Andricus coriariformis Melika, Challis & Stone, 2008

Tavakoli, M., Melika, G., Sadeghi, S. E., Pénzes, Z., Assareh, M. A., Atkinson, R., Bechtold, M., Mikó, I., Zargaran, M. R., Aligolizade, D., Barimani, H., Bihari, P., Pirozi, F., Fülöp, D., Somogyi, K., Challis, R., Preuss, S., Nicholls, J. & Stone, G. N., 2008, New species of oak gallwaps from Iran (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), Zootaxa 1699 (1), pp. 1-64 : 16-18

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.1699.1.1

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/EF038788-FFA1-165A-FF5E-8F11FE8F0840

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Andricus coriariformis Melika, Challis & Stone
status

new species

Andricus coriariformis Melika, Challis & Stone , new species

Figs 105–119 View FIGURES 105–115 View FIGURES 116–119

Type material. HOLOTYPE female: IRAN, Kordestan, Marivan, Q. infectoria , leg. M. Tavakoli, em. XII.2005 . PARATYPES: 5 females: 4 females with the same labels as the holotype; one female labelled ” IRAN, West Azarbaijan , Piran Shahr, 2005. leg. M. Tavakoli ”. The holotype in HNHM ; 1 female paratype in RIFR ; 4 female paratypes in SPL.

Etymology. The species name coriariformis reflects the close similarity of the asexual generation gall of this species to the gall of Andricus coriarius (Hartig) .

Diagnosis. Most closely resembles Andricus coriarius in which the malar space without radiating striae from the clypeus ( Fig. 154 View FIGURES 154–163 ); OOL 2.8 times as long as the length of the lateral ocellus and only very slightly longer than LOL ( Fig. 155 View FIGURES 154–163 ); the clypeus nearly as broad as high; the pedicel 1.3 times as long as broad, F1 longer than F2 ( Fig. 157 View FIGURES 154–163 ); the radial cell of the forewing 6.0 times as long as broad ( Fig. 162 View FIGURES 154–163 ); the median mesoscutal line absent ( Fig. 159 View FIGURES 154–163 ); the mesopleuron with piliferous punctures; the metascutellum 2.5–3.0 times as high as the height of the ventral impressed area; lateral propodeal carinae slightly curved outwards in the middle ( Fig. 160 View FIGURES 154–163 ); metasomal tergite 2 without punctures, all subsequent tergites and hypopygium with dense micropunctures; the prominent part of the ventral spine of hypopygium 2.5–3.5 times as long as broad ( Fig. 163 View FIGURES 154–163 ) while in A. coriariformis , new species, the malar space with striae radiating from the clypeus and extending to 2/3 of the distance from the clypeus to eye; OOL 1.4 times as long as the length of the lateral ocellus and 1.4 times as long as LOL; the clypeus rectangular, nearly 2.0 times as broad as high; the pedicel 1.6 times as long as broad; F1 1.4 times as long as F2; the radial cell of the forewing 4.7 times as long as broad; the median mesoscutal line extending at least to 1/3 of the mesoscutum length; the mesopleuron without piliferous punctures; the metascutellum 5.0 times as high as height of the ventral impressed area; lateral propodeal carinae curved outwards only in the posterior 1/3; all metasomal tergites and hypopygium without micropunctures; the prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium 5.0 times as long as broad.

Closely resembles also Andricus quercustozae (Bosc) , A. tomentosus (Trotter) , and A. dentimitratus (Rejtö) in the presence of median mesoscutal line, however, in A. coriariformis , new species, the metasoma shorter than head+mesosoma, metasomal tergite 2 with dense white setae only in the ventro-lateral half, without setae in dorso-lateral half of tergite, while in other three mentioned species the metasoma is longer than head+mesosoma, metasomal tergite 2 with uniform dense white setae on the entire lateral surface of tergite.

Description. ASEXUAL FEMALE (holotype). Body predominantly rusty brown. Head posteriorly; compound eyes; stripes along anterior parallel and parapsidal lines; scutellar foveae, metanotal trough, central propodeal area and metasoma dorsally are black; antenna slightly darker than body; legs rusty brown, except black tibiae and partially femurs. Wing veins dark brown.

Head coriaceous, with uniformly dense white setae, 2.3 times as broad as long from above; 1.4 times as broad as high in front view and slightly narrower or equal to mesosoma. Gena coriaceous, broadened behind eye, much broader than the cross diameter of eye prolong entire length of head. Malar space delicately coriaceous, 0.5 times as long as height of eye, with striae radiating from clypeus and extending to 2/3 of distance from clypeus to eye. POL 1.5 times as long as OOL; OOL 1.4 times as long as length of lateral ocellus and 1.4 times as long as LOL. Transfacial distance 1.4 times as long as height of eye and 1.6 times as long as height of lower face (distance between antennal rim and ventral margin of clypeus); diameter of antennal torulus 2.0 times as long as distance between them, distance between torulus and eye margin 1.3 times as long as diameter of torulus. Lower face coriaceous, with elevated median area. Clypeus rectangular, coriaceous, nearly twice broader than high, with distinct deep anterior tentorial pits, with distinct epistomal sulcus and clypeopleurostomal line, ventral margin slightly emarginated. Frons, vertex and occiput uniformly coriaceous. Antenna with 11 flagellomeres(in some paratypes with 12 flagellomeres, indistinct suture present between F12 and F11), slightly longer than head+mesosoma; pedicel 1.6 times as long as broad; F1 2.2 times as long as pedicel and 1.4 times as long as F2, F2 1.2 times as long as F3, all subsequent flagellomeres shorter; F11 1.6 times as long as F10; placodeal sensilla on F3–F11, absent on F1–F2. Mesosoma convex, slightly longer than high in lateral view, with uniform dense white setae. Pronotum delicately coriaceous; rugose and with very dense white setae along antero-lateral edge. Mesoscutum coriaceous, more delicately in the anterior half. Notauli complete, well-impressed in all length; median mesoscutal line extending at least to 1/3 of the mesoscutum length; parapsidal lines distinct, narrow, smooth and shiny, reaching above half of the mesoscutum length; anterior parallel lines extending to 1/3 of mesoscutum length. Mesoscutellum trapezoid, slightly longer than broad and the most broader part is in the posterior 1/3; 1.4 times shorter than mesoscutum, rugose, with more delicate sculpture towards the center of the disk; slightly overhanging metanotum. Scutellar foveae transverse, deep, well-delimited all around, with shiny, wrinkled bottom; medially separated by a narrow central carina. Mesopleuron, including speculum, uniformly alutaceous, without piliferous punctures, with very dense white setae; mesopleural triangle coriaceous, with very dense white setae; acetabular carina delimiting a very narrow area laterally, barely traceable under dense setae. Metapleural sulcus reaching mesopleuron at the half of its height; preaxilla and lateral axillar area with strong wrinkles, without setae; axillar carina with numerous longitudinal striae; axillula transversely ovate, with dense white setae; subaxillular bar smooth, shiny, in the most posterior end higher than height of metanotal trough. Metascutellum delicately uniformly coriaceous, at least 5.0 times as high as height of smooth, shiny ventral impressed area; metanotal trough smooth, shiny, with sparse white setae. Propodeum delicately coriaceous; lateral propodeal carinae with setae, slightly curved outwards in the posterior 1/3; central propodeal area shiny, with few irregular delicate wrinkles, with dense white setae only along lateral propodeal carinae; lateral propodeal area uniformly coriaceous, with dense white setae; nucha very short, with longitudinal sulci. Tarsal claws with strong basal lobe. Forewing longer than body, with dark brown veins, margin with short cilia; radial cell 4.7 times as long as broad; Rs and R1 nearly reaching wing margin, on a short distance both veins running along wing margin; areolet dis- tinct; Rs+M extending to 2/3 of the distance between areolet and basalis, projecting into its middle.

Metasoma slightly shorter than head+mesosoma, all tergites with dense white setae only laterally; all metasomal tergites without punctures; prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium 5.0 times as long as broad. Body length 2.8–3.8 mm.

Gall ( Figs 116–119 View FIGURES 116–119 ). On lateral and terminal shoot buds, on both young and old trees. The gall of Andricus coriariformis has a smooth, almost polished surface, and bears a small number of thick spines that are commonly oriented in the same direction, like the fingers of a hand ( Figs 116, 117, 119 View FIGURES 116–119 ). The spines are not usually strongly curved. The mature gall is usually 20 mm or less in greatest dimension, pale straw yellow, hard and woody. The gall is usually multilocular, containing from 2 to many larval chambers (very rarely only one larval chamber was observed). Similar galls are induced by A. coriarius and A. stellatus (new species, see below). Both of these galls have longer and diverging striated spines (few to many in A. coriarius , most commonly 4 in A. stellatus ). The galls of both of these species also have a dull, sometimes pubescent surface and Andricus coriarius galls are commonly larger than A. coriariformis , reaching 50 mm in diameter including the spines.

Biology. Only the asexual generation is known from galls on Quercus infectoria Olivier. Rare. The gall starting to grow by mid-summer; adult wasps emerged by the end of autumn.

Comments. This species was initially detected on the basis of DNA sequence data for the mitochondrial cytohrome b gene and the nuclear 28S D2 region ( Challis et al. 2007). Although originally identified as Andricus coriarius on the basis of overall gall morphology, all adults with the above described phenotype belong to a single well-resolved clade that diverged from A. coriarius approximately 4.5 million years ago. It remains unclear whether this species is a sister group to Andricus coriarius , or is more distantly related within the A. kollari species group ( Challis et al. 2007).

The extreme rarity of purely asexual lifecycles in oak gallwasps ( Stone et al. 2002) suggests that A. coriariformis p robably has a sexual generation. The clade of Andricus species that includes A. coriariformis all have lifecycles involving alternation between oaks in the sections Quercus (for the asexual generation) and Cerris (for the sexual generation). The sexual generation galls in this clade are commonly small and inconspicuous bud or catkin galls ( Melika et al. 2000; Cook et al. 2002; Rokas et al. 2003b), and it is probable that the same is true for this new species. Possible hosts from the Cerris oak section in the region include Quercus libani Olivier and Q. brantii Lindl. (= Q. persica Jaub. et Spach ).

Distribution. Iran, Kordestan (Bane and Marivan), Kermanshah (Javanrod), and West Azarbaijan (Piran Shahr) provinces.

HNHM

Hungarian Natural History Museum (Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Cynipidae

Genus

Andricus