Pyropteron triannuliformis ( Freyer, 1843 )

Bartsch, Daniel, Pühringer, Franz, Milla, Liz, Lingenhöle, Arthur & Kallies, Axel, 2021, A molecular phylogeny and revision of the genus Pyropteron Newman, 1832 (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) reveals unexpected diversity and frequent hostplant switch as a driver of speciation, Zootaxa 4972 (1), pp. 1-75: 47

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4972.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E78473FE-5662-409A-90C2-7C4912DC57E8

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4914586

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/EB498780-E81F-FFF6-5BA4-FEB9BBE8F9F2

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pyropteron triannuliformis ( Freyer, 1843 )
status

 

Pyropteron triannuliformis ( Freyer, 1843)  

( Figs 2a View FIGURE 2 , 22, 25 View FIGURES 19–26 , 144–149 View FIGURES 135–149 , 169, 170 View FIGURES 165–170 , 227, 228 View FIGURES 226–232 )

Sesia triannuliformis Freyer, 1843   : Neuere Beiträge zur Schmetterlingskunde mit Abbildungen nach der Natur, 5 (68): 35, pl. 404 Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 . Syntypes: Constantinopel [ Turkey, Istanbul] (lost).

Sesia braconiformis Herrich-Schäffer, 1846   : Systematische Bearbeitung der Schmetterlinge von Europa, zugleich als Text, Revision und Supplement zu Jakop Hübner’s Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge. Zweiter Band. Die Schwärmer, Spinner und Eulen (1845), 63, 68, pl. 7 Fig. 35 View FIGURES 31–38 . Syntypes: Hungary and Croatia (lost).

Sesia armeniaca Bartel, 1906   : Societas entomologica, 20 (22): 170. Holotype: ♂, Armenia, Kulp (lost).

Chamaesphecia balcanica Zukowsky, 1929   : Internationale entomologische Zeitschrift, 23 (2): 21. Lectotype: ♂, near Uesküb [ Macedonia, Skopje] (LNMD).

Bembecia (Synansphecia) ljiljanae Toševski, 1986   : Fragmenta balcanica Musei   macedonici scientiarum naturalium, 12 (17): 191, 193 Figs 1–2 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 . Holotype: ♀, Macedonia, Crnicani , Bogdanci (CIT).

Synansphecia pungeleri Špatenka, 1987   : Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Österreichischer Entomologen, 39 (1/2): 14. Holotype: ♂, Turkey, Anatolia, Konia (NHMW).

This species shows a substantial geographic and individual variability. Large specimens from the Balkans were described as balcanica Zukowsky, 1929   , small and dark specimens from the same area as ljiljanae Toševski, 1986   , and extensively yellow marked specimens from Armenia as armeniaca Bartel, 1906   . Similar but paler specimens occur in central Anatolia. Laštůvka (1990c) carried out extensive morphological studies of this species, including genitalia dissection of more than 130 specimens from various regions, and found no consistent differences between these forms.

The DNA barcode sequences split P. triannuliformis   into at least three distinct clades. Although we did not observe reliable morphological differences between these clades, it is pssible that they constitute distinct species or subspecies. To address this issue comprehensively, it will be required to re-examine the type material of all taxa currently subsurmised under P. triannuliformis   . In particular, attention will have to be payed to the morphology and barcodes of specimens from north-western Turkey, the type locality of P. triannuliformis   . Given that several distinct barcodes seem to cluster around the Black Sea, it will also be necessary to locate the types or designate neotypes for Sesia triannuliformis   , Sesia braconiformis Herrich-Schäffer, 1846   , and Sesia armeniaca Bartel, 1906   to stabilized the nomenclature of this group.

Barcodes. RAxML analysis recovers P. triannuliformis   as monophyletic group; however, it shows substantial heterogeneity based on DNA barcode sequences. The average intraspecific differences are very high with 5.5% and reach a maximum of 8.2%, highly indicative of hidden diversity. P. triannuliformis   falls into three distinct clusters with high geographic correlation. The first cluster includes specimens from central and south-eastern Europe, the second cluster contains a specimen from Georgia, and the third cluster specimens from Turkey and Armenia.

Biology and habitat. Various species of Rumex   constitute the hostplants of this species; the following are listed in the literature: R. conglomeratus   , R. crispus   , R. palustris Smith   , R. thyrsiflorus   , R. scutatus Linnaeus   , R. acetosa   , R. acetosella   ( Kallies & Sobczyk 1993, Špatenka et al. 1996, Špatenka et al. 1999, Lepidopterologen-Arbeitsgruppe 2000, Laštůvka & Laštůvka 2001, Laštůvka 2007). Špatenka et al. (1996) also mentioned Geranium sanguineum   as occasional hostplant. The larvae, seldom more than one, feed in the main root and develop over one year.

Distribution. This species occurs in a wide, partially scattered range from south-western France, southern and northern Italy, central and eastern Europe, through the Balkans, the Ukraine, the Baltic states, southern Russia and Turkey to the Middle East, the Caucasus region, the Caspian Sea coast and northern Iran ( Laštůvka & Laštůvka 1995, 2001, Špatenka et al. 1999).

Note. Most of the standard literature (e.g. Špatenka et al. 1999) cites 1842 as publication year for this taxon. However, we follow the conclusions of Olivier (2000) and consider 1843 the year of publication.

Specimens examined: 1♀, France, Provence, Manosque, 22.VI.1991, leg. DB; 1♀, France, Provence, Drome, Plaisians , 250m, 26.VII.1992, leg. DB; 3♂, 1♀, Italy, Sicily, prov. Catania, S slope of Mt. Etna , 1800–1900m, e.l. ex Rumex scutatus   , larvae 3.VI., adults 14.VI.–1.VII.2013, leg. DB (CDB); 14♂, Italy, Sicily, CT, Etna, Rifugio Sapienza , 1900–2050 m, 12.VI.2001, leg. FP (BOX-2219 F12, DNAtax 02-06, DNAtax 02585, photo 47/5/3-10); 23♂, Italy, Veneto, VR, Monte nr. Sant’ Ambrogio , 480 m, 20.VI.1998   , leg. FP; 1♂, ibid., 10.VII.1999   , leg. FP; 1♂, ibid., 6.VII.2002   , leg. FP; 1♂, ibid., 10.VI.2004   , leg. FP (BOX-2221 E09); 6♂, ibid., 16.VI.2018   , leg. FP (CFP); 2♂, 6♀, Germany, Saxony, Hoyerswerda , e.l. 1.–9.VII.2001   , leg. Sobczyk (CCDB-14564-H02); Poland, Poznan-Nowa Wies , 29.VII.1997   , leg. Bakowski (CCDB-14564-G12) (SMNS); 2♂, Germany, ibid., 3.VII.1993   , leg. Sobczyk; 1♀, ibid., Burg-Burghammer , 28.VI.1992   , leg. Sobczyk; 17♂ ( Figs 144–145 View FIGURES 135–149 ), 24♀ ( Fig. 146 View FIGURES 135–149 ), Austria, Styria, Sausalgebirge, Kitzeck , e.l. ex R. acetosa   , larvae 3.VI., adults 6.VI.–28.VII.1994   , leg. DB (CDB); 1♀, Austria, Burgenland, Inzenhof S Güssing , [e.l.] VI.1948, leg. R. Pinker; 3♂, 1♀, Austria, Niederösterreich, Gumpoldskirchen N Baden, [e.l.] V   .1946, leg. R. Pinker; 1♂, Austria, Niederösterreich, Mannersdorf am Leithageb., e.l. 1928, leg. O. Bubacek; 10♂, Austria, Niederösterreich, Mitterretzbach, Heiliger Stein   , 20.VI.1999   , leg. FP; 1♀, Austria, Niederösterreich, Retz , e.l. 14.–19.VI.1928   , leg. Kautz; 1♂, 1♀, ibid., e.l. 4.–8.VII.1929   , leg. H. Reisser; 1♀, ibid., e.l. 4.–11.VII.1932   , leg. H. Reisser; 5♂, Austria, Niederösterreich, Retz–Gollitsch , 300 m, 28.V.2005   , leg. FP (BOX-2221 H06, photo 2005/316-327) (CFP); 1♂, Slovenia, Polovnik , 400–500m, 15.VI.2001   , leg. Predovnik; 1♀, Slovenia, Vrhovo , 200m, e.l. ex Rumex sp.   , larva 6.VI., adults 3.VII.2001   , leg. Predovnik; 1♂, Bulgaria, Slivno, E Sliven (Slivno), Str. nach Sinite Kamani , 570 m, 10.VII.2014   , leg. FP; 1♂, 1♀, Bulgaria, Burgas, Cape Akra N Chernomorets , 1 m, 7.VII.2014   , leg. FP (photo IMG_25085-110 (♀ )); 2♂, Bulgaria, Burgas, Chernomorets , 3 m, 7.VII.2014   , leg. FP; 4♂, Bulgaria, Burgas, S Sozopol , 10 m, 2.VII.2014   , leg. FP; 5♂, Bulgaria, Burgas, Nos Agalina NE Dyuni , 20–30 m, 5.VII.2014   , leg. FP; 5♂, ibid., 12.VII.2014   , leg. FP; 17♂, Bulgaria, Burgas, St. Thomas (Sveti Toma) S Djuni , 10 m, 1.VII.2014   , leg. FP; 11♂, ibid., 27.VI.2016   , leg. FP; 1♂, Bulgaria, Burgas, Arkutino , 5–20 m, 6.VII.2014   , leg. FP; 1♂, ibid., 8.VII.2014   , leg. FP; 7♂, ibid., 11.VII.2014   , leg. FP; 6♂, ibid., 23.VI.2016   , leg. FP; 2♂, ibid., 28.VI.2016   , leg. FP; 1♂, ibid., 30.VI.2014   , leg. FP (photo IMG_24617-25); 1♂, ibid., 30.VI.2014   , leg. FP; 3♂, Bulgaria, Burgas, S Kiten , 10 m, 11.VII.2014   , leg. FP; 3♂, Greece, Achaia (Peloponnese), Kalogria W Kato Achaia , 5 m, 5.VI.1997   , leg. FP (photo 28/6/29-29/1/8, gen. prep. FP 98/65); 2♂, ibid., 7.VI.1997   , leg. FP; 7♂, ibid., 14.VI.1997   , leg. FP; 25♂, ibid., 18.VI.1997   , leg. FP; 1♂, Greece, Evritania, 8 km W Karpenisi (= Karpenision, Timfristos Mts ), 17.VI.2002   , leg. FP; 1♂, Greece, Komotini, Skaloti ( Rhodopen ), 1090 m, 5.VII.2003   , leg. FP; 1♂, Greece, Larissa, Ossa Mts, SW Stomio (n), 1000 m, 20.VI.2002   , leg. FP (gen. prep. FP 02/34); 1♂, ibid., 1050 m, 2.VII.2003   , leg. FP (BOX-2221 G01) (CFP); 5♂, Greece, Timfi Oros, Ioannina, vic. Kepesovo , 900m, 22.VI.2005   , leg. DB; 2♂, 2♀, Greece, Gravena, Karpero , e.l. ex Rumex sp.   , larva 16.V., adult 20.–25.VI.2012   , leg. DB; 1♂, Greece, Monodentri , 1500m, 20.VI.1997   , leg. DB; 1♂, Greece, Timfi Oros, Ioannina, Vrissohori , Aoosbridge , 800m, 25.VI.2005   , leg. DB; 1♂, Greece, Larissa, Ossa Oros , 1km S Karitza, 450m, 8.VII.2008   , leg. DB (BOLD DB-Lep-00123); 3♂, Greece, Florina , 800–900m, 20.VI.–7.VII.1990   , leg. Arheiliger (CDB); 1♀, Greece, Pindos, Timfristos , 1800m, 14.VI.1999   , leg. AL (Bartsch gen. prep. 2019-42) ( Fig. 228 View FIGURES 226–232 ) (CAL); 1♂, Jugoslawia, Porec , 26.VI.1988   , leg. H. Popp (Bartsch gen. prep. 2019-54) ( Fig. 169 View FIGURES 165–170 ); 1♀, same data, 20.VI.1988   , (Bartsch gen. prep. 2019-55) ( Fig. 227 View FIGURES 226–232 ); 2♂, 1♀, Turkey, Bolu, Mengen , 700m, 2.–6.VII.1995   , leg. Riefenstahl; 1♂ ( Figs 147–148 View FIGURES 135–149 ), Turkey, Bolu, Yenicaga , 1000m, 30.VI.1995   , leg. Riefenstahl; 5♂, Turkey, Sinop, Bayabat , 300m, 24.VI.1995   , leg. Riefenstahl (Bartsch gen. prep. 2019-56) ( Fig. 170 View FIGURES 165–170 ); 3♂, Turkey, Ordu, Güncyca , 1500m, 22.VI.1995   , leg. Riefenstahl; 3♂, Turkey, Ordu, Fatsa , 18.VI.1995   , leg. Riefenstahl; (SMNS); 5♂, Turkey, Nevsehir, Mustafapasa valley , 1200–1400m, 24.VI.2002   , leg. DB; 1♂, Turkey, Konya, Fasikan Gecidi , 1700m, 30.VI.2002   , leg. DB; 1♂, 1♀, Turkey, Konya, 45km S Beysehir, Bakaran , 1420m, 14.VI.2002   , leg. DB; 1♂, Turkey, Artvin, Kackar Daglari , 1500m, 16.VII.1995   , leg. DB; 2♀ ( Fig. 149 View FIGURES 135–149 ), Armenia, Ararat prov., vic. Lanjar, St. Karapet , 1880–2000m, 8.VII.2013   , leg. DB; 1♂, Iran, Teheran prov., Elburz Mts , 3km NNW Shemshak, 2860m, 24.VII.2003, leg. Ebert & Trusch (CDB).

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Sesiidae

Genus

Pyropteron

Loc

Pyropteron triannuliformis ( Freyer, 1843 )

Bartsch, Daniel, Pühringer, Franz, Milla, Liz, Lingenhöle, Arthur & Kallies, Axel 2021
2021
Loc

Synansphecia pungeleri Špatenka, 1987

Spatenka 1987
1987
Loc

Bembecia (Synansphecia) ljiljanae Toševski, 1986

Tosevski 1986
1986
Loc

ljiljanae Toševski, 1986

Tosevski 1986
1986
Loc

Chamaesphecia balcanica

Zukowsky 1929
1929
Loc

balcanica

Zukowsky 1929
1929
Loc

Sesia armeniaca

Bartel 1906
1906
Loc

armeniaca

Bartel 1906
1906
Loc

Sesia braconiformis Herrich-Schäffer, 1846

Herrich-Schaffer 1846
1846
Loc

Sesia triannuliformis

Freyer 1843
1843