Solenosmilia variabilis Duncan, 1873

Filander, Zoleka N., Kitahara, Marcelo V., Cairns, Stephen D., Sink, Kerry J. & Lombard, Amanda T., 2021, Azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) from South Africa, ZooKeys 1066, pp. 1-198: 1

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1066.69697

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:133CE040-A5AF-44F1-BC9A-558C2F06A8AA

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/E51E3A9A-73B6-1C6F-0DBC-77578F39BB69

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Solenosmilia variabilis Duncan, 1873
status

 

Solenosmilia variabilis Duncan, 1873  

Fig. 4P View Figure 4

Solenosmilia variabilis   Duncan, 1873: 328, pl. 42, figs 11-18. - Pourtalès 1878: 206. pl. 1, figs 1-3. - Pourtalès 1880: 108. - Moseley 1881: 181, pl. 9, figs 1-5. -von Marenzeller 1904: 310-311, pl. 15, figs 4, 4A. - Zibrowius 1974a: 768-769. - Gravier 1920: 94-96, pl. 9, figs 153-156. -Hoffmeister 1933: 14, pl. 4, fig. 7. - Gardiner and Waugh 1939: 229-230. - Cairns 1979: 136-138, pl. 26, figs 2-4. - Zibrowius 1980: 143-145, pl. 75, figs A-N.- Scheer and Pallai 1983: 160. -Cairns and Parker 1992: 29-30, pl. 8, figs D, E.- Cairns and Keller 1993: 250, fig. 6D. -Cairns 2004a: 284.

Solenosmilia jeffreyi   Alcock, 1898: 27-28, pl. 3, fig. 3, 3A, B.

Type locality.

Off Spain (HMS ' Porcupine   ' stns. 17 and 32: 39°42'00"N, 9°43'00"W and 35°41'00"N, 7°08'00"W, respectively); 1190-2003 m ( Duncan 1873).

Type material.

The syntype is deposited at the NHMUK ( Cairns 1979, 2004a).

Material examined.

DSCS-INV 122 (1 fragment): Southern margin, 240 km from Agulhas/ 247 km off De Mond-Heuningnes Estuary, 36°45'34.13"S, 21°12'46.61"E; 513 m. SAMC_A088916 (1 fragment): Southern margin, 280 km from Cape St. Francis/ 287 km off Slang Estuary, 36°43'40.13"S, 25°08'53.47"E; 622 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A090142 (1 fragment): Southern margin, 240 km from Agulhas/ 247 km off De Mond-Heuningnes Estuary, 36°45'34.13"S, 21°12'46.61"E; 513 m. SAMC_A090143 (1 fragment): Southern margin, 287 km from Cape St. Francis/ 291 km off Slang Estuary, 36°47'35.77"S, 24°38'35.69"E; 520 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H1397 (1 fragment): Southern margin, 3 km from East London / 1 km off Buffalo Estuary, 33°01'29.99"S, 27°55'00.00"E; 566- 928 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H2807 (1fragment): Eastern margin, 20 km from Cape Vidal/ 22 km off St Lucia Estuary, 27°59'04.99"S, 32°40'08.00"E; 550 m. SAM_H2840 (14 fragments): Eastern margin, 19 km from Cape Vidal/ 22 km off St Lucia Estuary, 27°59'30.00"S, 32°40'00.00"E; 550 m. SAM_H3034 (13 fragments): Eastern margin, 36 km off Port Shepstone / 49 km off Mtentu Estuary, 30°43'11.99"S, 30°48'47.99"E; 900 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3035 (10 fragments): Eastern margin, 16 km from Port Shepstone /off Boboyi Estuary, 30°49'05.99"S, 30°34'59.99"E; 930 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3036 (21 fragments): Eastern margin, 36 km from Port Shepstone / 28 km off Mhlabatshane Estuary, 30°43'00.00"S, 30°48'47.99"E; 780 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3037 (1 fragment): Eastern margin, 17 km from Margate/off Boboyi Estuary, 30°53'24.00"S, 30°31'41.99"E; 850 m. SAM_H3140 (17 fragments): Southern margin, 26 km from Kidds Beach/ 27 km off Ncera Estuary, 33°19'36.00"S, 27°52'23.99"E; 760 m. SAM_H3141 (13 fragments): Southern margin, 32 km off Mazeppa Bay / 24 km off Kobole Estuary, 32°28'36.00"S, 28°58'48.00"E; 710- 775 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3142 (3 fragments): Southern margin, 22 km from Gonubie/ 21 km off Gqunube Estuary, 33°06'00.00"S, 28°08'17.99"E; 700- 650 m. SAM_H3158 (38 fragments): Southern margin, 40 km from Cintsa/ 29 km off Cwili Estuary, 32°55'00.00"S, 28°31'00.00"E; 630 m. SAM_H3179 (1 fragment): Southern margin, 31 km from Port Alfred / 20 km off Kleinemond (Oos) Estuary, 33°39'24.00"S, 27°11'42.00"E; 86 m. GoogleMaps  

Description.

Corallum bushy achieved by intra-tentacular budding. Budding dichotomous. Calice rarely exceeds 6 mm in CD. Coenosteum completely smooth or granular. Costae ridged, with granules arranged in a longitudinal manner. Corallum white and sometimes light brown.

Septa hexamerally arranged in three or four cycles according to the formula: S1 > S2 > S3 > S4. S1 highly exsert and extend deep into fossa with straight axial margins. S2 less exsert and 1/3 the width of S1, but otherwise similar in profile. S3 not exsert and forms in upper fossa, appearing rudimentary. S4 usually absent, but when present has dentate or laciniate axial margin. Septal faces bear tall and slender granules. Tabular endothecal dissepiments common and widespread. Columella usually absent, but some corallites have a small spongy columella deep in fossa.

Distribution.

Regional: Southern to eastern margin of South Africa, off Cape St. Francis extending towards Cape Vidal; 86-930 m. Elsewhere: Cosmopolitan, except from the continental Antarctica; 220-2165 m.

Remarks.

Together with Madrepora oculata   , Lophelia pertusa   , and Goniocorella dumosa   , Solenosmilia variabilis   is one of the most studied framework-building coral species. The equal distomedial budding in S. variabilis   makes it easily distinguishable from the other deep-water framework-building species. Solenosmilia variabilis   was first reported from South Africa off the Agulhas region (von Marenzeller 1904a). Subsequently, Cairns and Keller (1993) documented its northward regional distribution to off Durban. Part of the examined material includes sub-samples (SAM_H3037, SAM_H3141, and SAM_H3158) of Cairns and Keller’s (1993) records, all of which are broken fragments. Therefore, details on the size of the base and end branches are not included in the description. Nevertheless, Cairns (1979) provides a more detailed description of these features.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Cnidaria

Class

Anthozoa

Order

Scleractinia

Family

Caryophylliidae

Genus

Solenosmilia

Loc

Solenosmilia variabilis Duncan, 1873

Filander, Zoleka N., Kitahara, Marcelo V., Cairns, Stephen D., Sink, Kerry J. & Lombard, Amanda T. 2021
2021
Loc

Solenosmilia variabilis

Duncan 1873
1873