Socratina phillipsoniana Callm. & Luino,

Callmander, M. W., I. Luino, S. Da-Giau, C. Rakotovao & L. Gautier, 2014, A synoptic revision of the Malagasy endemic genus Socratina Balle (Loranthaceae). Candollea 69: 65 - 73. In English, English and French abstracts., Candollea 69, pp. 65-73: 68-72

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.161132

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Socratina phillipsoniana Callm. & Luino

spec. nova

Socratina phillipsoniana Callm. & Luino  , spec. nova ( Fig. 2View Fig. 2, 3View Fig. 3, 4View Fig. 4).

Typus: MADAGASCAR. Prov. Mahajanga: Beanka, partie N, 18°07’05”S 44°27’04”E, 174 m, 23.VII.2013, fl. & fr., Luino & Ranaivoarisoa 63 (holo-: G [ G00341307]!; View MaterialsGoogleMaps  iso-: K [ K000865017]!, MO!, P [ P00853035]!, TEF!). 

Haec species a congeneris foliis glabrescentibus, alabastro apice fusiformi atque corolla extus secus quamque suturam loborum conspicue longitudinaliter fimbriata trichomatibus villosis dendriticis longis praeut indumento floccoso brev- iore corollam extus ceterum obtegente distinguitur.

Hemi-parasitic shrub, 0.5-1 m in diam., young fertile and sterile parts covered by a white floccose indument; twigs c. 0- 7- 1 mm long. Leaves alternate on young shoots, becoming clustered on twigs; petiole 1-6 mm, sometimes sub-sessile; lamina papery-coriaceous, obovate to oblanceolate, rounded at apex, cuneate or attenuate at base; (10-)15-25(-45) X 10- 15 (-20) mm, tomentose at first, soon becoming glabrescent, triplinerved, attenuate at the base. Inflorescence an umbel, developing at nodes, sessile, 2-5-flowered. Bracts c. 2.5 mm long, boat-shaped, apex rounded, soon glabrescent except for margins and apex that remain covered with longer reddish brown persistent trichomes. Receptacle c. 3 X 2 mm, covered with a dense white indument. Calyx  short, c. 1 mm long, green, soon glabrescent, with 5 scarcely differentiated teeth. Corolla 5-merous, 35-50 mm long; the outer surface covered with a dense white shorter floccose indument, composed of dendritic trichomes up to 0.8 mm long, the ramifications forming a series of closely whorled layers; and with a conspicuous longitudinal villous fringe along each suture, composed of slender elongated dendritic trichomes up to 1.5 mm long with a few irregular proximal ramifications and only a few distal whorled ones. Buds sub-conic, with a fusiform apex in the upper 1/3 distal part; tube splitting unilaterally between 2 lobes at anthesis, sometimes slightly splitting between the other lobes distally; lobes c. 20 X 1.5 mm, broadly linear-spatulate in the proximal part, apiculate in the last 7-10 mm distal part. Stamens coiled, arising at or just above the base of the corolla lobes; anthers 2.5 mm long, rolled; filaments 4 mm long, puberulent, dark purple. Style 40 mm in length, pale green, covered with long white trichomes except in the distal 4 mm, filiform. Stigma obovoid to globular, c. 0.5 mm in diam. Fruit a red berry “in vivo”, pale orange when dried, covered with a sparse indument, obovoid, c. 12-14 X 7-9 mm.

Etymology. – The species is named in honour of our colleague Peter Phillipson who obtained funds and arranged the first field mission to Beanka in 2009 and contributed to the floristic checklist recently published on the region ( GAUTIER & al., 2013). Peter has collected over 3000 plants in Madagascar, especially in the dry south-western region where he first collected in 1987. He has a wide knowledge on many plant groups on the Island and participates actively in the milestone “Catalogue of the Vascular plants of Madagascar ” project ( MADAGASCAR CATALOGUE, 2014).

Distribution and ecology. – Socratina phillipsoniana  is only known from the limestone region of Bemaraha and Beanka in western Madagascar ( Fig. 1View Fig. 1).

Conservation status. – With an EOO of 557 km ², and an AOO of 27 km ² and three subpopulations, one of which occurring in the protected area network (Bemaraha) and the other two in a projected protected area and already holding a temporary status (Beanka), S. phillipsoniana  is assigned a preliminary status of Vulnerable (VU D2) following IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria ( IUCN, 2012).

Notes. – Socratina phillipsoniana  is similar to S. bemarivensis  in having a corolla tube splitting unilaterally at anthesis. It can however easily be recognized when flowering by the conspicuous longitudinal villous fringe of long dendritic trichomes on the outer surface of its corolla along each suture in addition to a uniform floccose indument over the entire surface (vs. uniform indument in S. bemarivensis  ) and the fusiform shape of the bud apex (vs. rounded in S. bemarivensis  ) ( Fig. 3View Fig. 3, 4View Fig. 4). When sterile S. phillipsoniana  differs from S. bemarivensis  by its glabrescent leaves whereas the latter species has leaves covered by a russet indumentum ( Fig. 2View Fig. 2).

Paratypi. – MADAGASCAR. Prov. Mahajanga: Beanka, partie S, Andoloposa, 18°00’27”S 44°30’10”E, 287 m, 20.III.2012, fr., Hanitrarivo, Bolliger & Rakotozafy 343 (BR, G [G00376797], K, MO, P, TEF); Tsingy de Bemaraha, S of the river Manambolo, 19°09’S 44°49’E, 50 m, 15.XII.1996, Jongkind, Andriantiana & Razanatsoa 3548 (G [G00404128], P [P05096712], MO, WAG); Beanka, partie N, 18°07’09”S 44°27’02”E, 165 m, 23.VII.2013, fl. & fr., Luino & Ranaivoarisoa 60 (BR, G [G00341313], K, MO, P, TEF).




Centre National de la Recherche Appliqu�e au Developement Rural


Wageningen University