceral fang with slight basal process (figs. 4C, D, 52D, 57C, D, 59D)....... 24

20. Embolic region of palp obtusely bent and elongate, greater than 2/3 of bulb length (fig. 73A, B); basal process of fang with numerous lobes (fig. 73C, D)......................... I. pterodactyl   , sp. nov.

– Embolic region of palp slightly bent and short, less than 2/3 of bulb length (e.g., figs. 16A, 65A, 71A); basal process of fang without numerous lobes (e.g., figs. 16C, D, 65C, D, 71C, D).................. 21

21. Embolic region of palp curved to form thin, hooked distal tip (fig. 71A, B, E); fang greatly enlarged basally with thin process curved around anterior side (fig. 71C, D)........................ I. hamatus   , sp. nov.

– Embolic region of palp not curved to form thin, hooked distal tip (figs. 16A, B, E, 65A, B, E, 69A, B, E); fang not greatly enlarged basally (figs. 65C, D, 69C, D)........ 22

22. Embolic region of palp bifurcated distally (fig. 65A, B, E); fang not enlarged basally (fig. 65C, D).......... I. raveni   , sp. nov.

– Embolic region of palp stout, rounded distally (figs. 16A, B, E, 69A, B, E); posterior basal process of fang disc shaped (figs. 16C, D, 69C, D)...................... 23

23. Embolic region of palp tapering to rounded distal tip (fig. 69A, B, E)..... I. rixi   , sp. nov.

– Embolic region of palp not tapering to distal tip (fig. 16A, B, E)...... I. tragicus   , sp. nov.

24. Embolic region of palp without enlarged or complex distal tip (figs. 57A, B, 59A, B, 61A, B, 63A, B)...................... 25

– Embolic region of palp with enlarged or complex distal tip (figs. 4A, B, 52A, B).... 28

25. Embolic region of palp slightly swollen and clublike (fig. 61A, B); clypeus high (fig. 60G).......... I. julianneae   , sp. nov.

– Embolic region of palp not clublike (figs. 57A, B, 59A, B, 63A, B); clypeus low (figs. 56G, 58G, 62G).............. 26

26. Fang basal process dorsally produced into a rounded bump (fig. 63C, D)........................... I. stauntoni   , sp. nov.

– Fang basal process otherwise (figs. 57C, D, 59D).......................... 27

27. Fang basal process dorsally flattened (fig. 57C, D)......... I. barratus   , sp. nov.

– Fang basal process rounded, disc shaped on posterior aspect (fig. 59D)............................... I. monteithi   , sp. nov.

28. Embolic region of palp obtusely bent at right angles or slightly curved toward cymbium (figs. 4A, 77A, 48A)............... 29

– Embolic region of palp divided into curved or laterally twisted lobes (figs. 52A, B, 65A, B).......................... 28

29. Embolic region of palp obtusely bent at right angles to bulb, slightly twisted subdistally (fig. 4A, B); basal process of fang with large bump (fig. 4C, D)................................ I. puruntatamerii   , sp. nov.

– Embolic region of palp angled back toward cymbium (figs. 48A, B, 77A, B); basal process of fang with large bump (figs. 48 C, D, 77C, D)............................ 30

30. Embolic region of palp long, greater than length of 2/3 bulb, broadening to fan shape distally (fig. 77A, B); basal process of fang forming a very small bump (fig. 77C, D)........ ........................... I. eungella   , sp. nov.

– Embolic region of palp shorter, less than 2/3 length of bulb, tapering slightly at distal tip (fig. 48A, B); basal process of fang only forming slight bump (fig. 48C, D)......................... I. ovinus   , sp. nov.

31. Lateral process of embolic region elongate and bent retrolaterally, distal end curved, caplike (fig. 67A, B); dorsal scute small, covering 1/2–2/3 abdomen (fig. 66A).................... I. bupariorbis   , sp. nov.

– Lateral process of embolic region stout and curved around distal end (fig. 52A, B); dorsal scute large, covering most of abdomen (fig. 51A)........ I. collingwoodi   , sp. nov.

32. Epigynal region with very heavily sclerotized platelike sclerite (figs. 17J, 22E, 23I).... 33

– Epigynal region without heavily sclerotized platelike sclerite (figs. 1I, 13I)......... 34

33. Platelike sclerite of epigyne elongate, with curved lateral edges (figs. 23I, 24E); habitus color pale orange (fig. 23D); posterior margin of dorsal scute rectangular (fig. 23D)....................... I. hoplophorus   , sp. nov.

– Platelike sclerite of epigyne stout, with straighter lateral edges (figs. 17J, 22E); habitus color brown (fig. 17D); dorsal scute rounded posteriorly (fig. 17D)........................... I. bifidus   , sp. nov.

34. Epigynal region very simple, without distinctly shaped epigynal atrium (figs. 9I, 10F, 59F)........................... 35

– Epigynal region of variously modified, more heavily sclerotized or with distinctly shaped epigynal atriums (figs. 1I, 4F, 7I, 12F, 16F, 26F, 28E, 30F).................... 38

35. Convoluted duct of epigyne with distal triangular process (figs. 10F, 50F)...... 36

– Convoluted duct of epigyne without distal triangular process (figs. 59F, 6F)...... 37

36. Color pale yellow-orange (fig. 9D); dorsal scute short, covering 1/2 of abdomen (fig. 9D); small triangular process over epigynal atrium pointing posteriorly (fig. 10F).................................. I. culleni   , sp. nov.

– Color orange-brown (fig. 49D); dorsal scute long, covering 1/2–2/3 of abdomen (fig. 49D); triangular process over epigynal atrium pointing anteriorly (fig. 50F)........................... I. eacham   , sp. nov.

37. Color pale orange–olive green (fig. 58D); dorsal scute long, covering 2/4 of abdomen (fig. 58D); distinct process near convoluted duct absent (fig. 59F)................................ I. monteithi   , sp. nov.

– Color olive green (fig. 6A); dorsal scute broad, covering 2/4 abdomen width (fig. 6A); small teardrop-shaped process at posterior end of thin convoluted duct (fig. 6F).. .................... I. nourlangie   , sp. nov.

38. Epigyne with transverse sclerotized bar clearly joined to posteriorly directed apodemes (figs. 16F, 65F, 69F, 71F, 73E, 75F, 77E)................................ 39

– Epigyne without transverse sclerotized bar clearly joined to posteriorly directed apodemes (figs. 4F, 5F, 12F, 14F)........ 44

39. Epigynal atrium very wide, with edges extending to apodemes, no process overhanging anterior part of atrium (figs. 76I, 77E)............................. I. eungella   , sp. nov.

– Epigynal atrium generally circle or oval shaped, with heavily sclerotized process overhanging anterior part of atrium (figs. 7I, 8F, 16F, 61F, 65F, 69F, 71F)......... 40

40. Epigynal convoluted duct very thin toward posterior end (figs. 64I, 65F); process overhanging epigynal atrium relatively straight across with only slight median indentation (figs. 64I, 65F)........ I. raveni   , sp. nov.

– Epigynal convoluted duct uniform and thick- er than apodemes (figs. 16F, 69F, 71F); process overhanging epigynal atrium otherwise (figs. 16F, 69F, 71F)............ 41

41. Epigynal horizontal sclerotization weak (figs. 8F, 61F).................... 42

– Epigynal horizontal sclerotization strong (figs. 16F, 69F, 71F, 73E)........... 43

42. Process overhanging epigynal atrium with two heavily sclerotized lobes, opening of atrium higher than wide (figs. 7I, 8F).................... I. tumidus   , sp. nov.

– Process overhanging epigynal atrium triangular, opening of atrium wider than high (figs. 60I, 61F)...... I. julianneae   , sp. nov.

43. Color brown to dark brown (figs. 68D, 72D, 70D); dorsal scute large, covering 1/2 to most of abdomen width and 1/2–3/4 length (figs. 68D, 72D, 70D).............. 44

– Color pale orange (figs. 15D, 74D); dorsal scute smaller, covering 1/4–1/2 abdomen width and 1/4–1/2 length (figs. 15D, 74D)...................................... 46

44. Process overhanging epigynal atrium clearly triangular and pointed at posterior end (fig. 69F); dorsal scute covering about 1/2 abdomen width (fig. 68D)... I. rixi   , sp. nov.

– Process overhanging epigynal atrium not triangular and pointed (figs. 71F, 72E); dorsal scute covering more than 1/2 abdomen width (figs. 70D, 72D).............. 45

45. Process overhanging epigynal atrium appears to be fused to circular edge, opening of atrium very round (figs. 72I, 73E)...................... I. pterodactyl   , sp. nov.

– Process overhanging epigynal atrium heavily sclerotized, rectangular shaped, edges of atrium not heavily sclerotized (figs. 70I, 71F)............... I. hamatus   , sp. nov.

46. Epigyne with curved edge of overhanging process with very small medial triangular extension (figs. 74I, 75F)........... I. arcus   , sp. nov.

– Epigyne with curved edge of overhanging process with slight indentation or rounded edge, without extension (fig. 16F)........................ I. tragicus   , sp. nov.

47. Convoluted duct of epigyne thick posteriorly, thinning anteriorly (fig. 63F); epigynal atrium very round, with distinct triangular process on anterior edge (fig. 63F)..................... I. stauntoni   , sp. nov.

– Convoluted duct of epigyne uniform (fig. 4F); epigynal atrium not so round, either with very small triangular process on anterior edge (fig. 4F) or without process (e.g., Edward and Harvey, 2009: fig. 10)............ 48

48. Convoluted duct of epigyne thinner than apodemes (figs. 4F, 5F); carapace with lateral margins olive green, elevated portion of pars cephalica yellow to orange brown (figs. 1D, 5A)........................... 49

– Convoluted duct of epigyne thicker than apodemes (e.g., figs. 12F, 14F, 26F, 28E); carapace uniformly yellow to orange brown (e.g., figs. 29D, 43D, 66D)........... 51

49. Elevated portion of pars cephalica yellow (fig. 5A, C); dorsal scute with posterior edge rounded (fig. 5A); overhanging process anteri- or to epigynal atrium present (fig. 5F)..................... I. florence   , sp. nov.

– Elevated portion of pars cephalica orange to pale orange (fig. 1D; Edward and Harvey, 2009: fig. 2); dorsal scute with posterior edge straight (fig. 1D; Edward and Harvey, 2009: fig. 2); epigynal atrium otherwise (fig. 4F; Edward and Harvey, 2009: fig. 10)...... 47

50. Epigynal atrium large and square shaped (figs. 1F, 4F)..... I. puruntatamerii   , sp. nov.

– Epigynal atrium Ω- shaped, with teardropshaped process in depression ( Edward and Harvey, 2009: fig. 10)....... ................... I. darwini Edward and Harvey  

51. Epigynal atrium paired (figs. 30F, 44F, 65F)........................... 52

– Epigynal atrium singular, varied in shape (figs. 12F, 14F, 26F)................ 54

52. Paired epigynal atrium cup shaped with thicker sclerotization at lateral edges (figs. 43I, 44F); dorsal scute long (fig. 43D)............................. I. cornuatus   , sp. nov.

– Paired epigynal atrium circular in shape, sclerotization even or heavier anteriorly; dorsal scute short (fig. 30F).......... 53

53. Dorsal scute wider at posterior end (fig. 29D); epigyne with paired circles small, convoluted duct elongate (figs. 29I, 30F)............................ I. binorbis   , sp. nov.

– Dorsal scutenarrowed posteriorly (fig. 66D); epigyne with paired circles large, convoluted duct short (figs. 66I, 67F)........................... I. bupariorbis   , sp. nov.

54. Posterior edge of epigynal atrium with triangular projection facing toward center of depression (figs. 26F, 32F, 42F, 46F, 50F, 52F, 53F)....................... 55

– Posterior edge of epigynal atrium rounded or straight (figs. 12F, 14F, 28E, 48F)..... 60

55. Epigynal atrium depression wider than long, depression extending out to apodemes (fig. 46F)....................... 56

– Epigynal atrium depression higher than wide, anterior section with modifications (figs. 26F, 32F, 52F)....................... 57

56. Epigynal atrium depression very large and Ushaped, extending length of convoluted duct (fig. 53B, C)......... I. bualveus   , sp. nov.

– Epigynal atrium depression stout, extending only 1/3 of convoluted duct (figs. 45J, 46F)................. I. corniculatum   , sp. nov.

57. Anterior part of epigynal atrium wider than posterior part, with curved edge expanding to form two wing-shaped depressions (figs. 33I, 42F)............. I. crenulatus   , sp. nov.

– Posterior part of epigynal atrium wider than anterior part, with anterior indented depressions forming narrowed necklike structure (figs. 26F, 32F, 52F)................ 58

58. Postepigastic scutum not heavily sclerotized (fig. 51E); epigynal depression shorter in height, anterior indentation not very distinct or heavily sclerotized (figs. 51I, 52F)................... I. collingwoodi   , sp. nov.

– Postepigastric scutum heavily sclerotized (figs. 26I, 31E, 56I); epigynal depression elongate, anterior indentation very distinct and heavily sclerotized (figs. 25I, 26F, 32F).....59

59. Epigynal atrium elongate and vase shaped, duct always convoluted (figs. 31E, 32F); posterior edge of dorsal scute straight (fig. 31A)....................... I. boonjee   , sp. nov.

– Epigynal atrium Ω- shaped, anterior portion of duct straight, posterior portion convoluted (figs. 25E, I, 26F); posterior edge of dorsal scute rounded (fig. 25D)....... I. digitus   , sp. nov.

60. Epigynal atrium very small and rounded (figs. 56I, 57F); posterior third of dorsal scute slightly broader than anterior third (fig. 56D)......................... I. barratus   , sp. nov.

– Epigynal atrium large and varied in shape (figs. 12F, 14F, 28E, 48F, 55E); posterior third of dorsal scute not wider than anterior third (figs. 11D, 13D, 27D, 47D)...... 61

61. Epigynal atrium higher than wide, pear shaped (figs. 54I, 55E)... I. piricius   , sp. nov.

– Epigynal atrium wider than high, smile shaped (figs. 12F, 14F)............. 62

62. Lateral edges of epigynal atrium sharp, not rounded (figs. 11I, 12F)............................... I. meidamon   , sp. nov.

– Lateral edges of epigynal atrium rounded (figs. 14F, 28E, 48F)................ 63

63. Sclerotization around epigynal atrium opening discontinuous and heavier in lateral corners (figs. 48F)...... I. ovinus   , sp. nov.

– Sclerotization around epigynal atrium opening continuous and even (figs. 14F, 28E)...... 64

64. Epigynal atrium jelly-bean shaped, narrow, visible lines running down each side of convoluted duct toward depression (figs. 27I, 28E).................. I. ker   , sp. nov.

– Epigynal atrium with wide smiley face, no lines visible either side of convoluted duct (figs. 13I, 14F)....... I. comicus   , sp. nov.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Oonopidae

Loc

Oonopidae Simon

Edward, Karen L. & Harvey, Mark S. 2014
2014
Loc

Ischnothyrella

Platnick, N. I. & L. Berniker & Y. Kranz-Baltensperger 2012: 6
Saaristo, M. I. 2001: 348
2001
Loc

Ischnothyreus

Simon, E. 1893: 298
1893
Loc

Ischnaspis

Simon, E. 1891: 562
1891