Neoperla gaoligongshana, Wang & Li & Li, 2022
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Neoperla gaoligongshana sp. nov.
Holotype: male ( NMP), China: Yunnan Province, Baoshan City, Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, Baihualing Village , 6-8.VII.2016, 25°17.7'N, 98°48.1'E, 1535 m, light trap, leg. J. Hájek & J. Růžička. GoogleMaps
Males of this species are characterized by having the tergum 7 with a triangular process with sparse spines apically. The aedeagal tube is straight, and aedeagal sac is armed with spines.
Adult habitus (Fig. 1 View Figure 1 ). Body color brown. Head mostly yellowish brown, with a black marking covering ocellar triangle, the marking extended forward to pale M-line and getting brown, and a narrow triangular marking occurring forward of M-line. Head approximately as wide as the pronotum; compound eyes black; antenna and palpi yellow. Distance between ocelli slightly wider than the diameter of an ocellus. Pronotum disc brown, midline darker, margins pale (Fig. 1B, C View Figure 1 ). Wings subhyaline, veins brown; legs pale to yellowish brown, femorotibial joint dark brown. Abdomen brownish, cerci brownish (Fig. 1B, C View Figure 1 ).
Male (Figs 1 View Figure 1 , 2 View Figure 2 ). Forewing length ca 10.9 mm, hindwing length ca 9.7 mm. Tergum 6 unmodified. Process of tergum 7 triangular, apex rounded and margined by sparse spines (Fig. 1B, D View Figure 1 ). Tergum 8 with a median sensilla basiconica patch on a trapezoidal sclerite. Tergum 9 with two lateral patches of several sensilla basiconica and long hairs. Hemitergal processes slender, straight in lateral aspect, apex obtuse (Fig. 1B, D View Figure 1 ).
Aedeagus (Fig. 2 View Figure 2 ). Aedeagal tube weakly sclerotized ventrally and dorsally sclerotized strongly, apex with two ventral spinous lobes (Fig. 2A, B View Figure 2 ). Sac nearly straight, ca 2 × as long as the tube. Spinose apex of sac slender, slightly ventrally curved, with an apical dorsolateral patch of black spines and a subapical ventral patch of spines (Fig. 2A, C View Figure 2 ); two wide rows of numerous smaller spines covering most of the dorsal surface of the sac, basal half of spinous rows interrupted medially (Fig. 2A, C View Figure 2 ).
The specific name refers to the Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, where the type locality is situated.
Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve is located in northwestern Yunnan Province and is the largest nature reserve of the province. At the same locality, accompanying stoneflies were Neoperla hajeki sp. nov. and Tyloperla illiesi Stark & Sivec, 2005.
The new species is a member of the N. montivaga group. The aedeagal tube and terga 7-10 of the new species are similar to those of Neoperla wuzhishana Chen & Du, 2016, but N. wuzhishana can be distinguished from the new species primarily by the shape of the aedeagal sac and aedeagal armatures (Fig. 8C View Figure 8 ). In N. wuzhishana , the aedeagal sac is distinctly curved and expanded apically (Fig. 8C View Figure 8 , present study) (which is obscure in the original drawing because of an apical damage in the type) and has at least four large dorsal spines subapically (see figs 7, 8 in Chen, Du 2016b); however, the aedeagal sac of N. gaoligongshana is nearly straight and the apex is constricted and has only small spines subapically on its dorsal side. In addition, the aedeagal sac of N. wuzhishana bears a dozen moderately long spines at mid-length which are absent in N. gaoligongshana . Besides, the color pattern including that of the head and legs of N. wuzhishana and N. gaoligongshana is different: N. wuzhishana has brown legs and the head is pale with a small dark spot between the posterior ocelli, while in N. gaoligongshana , the legs are pale to yellowish brown, the femorotibial joint is dark brown, and the head has a large, black marking covering the ocellar triangle, with this marking extending anterolaterally under the pale M-line (Fig. 1B View Figure 1 ).
We examined specimens of N. wuzhishana from Yinggeling, Hainan Province, and found slight intraspecific variations of head pattern and armatures of the aedeagal sac: the dark area between ocelli in males was slightly smaller than in females, which in both sexes are quite small (Fig. 8A, B View Figure 8 ); four large spines in types (both in the original illustrations and descriptions) (see figs 7, 8 in Chen, Du 2016b), which can number seven to nine in our specimens (Fig. 8C, D View Figure 8 ). Therefore, the absence of large aedeagal spines in N. gaoligongshana is regarded as a distinguishing character, separating it from N. wuzhishana .
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