Cryphalus lipingensis Tsai & Li, 1959,

Johnson, Andrew J., Li, You, Mandelshtam, Michail Yu., Park, Sangwook, Lin, Ching-Shan, Gao, Lei & Hulcr, Jiri, 2020, East Asian Cryphalus Erichson (Curculionidae, Scolytinae): new species, new synonymy and redescriptions of species, ZooKeys 995, pp. 15-66: 15

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Cryphalus lipingensis Tsai & Li, 1959


Cryphalus lipingensis Tsai & Li, 1959  Figs 2GView Figure 2, 3GView Figure 3, 11A-IView Figure 11

Cryphalus lipingensis  Tsai & Li, 1959: 90 (China).

Cryphalus kesiyae  Browne, 1975: 288 (Thailand), syn. nov.

Type material examined.

China • 1 ♂ Lectotype [here designated]; 陕西黎坪 [Shaanxi, Liping town]; 15 Jun. 1958; 宋士美 [Shimei Song leg].; 华山松 [ Pinus armandii  ]; IOZ(E) 213228; UFFE:34756; ( IOZ) • 33 Paralectotypes; same collection information and labels; IOZ(E) 213218 to 213221; 213223 to 213250, 213436, and 213437; UFFE:34755; ( IOZ).

Thailand • 1 ♂ Holotype Cryphalus kesiyae  Browne, 1975; Chang Mai, Doi Pui; 15 Feb. 1971; Roger A. Beaver leg.; ex. Pinus kesiya  ; NHMUK 010805965; UFFE:26208; ( NHMUK) • 1 ♀ Paratype; Chang Mai, Doi Pui; 15 Feb. 1971; Roger A. Beaver leg.; ex. Pinus kesiya  ; UFFE:10407; ( NHMUK).

Other material examined.

China • 1 ♂; Guizhou, Weining, Maanshan; 26.822°N, 104.6282°E; 20 Oct. 2015; You Li leg.; ex. Pinus armandii  ; dissected; UFFE:28048; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; same collection data; UFFE:28041; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀; same collection data; UFFE:28042; ( UFFE) • 11 ♀♀, 12 ♂♂; Guizhou, Weining, Meihua village; 26.7251°N, 104.6027°E; 16 Oct. 2015; You Li leg.; ex. Pinus armandii  ; reared from multiple branches; ( NHMUK, 1♀, 1♂; FSCA, 1♀, 1♂; MZB, 1♀, 1♂; NIAES, 1♀, 1♂; NMNS, 1♀, 1♂; IOZ, 1 ♀ IOZ(E) 2057940, 1 ♂ IOZ(E) 2057941; RIFID, 1♀, 1♂; UFFE, 2♀♀, 3♂♂; USNM, 1♀, 1♂; ZIN, 1♀, 1♂); UFFE:32956 ; same; same• 1 ♂; Yunnan, Kunming; 24.8801°N, 102.8329°E; 30 May 2013; Bateman leg.; UFFE:10939; ( UFFE).

Thailand • 1; Chang Mai, Nanthaburi District, Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary; 28 Jun. 2013; Bateman leg.; DNA: 28S:MG051085, COI:MG051133; UFFE:13592; ( UFFE) • 1; Chiang Mai, Nanthaburi District, Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary; 28 Jun. 2013; Bateman leg.; from vial 6101; voucher; UFFE:28529; ( UFFE).


This species can be easily distinguished from all other Chinese species by the combination of the strong aciculations on frons, by the male frons without transverse ridge or sulcus, by the long hair-like ground vestiture (only slightly widened at the base) and by the proventriculus with single row of sutural teeth.


China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Yunnan); Thailand.

Female. Length 1.70 mm (types 1.5-1.9 mm). Proportions 2.25 × as long as wide. Frons distinctly aciculate, converging to the epistoma. Antennal club with three weakly recurved sutures marked by coarse and long setae, the distance between the suture 3 and the apex similar to the distance between sutures 2 and 3. Antennal funiculus with four segments, length shorter than the scape. Gular surface with evenly spaced hair-like setae. Pronotal colour dark brown, similar colour to elytra. Pronotal profile broadly rounded, slightly triangular, widest in line with summit, approx. 0.8 × as long as wide. Pronotal margin armed with six serrations, often irregular and asymmetrical in size. Pronotal declivity with more than 70 asperities. Pronotal disc approximately one quarter the length of the pronotum, sloped, weakly tuberculate surface texture, larger tubercles near summit. Pronotal vestiture entirely hair-like setae. Suture between pronotum and elytra weakly sinuate. Scutellum very small, barely visible. Elytra 1.95 × as long as pronotum, orange brown to brown, broadly rounded with no clear elytral disc or a transition to the declivity. Striae barely visible as rows of punctures and slightly impressed. Interstrial bristles erect, hair-like, with pointed tips, slightly longer and more dense on the declivity Interstrial ground vestiture hair like with pointed tips, denser on declivity. Protibiae and protarsi with only straight, hair-like setae. Mesocoxae moderately separated, a little more than distance between metacoxae. Ventrites each with tooth on the postero-lateral corners. Proventriculus not examined.

Male. Similar to female except: Length 1.50-1.70 mm. Proportions 2.30 × as long as wide. Frons convex, without transverse ridge or sulcus. Gular surface simple with few hair-like setae. Pronotal declivity more flat than female. Protibiae and protarsi with only hair-like setae, almost the same as female. Last abdominal ventrite weakly emarginated. Proventriculus sutural teeth small, in a single row on either side of the suture. Apical teeth extend the width of the entire segment, of typical proportions in the median. Closing teeth mostly shorter than length of masticatory brush, barely branched, and rounded tips. Masticatory brush about half of total length. Aedeagus short. Penis apodemes about as long as penis body, fused at tip. Tegmen with paired apodemes much shorter than distance between. End plate barely visible as two sclerotised plates.

Recorded plant hosts.

Pinaceae  : Pinus kesiyae  , P. armandi  , P. yunnanensis  .

Suggested vernacular name.

Chinese: 华山松梢小蠹 [Huashan pine twig bark beetle] ( Tsai and Li 1959).


We examined the holotype and paratypes of Cryphalus kesiyae  Browne, 1975, and photographs of types of C. lipingensis  , plus specimens from Thailand and China. There is little variation among the specimens including the type material, and more recent exemplars from near the type localities are genetically similar. Despite being from a similar region, Browne (1975) did not mention the similar species, but the descriptions were in Chinese and all of the large type series was held in China.

It appears that a holotype for Cryphalus lipingensis  was never designated. The original description included two localities, “Liping”, Shaangxi Province, from which it was named, and also Nanjiang, Sichuan Province. All of the specimens at IOZ were labelled as paratypes with a printed yellow label “PARATYPE”, and all are from “Liping”, presumed as the intended type locality. A similar issue exists for the other species described by Tsai and Li in 1959, where no holotype is located or even mentioned. The specimens labelled as paratypes are therefore assumed to be syntypes, and to promote stability, a lectotype for Cryphalus lipingensis  is hereby designated as specimen with the label " IOZ-(E) 213228".














Cryphalus lipingensis Tsai & Li, 1959

Johnson, Andrew J., Li, You, Mandelshtam, Michail Yu., Park, Sangwook, Lin, Ching-Shan, Gao, Lei & Hulcr, Jiri 2020

Cryphalus kesiyae

Beaver & Browne (Browne in 1975

Cryphalus lipingensis

Tsai & Li 1959