Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 10: 18, tab. 1, fig. 1-8. 1846

Knapp, Sandra, Barboza, Gloria E., Bohs, Lynn & Saerkinen, Tiina, 2019, A revision of the Morelloid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in North and Central America and the Caribbean, PhytoKeys 123, pp. 1-144 : 90-92

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Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 10: 18, tab. 1, fig. 1-8. 1846


15. Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 10: 18, tab. 1, fig. 1-8. 1846 Figures 45 View Figure 45 , 46 View Figure 46

Solanum sarachidium Bitter, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 211. 1912. Type. Paraguay. Gran Chaco: Loma Clavel, Nov 1903, T. Rojas 2493 (lectotype, designated by Edmonds 1986, pg. 17: BM [BM000087577]; isolectotype: G [G00306752]).

Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn. var. sarachidium (Bitter) C.V.Morton, Revis. Argentine Sp. Solanum 122. 1976. Type. Based on Solanum sarachidium Bitter


Brazil. "Brasilia australis", F. Sellow s.n. (lectotype, designated by Edmonds 1986, pg. 16: P [P00371162]).


Annual herbs to 70 cm tall, usually smaller (but very rarely to 1 m), spreading and decumbent with age. Stems terete, green, generally erect, branching and later spreading, not markedly hollow; new growth densely viscid-pubescent with simple, uniseriate, spreading trichomes with a glandular apical cell, the trichomes of two lengths, 1-4-celled trichomes to 0.5 mm long and 5-14-celled trichomes to 2.0 mm long; older stems glabrescent. Sympodial units difoliate, the leaves not geminate. Leaves simple, 3.0-7.5 cm long, 3.0-6.0 cm wide, broadly ovate; adaxial and abaxial surfaces sparsely to densely pubescent with spreading, simple, uniseriate glandular trichomes like those of the stem, evenly distributed on lamina and veins; major veins 3-4 pairs; base truncate to cordate, sometimes asymmetric; margins entire or regularly sinuate-dentate; apex acute; petioles 0.5-3.2 cm long, sparsely pubescent with trichomes like those of the stem and leaves. Inflorescences 0.7-1.7 cm long, lateral, usually leaf-opposed but occasionally internodal (always very near the node), unbranched, with 2 –5(6– 7) flowers clustered at the tip (sub-umbelliform), sparsely pubescent with spreading trichomes like those of the stems; peduncle 0.7-1.0 cm long; pedicels 5-7 mm long, 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter at the base, 0.3-0.4 mm in diameter at the apex, straight and spreading, articulated at the base; pedicel scars spaced ca. 0(-1) mm apart. Buds globose, the corolla only slightly exserted from the calyx tube before anthesis, almost completely included within the calyx lobes and only the tip of the corolla showing. Flowers 5-merous, all perfect. Calyx tube 0.5-1.0 mm long, the lobes 1.5-2.0 mm long, 1.3-1.5 mm wide, lanceolate to narrowly ovate with acute apices, sparsely pubescent with 1-4-celled spreading glandular trichomes like those on the pedicels but shorter. Corolla 5-8 mm in diameter, white with a yellow-green central eye, pentagonal-stellate, lobed 1/2-1/3 of the way to the base, the lobes 3.0-4.5 mm long, 5.0-7.0 mm wide, spreading at anthesis, sparsely papillate-pubescent abaxially with glandular 1-4-celled simple uniseriate trichomes and eglandular papillae, these denser along margins, tips and midvein. Stamens equal; filament tube minute; free portion of the filaments 1.0-1.5 mm long, adaxially sparsely pubescent with tangled uniseriate 4-6-celled simple trichomes; anthers 1.2-2.0 mm long, 0.4-0.8 mm wide, ellipsoid, yellow, poricidal at the tips, the pores lengthening to slits with age and drying. Ovary globose, glabrous; style 3.0-3.5 mm long, densely pubescent with 2-3-celled simple uniseriate trichomes in the lower 1/2-2/3 where included in the anther cone, not usually exserted beyond the anther cone; stigma capitate, minutely papillate, green in live plants. Fruit a globose berry, 6-9 mm in diameter, green-brownish grey at maturity, opaque, the surface of the pericarp usually matte; fruiting pedicels 5-9 mm long, 0.2-0.3 mm in diameter at the base, spaced 0-1 mm apart, reflexed, dropping with mature fruits, not persistent; fruiting calyx accrescent, becoming papery in mature fruit, the tube 3-4 mm long, the lobes 5.5-8.0 mm long and 3.5-4.0 mm wide, the tips slightly reflexed or spreading. Seeds (23-)59-69(-93) per berry, 1.3-1.7 mm long, 1.0-1.5 mm wide, flattened and tear-drop shaped with a subapical hilum, pale yellow, the surfaces minutely pitted, the testal cells pentagonal in outline. Stone cells 4-6 per berry, (0.5) 0.8-1 mm in diameter. Chromosome number: 2 n =2 × =24 (see Särkinen et al. 2018).


(Figure 47 View Figure 47 ) Solanum sarrachoides is native to southern South America, and is sporadically introduced to North America, where it is much less common than the morphologically similar S. nitidibaccatum .


Sporadically occurs as a weed of cultivation 0-500 m elevation in urban areas, along riversides, and other disturbed areas (agriculture). Solanum sarrachoides is less common than S. nitidibaccatum as a weed of agriculture.

Common names.

Canada and United States of America. Hairy nightshade (many sources, but unclear if individual accounts are referring to S. sarrachoides or S. nitidibaccatum ).


None recorded.

Preliminary conservation status ( IUCN 2017).

Least Concern (LC). Solanum sarrachoides is introduced and weedy in the United States; it also occurs in southern South America. For EOO see Table 6 View Table 6 .


Many accounts of North American black nightshades have treated as Solanum sarrachoides the species whose correct name is S. nitidibaccatum (e.g., Stebbins and Paddock 1949; Schilling and Heiser 1979; Schilling 1981). Records of S. sarrachoides in the North American literature should therefore be dealt with care due to common misidentification of voucher material. The two taxa can be distinguished based using the following suite of characters: S. sarrachoides has generally truncate leaf bases, leaf-opposed mature inflorescences that are umbellate to sub-umbellate with fewer flowers (2-5), shorter calyx lobes 1.0-1.4 mm long, and a corolla with yellow-green central eye. Solanum nitidibaccatum has cuneate leaf bases, usually internodal mature inflorescences that are racemose with more flowers (4-8), longer calyx lobes 1.8-2.5 mm long, and corolla with black-purple edged central eye. The accrescent calyx almost completely encloses the matte-surfaced mature berry in S. sarrachoides , while the shiny, marbled berry of S. nitidibaccatum is always ca. halfway exserted from the calyx lobes. Solanum sarrachoides usually has more stone cells in each berry (4-6) than does S. nitidibaccatum (1-2, or absent). Though morphologically very similar, preliminary data from both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences suggests the two species are not closely related (T. Särkinen, prelim. data).

Typification details of the synonyms of S. sarrachoides can be found in Barboza et al. (2013) and Särkinen et al. (2018).

Specimens examined.

See Suppl. materials 1 and 3.














Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 10: 18, tab. 1, fig. 1-8. 1846

Knapp, Sandra, Barboza, Gloria E., Bohs, Lynn & Saerkinen, Tiina 2019

Solanum sarachidium

Bitter 1912

Solanum sarachidium

Bitter 1912