Strumigenys crassicornis Mayr, 1887

Silva, Thiago Sanches Ranzani Da, Chaul, Júlio Cezar Mário & Feitosa, Rodrigo Machado, 2022, Lectotype designation and redescription of four commonly collected Neotropical species of Strumigenys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 798 (1), pp. 103-126 : 106-111

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2022.798.1673

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C10C629A-8BD4-46EE-BA5B-CBC396890031

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6344168

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/E53F8786-575B-F249-FDA7-AEAD44EBCDC3

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Strumigenys crassicornis Mayr, 1887
status

 

Strumigenys crassicornis Mayr, 1887

Figs 1–2 View Fig View Fig

Strumigenys crassicornis Mayr, 1887: 577 .

Neostruma crassicornis – Brown 1948: 111.

Pyramica crassicornis – Bolton 1999: 1672.

Strumigenys crassicornis – Baroni Urbani & De Andrade 2007: 117.

Diagnosis

Strumigenys crassicornis is one of the most easily diagnosable Neotropical Strumigenys and can be distinguished from other species by the combination of lobate scape near subbasal bend ( Fig. 2A View Fig ), spatulate cephalic ground-setae ( Fig. 2A View Fig ), absence of apicoscrobal setae ( Fig. 2A View Fig ), and swollen postpetiole ( Fig. 2B View Fig ).

Type material

Lectotype (designated herein) (label information) ( Fig. 1 View Fig ) BRAZIL • “ St. Cath. Hetschko ” [printed]; “Collect. G. Mayr [printed]; “ crassicornis ” [handwritten] “ G. Mayr, Type” [printed]; “ Pyramica crassicornis ” [handwritten] “det. B. Bolton 1999 ” [printed]; “Syntype” [printed]; “ANTWEB CASENT0915943” [printed]; “ Strumigenys crassicornis Mayr, 1887 ” LECTOTYPE [printed]; “ NHMW-HYM4945 ” [printed]; NHMW.

Paralectotypes (label information) BRAZIL • 1 worker; “ St. Catharina Coll. G. Mayr ” [printed]; “Syntype” [printed]; “ Strumigenys crassicornis Mayr, 1887 PARALECTOTYPE” [printed]; “ NHMW-HYM4946 ” [printed]; NHMW 1 worker; same label information as for preceding; “ NHMW-HYM4947 ” [printed]; NHMW 1 worker; same label information as for preceding; “ NHMW-HYM4948 ” [printed]; NHMW .

Additional material examined

BRAZIL – Amazonas • 2 workers; Terra Firme ; 02°34′ S, 60°06′ W; 7 Dec. 1990; M.O. de Oliveira leg.; ZF-02, km 10, Capoeira small caps or capital?; CELC, UFV-LABECOL009312 . – GoogleMaps Bahia • 2 workers; Itacaré ; 14°17′38.0″ S, 38°59′08.6″ W; 23 Oct. 2015; J. Chaul leg.; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001967 . – GoogleMaps Espírito Santo • 1 worker; Santa Teresa , “Rebio Augusto Ruschi” [ Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve ], Preguiça [Preguiça Trail]; 19°54′42.1″ S, 40°32′24.0″ W; 800–870 m a.s.l.; Jan. 2013; S. Simon leg.; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-010752 . – GoogleMaps Mato Grosso • 1 worker; Canarana ; 13°04′ S, 52°23′ W; Jun. 2013; M. Bicalho and V. Ribeiro leg.; Winkler; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-000064 . – GoogleMaps Minas Gerais • 1 worker; Viçosa ; 13 Jan. 1998; A.M. Soares leg.; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001842 GoogleMaps 1 worker; Viçosa ; Feb. 1994; Sperber, Louzada and Lopes leg.; floresta secundária; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001824 1 worker; Viçosa ; 14 Nov. 2008 – 9 Feb. 2009; E.A. Silva and M. Rodrigues leg.; mata do paraíso ; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001838 2 workers, 1 queen; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-010753 1 worker, 1 queen; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV- LABECOL-011011 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV-LABECOL-010760 1 worker; Viçosa ; 20°48′08″ S, 42°51′31″ W, 13–18 Mar. 2011; L. Paolucci leg.; mata do paraíso ; Berlese; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001794 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV-LABECOL-001764 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV- LABECOL-001793 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV-LABECOL-001770 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV-LABECOL-001767 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV-LABECOL-001782 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV-LABECOL-001768 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV-LABECOL-001762 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV- LABECOL-001796 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV-LABECOL-001774 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC-UFV-LABECOL-001776 GoogleMaps 1 worker; Viçosa; 2009–2010; A.S. Pereira leg.; mata do paraíso ; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001833 1 worker, 1 queen; Viçosa ; 1 Apr. 2013; J. Chaul leg.; horto; hand sampled; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001843 1 worker; Viçosa ; 20°45′26.67″ S, 42°51′39.07″ W; J. Chaul leg.; mata da biologia ; Winkler; CELC, UFV- LABECOL-001837 GoogleMaps 2 workers; Viçosa , 20°48′21.6″ S, 42°51′10.8″ W; 780 m a.s.l.; 1 May 2013; J. Chaul and R.S. Jesus leg.; mata do paraíso ; hypogaeic Winkler; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-1822 GoogleMaps 1 queen; same collection data as for preceding GoogleMaps 1 worker; Viçosa ; 20°48′ S, 42°51′ W; 12 Feb. 2015; J. Chaul and A.P. Alves leg.; mata do paraíso ; Winkler; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001841 GoogleMaps 1 queen; Viçosa ; 20°48′19″ S, 42°51′13.1″ W; 685 m a.s.l.; 12 Jul. 2016; A.P. Raimundo, L. Ferreira, J. Chaul and L. Paolucci leg.; mata do paraíso ; hypogaeic Winkler; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-010759 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-010756 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-010757 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-010758 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV- LABECOL-010761 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-010762 GoogleMaps 1 worker; Araponga ; Apr. 2011; D. Muscardi leg.; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001849 1 worker,; Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro ; 20°39′16″ S, 42°24′58″ W; 1400 m a.s.l.; Jan. 2007; R. Solar leg.; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-009313 GoogleMaps 2 workers, 1 queen; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-00145 GoogleMaps 4 workers; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV- LABECOL-0018200 GoogleMaps 2 workers; Araponga-Fervedouro , “ Serra do Brigadeiro ”; 20°44′21.9″ S, 42°27′20.6″ W; 16 Oct. 2016; N. Safar and T. Fernandes leg.; Serra do Brigadeiro ; CELC, UFV- LABECOL-009314 GoogleMaps 2 workers; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-009311 GoogleMaps 1 worker; Alto Caparaó , Vale Verde; 6 Nov. 2016; A. Orsetti and S.Alóquio leg.; Winkler; CELC, UFV- LABECOL-009309 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-009310 1 queen; Providência ; 21°40′43.7″ S, 42°38′19.0″ W; Dec. 2012; J. Chaul leg.; Fazenda Araribá ; Winkler; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001835 GoogleMaps 1 worker, 1 queen; Parque Estadual do Itacolomi ; 20°25′34.8″ S, 43°30′53.7″ W; 25–31 Oct. 2016; G. Soares, J. Falcon, L.F. Climaco and T. Pontes leg.; grotão ; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-010729 GoogleMaps 2 workers; Serra do Cipó “ Próx. Cachoeira da Capivara” [near Cachoeira da Capivara]; 19°15′10.7″ S, 43°33′06.4″ W; 1351 m a.s.l.; 13 May 2016; J. Chaul and S. Epifânio leg.; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001909 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV- LABECOL-001906 GoogleMaps 1 worker; Ipaba , “ Faz. Macedônia” [Macedônia Farm] ; Nov. 2005; T. Marques leg.; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001819 . – Pará • 2 workers; Primavera ; 00°58’45″ S, 47°06’43″ W; 5–6 Nov. 2018; L.P. Prado and K.L.S. Sampaio leg.; Winkler; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-010463 GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-011010 . – GoogleMaps Rondônia • 1 worker; Jaci Novo ; 6 Jul. 2013; km 3; INPA, ANTWEB1032004 . – GoogleMaps Santa Catarina • 2 workers; Indaial , Parque Nacional da Serra do Itajaí, Faxinal do Bepe; Feb. 2015; M.D. Vitorino leg.; regeneração; DZUP GoogleMaps 3 workers; same collection data as for preceding; Apr. 2015; DZUP GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; Jun. 2015; DZUP GoogleMaps 2 workers; same collection data as for preceding; Aug. 2015; DZUP GoogleMaps 2 workers; same collection data as for preceding; Feb. 2016; DZUP GoogleMaps 3 workers; same collection data as for preceding; Aug. 2016; DZUP GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; Aug. 2015; floresta; DZUP GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; Aug. 2015; poleiro; DZUP GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; Jun. 2016; DZUP GoogleMaps 2 workers; same collection data as for preceding; Feb. 2016; galharia; DZUP GoogleMaps 1 worker; same collection data as for preceding; Aug. 2016; DZUP GoogleMaps 3 workers; same collection data as for preceding; Aug. 2016; plantio; DZUP GoogleMaps 2 workers; Painel, Base Avançada do IBAMA ; 18 May 2013; R.M. Feitosa leg.; solo; DZUP 1 worker; Três Barras , Floresta Nacional de Três Barras; 26°13′48.444″ S, 50°17′45.21″ W; 723.513 m a.s.l.; 25 Apr. 2015; D.C. Ortiz and J. Niemyer leg.; DZUP GoogleMaps 1 worker; Três Barras , Floresta Nacional de Três Barras; 26°07′35.56″ S, 50°18′51.17″ W; 15 Dec. 2014; D.C. Ortis et al. leg.; DZUP GoogleMaps 1 worker; Seara ; 1999; R. Silva leg.; MZSP, ANTWEB1032393 1 worker; Araranguá , Restinga Morro dos Conventos ; 7–23 Jan. 2008; D.C. Cardoso and M.P. Cristiano leg.; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-001893 . – São Paulo • 1 worker; Salesópolis , Estação Ecológica de Boracéia; 23°39′19.0″ S, 45°53′17.0″ W; 3–11 Nov. 2017; R.P.S. Almeida and J.A. Silva leg.; Winkler; CELC, UFV-LABECOL-010754 GoogleMaps .

Lectotype measurements

ABD4L 0.396; DPW 0.124; EL 0.052; HL 0.585; HT 0.288; HW 0.412; ML 0.230; PH 0.132; PL 0.277; PPL 0.149; PW 0.279; SL 0.201; WL 0.589; TL 1.954; CI 70.4; DPI 44.7; LPI 47.6; MI 39.3; OI 12.6; SI 48.8.

Non-type measurements

ABD4L 0.330 –0.470; DPW 0.105 –0.150; EL 0.040 –0.060; HL 0.480 –0.620; HT 0.250 –0.330; HW 0.340 –0.450; ML 0.155 –0.240; PH 0.130 –0.190; PL 0.220 –0.340; PPL 0.110 –0.200; PW 0.230 – 0.325; SL 0.210 –0.310; WL 0.465 –0.630; TL 1.765 –2.500; CI 70.1–78.8; DPI 39.7–50.0; LPI 48.3– 61.4; MI 32.3–38.7; OI 9.8–14.6; SI 53.8–70.6 (n = 14).

Description

SCULPTURE. Head entirely reticulate-punctate, including antennal scrobe. Mesosoma mostly reticulatepunctate, katepisternum partly smooth ( Fig. 2B View Fig ). Fourth abdominal tergite entirely smooth, except for basigastral costulae. Basigastral costulae short; in dorsal view, its length about a third of postpetiole length.

SETAE. Cephalic and mesosomal ground-setae spatulate ( Fig. 2A View Fig ). Metasomal setae elongate-spatulate to remiform. Apicoscrobal setae absent ( Fig. 2A View Fig ). Pair of erect setae on cephalic dorsum close to occipital margin present. Anterior margin of scape with one or more spatulate setae curved towards antennal insertion. Humeral setae absent and mesonotal setae present (but see Comments below).

HEAD. Masticatory margin of mandible with three to five denticles between apicodorsal tooth and submedian tooth, with two to four denticles proximal of submedian tooth ( Fig. 2A View Fig ). Apex of mandible with unknown number of intercalary denticles (but see Fig. 2A View Fig and Comments section for variation). Anterior clypeal margin, in dorsal view, slightly angular and projecting anteriorly. Eye, in lateral view, with four to five ommatidia in longest row. Eye on anterior half of head. In dorsal view, scape narrows basally; anterior margin expanded and almost lobate near subbasal bend. Third flagellomere smaller than fourth flagellomere; length of former only a third of length of latter.

MESOSOMA. Humerus with small angular projection. Dorsum of mesonotum, in lateral view, slightly higher than dorsum of pronotum. Metanotal groove weakly impressed. Propodeal spine relatively long and triangular, linked to propodeal lobe by narrow lamella that extends throughout propodeal declivity. Femoral bulla ovate and located distally on dorsal margin of sclerite.

METASOMA. Petiolar node, in dorsal view, slightly wider than long; in lateral view, anterior margin slightly longer than dorsal margin. Postpetiole, in lateral view, swollen and globular.Anterior margin of postpetiole, in dorsal view, medially concave. Ventral spongiform process of petiole absent. Ventral spongiform lobe of postpetiole minute to absent ( Fig. 2B View Fig ). Lateral spongiform lobe of postpetiole reduced to a narrow lamella ( Fig. 2B View Fig ). Ventral basigastral spongiform pad (= specialized setae on fourth abdominal sternite) small.

Comments

Bolton (2000) considered S. crassicornis as a member of the crassicornis complex (i.e., a cluster of species in the gundlachi species group), along with Strumigenys aethegenys ( Bolton, 2000), S. auctidens ( Bolton, 2000), S. brevicornis Mann, 1922, S. crementa ( Bolton, 2000), S. metopia (Brown, 1959), S. myllorhapha (Brown, 1959), S. pasisops ( Bolton, 2000), S. stenotes ( Bolton, 2000), and S. zeteki (Brown, 1959). Members of the crassicornis complex are defined by the following traits ( Bolton 2000): (i) inner margin of mandible with a submedian tooth or denticle near midlength; (ii) inner margin of mandible with smaller teeth between apicodorsal tooth and submedian tooth; (iii) three to five intercalary teeth; (iv) labral lobes long and slender; and (v) setae on apices of labral lobes short (i.e., with the same size or shorter than the labral lobes).

According to Bolton (2000), different series of this species show slight variation in setae and sculpture, although maintaining the diagnostic traits for the species. He mentioned that some specimens possibly have short filiform humeral setae, although this condition was not observed in the type specimen and a few other individuals observed in this study. Additionally, a pair of mesonotal erect simple setae, which was not mentioned by Mayr (1887) nor Bolton (2000) in their descriptions, was also observed in the lectotype and a few other specimens. Humeral and mesonotal setae are apparently lost during the lifetime of the ants, since many specimens, otherwise well preserved, did not have those setae and most of the ones which did have them appear to be young adults by the appearance of their cuticle. Also, some specimens had an extremely reduced lateral spongiform lobe in the postpetiole, appearing vestigial, agreeing with the description made by Bolton (2000).

In Bolton’s (2000) description, the author mentions that S. crassicornis have three to four minute intercalary teeth. Since we did not had access to the physical lectotype specimen, we could not confirm this condition. However, while studying other non-type specimens, we observed that the intercalary dentition consists of up to six to seven teeth. Interestingly, these intercalary teeth count does not agree with the diagnosis proposed by Bolton (2000) for the crassicornis complex.

In specimens collected in Orleans and Tunas do Paraná (cf. list of examined materials), the katepisternum appears entirely reticulate-punctate, without smooth patches whatsoever. Different specimens collected in the same square meter (from Winkler leaf-litter samples) possess both reticulate-punctate katepisternum and various degrees of smoothness. One specimen from Viçosa (Minas Gerais State) and one specimen from the Reserva Biólogica Augusto Ruschi (Espírito Santo State) also have an entirely reticulate-punctate katepisternum. In Viçosa, all the other specimens examined matched the lectotype in having a smooth katepisternum. The morphological variability in this particular character, summed with the higher intercalary teeth count found in some non-type specimens observed, reinforces the need for a reevaluation of the boundaries of this species.

In the Amazonian region, non-type specimens identified as S. crassicornis tend to depart further from the lectotype, differing in one or more traits, and do not entirely match the species’ diagnosis. One specimen from Primavera (Pará State) has shallow reticulation on fourth abdominal tergite. A couple of specimens from Amazonas state (vicinities of Manaus; cf. additional material examined ZF-02) have an almost entirely reticulate-punctate katepisternum and shallow reticulation on fourth abdominal tergite. A specimen from Canarana (Mato Grosso State) has shallow reticulation on fourth abdominal tergite and humeral and mesonotal setae which are not simple, but slightly flattened and subflagellate. A couple of specimens, also from Primavera, have shallow reticulation on fourth abdominal tergite, basigastral costulae absent, spongiform process on postpetiole absent, and smaller and less abundant metasomal erect setae. Finally, one specimen from “Jaci Novo’’ (Rondônia State) is much larger than all examined specimens, has both humeral and mesonotal setae flattened and subflagellate, and a comparatively larger postpetiole, with shallow reticulation on fourth abdominal tergite.

NHMW

Austria, Wien, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

INPA

Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazoonia, Colecao Sistematica da Entomologia

DZUP

Brazil, Parana, Curitiba, Universidade Federal do Parana, Museu de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

MZSP

Brazil, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

ML

Musee de Lectoure

PL

Západoceské muzeum v Plzni

PW

Paleontological Collections

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Strumigenys

Loc

Strumigenys crassicornis Mayr, 1887

Silva, Thiago Sanches Ranzani Da, Chaul, Júlio Cezar Mário & Feitosa, Rodrigo Machado 2022
2022
Loc

Strumigenys crassicornis

Baroni Urbani C. & De Andrade M. L. 2007: 117
2007
Loc

Pyramica crassicornis

Bolton B. 1999: 1672
1999
Loc

crassicornis

Brown W. L. Jr. 1948: 111
1948
Loc

Strumigenys crassicornis

Mayr G. 1887: 577
1887