Andricus atkinsonae Melika, Stone, Sadeghi & Zargaran, 2008

Tavakoli, M., Melika, G., Sadeghi, S. E., Pénzes, Z., Assareh, M. A., Atkinson, R., Bechtold, M., Mikó, I., Zargaran, M. R., Aligolizade, D., Barimani, H., Bihari, P., Pirozi, F., Fülöp, D., Somogyi, K., Challis, R., Preuss, S., Nicholls, J. & Stone, G. N., 2008, New species of oak gallwaps from Iran (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), Zootaxa 1699 (1), pp. 1-64 : 26-31

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.1699.1.1

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/EF038788-FFB7-1655-FF5E-8ED1FE020CD0

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Andricus atkinsonae Melika, Stone, Sadeghi & Zargaran
status

new species

Andricus atkinsonae Melika, Stone, Sadeghi & Zargaran , new species

Figs 198–211 View FIGURES 198–209 View FIGURES 210–211

Type material. HOLOTYPE female: Iran, West Azarbaijan , Sar Dasht (Rabat Station), Q. brantii , 2003. April. leg. M. R. Zargaran . PARATYPES: 14 female and 16 male with the same labels as the holotype. The holotype, 2 female and 2 male paratypes in HNHM ; 2 female and 2 male paratypes in RIFR ; 8 female and 10 male paratypes in SPL; 2 female and 2 male paratypes in NHML .

Etymology. The species is named in honour of Dr. Rachel Atkinson, in recognition of her contribution to oak gallwasp research.

Diagnosis. On the basis of galls and adult’s morphology, Andricus atkinsonae , new species, is most closely related to Andricus burgundus Giraud and A. kollari (Hartig) . This species may yet be revealed as the sexual generation of some of the newly described asexual generation taxa from this region. In females of A. atkinsonae , new species, the inner margins of eyes parallel or only very slightly converging ventrally; the transfacial distance equal to the height of the eye; the vertex and interocellar area are delicately coriaceous to alutaceous; F1 distinctly longer than F2; the mesoscutum delicately coriaceous to alutaceous; the mesoscutel- lum is slightly longer than broad in dorsal view, with distinct strong longitudinal rugae; the mesopleuron with delicate short transverse striae; the height of the subaxillular bar posteriorly less than the height of the metanotal trough; the radial cell of the fore wing 5.4–5.5 times as long as broad; female’s metasoma smooth or with very sparse hardly detectable, superficially impressed micropunctures. In the females of Andricus burgundus the inner margins of eyes converging ventrally; the transfacial distance slightly longer than the height of the eye; the vertex and interocellar area with strongly impressed, reticulate to coriaceous sculpture; F1 nearly equal F2; the mesoscutum with strong coriaceous sculpture; the mesoscutellum is subequal, as long as broad or slightly broader than long, dull rugose, without distinct longitudinal strong rugae; the mesopleuron with more dense and uniformly long transverse striae; the subaxillular bar posteriorly higher than the height of the metanotal trough; the radial cell of the forewing 4.7–4.9 times as long as broad; female’s tergite 2 smooth, all subsequent tergites with distinct micropunctures. In Andricus kollari females eyes are black; the mesoscutellum is dull rugose, without strong longitudinal striae; the metanotum with delicate longitudinal striation; lateral propodeal carinae more curved outwards in the posterior 1/3; the prominent part of the ventral spine of the hypopygium 4.0 times as long as broad, while in A. atkinsonae , new species, females eyes are reddish; the mesoscutellum with distinct strong longitudinal rugae; the metanotum delicately coriaceous, without longitudinal striae; lateral propodeal carinae subparallel; the prominent part of the ventral spine of the hypopygium 2.0 times as long as broad. MALES most closely resembles males of A. quercuscalicis with yellow antennae and legs, with POL distinctly longer than OOL, OOL 1.0-1.5 times as long as length of lateral ocellus; radial cell of forewing at least 4.5 times as long as broad; the body black to dark brown. However, in A. atkinsonae eyes are always entirely and uniformly reddish brown, while in A. quercuscalicis eyes are black to silvery black, never reddish brown.

Description. FEMALE (holotype). Body entirely black, except dark brown central propodeal area; tegulae yellow; eyes and ocelli reddish; antennae from yellow to light brown, with slightly darker apical flagellomeres; legs yellow to yellowish brown, with darker hind coxae, especially at the base; metasoma with dark brown metasomal tergite 2, subsequent tergites dorsally dark brown, laterally much lighter, ventral spine of hypopygium light brown to yellow.

Head delicately coriaceous to alutaceous, with very sparse short white setae, especially on lower face; 2.5 times as broad as long from above, 1.3 times as broad as high, broader than mesosoma in front view. Gena very delicately coriaceous to alutaceous, very slightly broadened behind eye in front view, as broad as cross diameter of eye from lateral view; malar space very delicately coriaceous, with very few delicate striae, radiating from clypeus and nearly reaching eye, 0.4 times as long as height of eye. POL 1.5 times as broad as OOL, OOL 2.3 times as long as length of lateral ocellus and 1.3 times as long as LOL, OOL 0.5 times as long as height of eye in front view. Inner margins of eyes parallel or only very slightly converging ventrally. Transfacial distance slightly longer than height of eye and 1.5 times as long as height of lower face (distance between antennal rim and tip of clypeus); diameter of torulus more than 2.0 times as large as distance between them, distance between torulus and inner margin of eye 1.3 times as large as the diameter of torulus; lower face delicately coriaceous, with relatively dense white short setae, median elevated area delicately coriaceous. Clypeus small, rectangular, delicately coriaceous, with strongly elevated central area, ventrally emarginated; anterior tentorial pits, epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal line indistinct, shallow. Frons very delicately coriaceous to alutaceous, in some specimens lighter than the rest of head, central area from toruli to frontal ocellus elevated and slightly impressed right before the frontal ocellus, without setae. Vertex, interocellar area and occiput uniformly delicately coriaceous. Occiput rounded, gradually, without carina, continuing into postocciput which delicately longitudinally coriaceous, impressed around occipital foramen. Labial palpus 3-segmented, maxillary palpus 4-segmented. Antenna with 11 flagellomeres, longer than mesosoma; pedicel 1.4 times as long as broad, F1 1.4 times as long as F2, 1.7 times as long as pedicel; F2–F4 equal in length, very slightly longer than F5–F10 which are equal in length, F11 1.3 times as long as F10; placodeal sensilla on F4– F11, absent on F1–F3, long, in one row.

Mesosoma 1.3 times as long as high. Pronotum delicately coriaceous, with some delicate striae in the postero-dorsal part; emarginated along the ventro-lateral edge, with some distinct striae in the ventral edge; propleuron black, delicately coriaceous, concave in medio-central part. Mesoscutum delicately uniformly coriaceous to alutaceous, with few short white setae, especially along notauli and lateral edges; nearly as long as broad in dorsal view (largest width measured on the level of the base of tegulae); from the level of tegula narrowing down towards posterior end. Notauli complete, shallow and narrow but distinctly impressed, slightly converging and broadened posteriorly; anterior parallel lines distinct and extending to 1/3 length of mesoscutum; parapsidal lines distinct, narrow and extending to 2/3 length of mesoscutum; median mesoscutal line in a form of very short triangular impression (in some paratypes absent). Mesoscutellum slightly longer than broad in dorsal view, dull rugose, with strong longitudinal rugae, strongly overhanging metanotum; scutellar foveae ovate, with shiny smooth black bottom, separated by a distinct narrow median carina. Mesopleuron uniformly delicately striate, acetabular carina delimiting a narrow area laterally; dorsal and lateral axillar areas delicately coriaceous; axillula coriaceous, with dense white setae; height of subaxillular bar posteriorly less than height of metanotal trough; metapleural sulcus reaching mesopleuron in the upper 1/3 of its height. Metascutellum uniformly delicately coriaceous, very short, slightly higher than height of smooth, shiny ventral impressed area; metanotal trough uniformly coriaceous, with sparse and short white setae; central propodeal area dark brown, smooth, shiny, lateral propodeal carinae subparallel; lateral propodeal area with very dense white setae. Hind femur stouted, 0.7 times as long as tibia; tarsal claws with basal lobe. Forewing longer than body, hyaline, with long cilia on margin, veins light brown, radial cell 5.4 times as long as broad; R1 not reaching wing margin, strongly angled, Rs nearly straight, nearly reaching margin of wing; areolet large, triangular, closed and distinct.

Metasoma nearly as long as head+mesosoma; metasomal tergite 2 occupy without a little half of metasoma length in dorsal view, with few short basal white setae laterally; all tergites smooth, shiny, in some specimens with very sparse delicate, hardly detectable, very superficially impressed micropuntures. Ventral spine of hypopygium short, prominent part 2.0 times as long as broad, with few sparse short white setae, which not extending beyond the apex of spine. Body length 1.8–2.3 mm.

MALE. Similar to female, however, antennae and legs are pale yellow, metasoma much lighter. Antenna with 12 flagellomeres, F1 strongly excavated and expanded apically, placodeal sensilla on F1–F12.

Gall ( Figs 210–211 View FIGURES 210–211 ). Sexual generation. Galls develop in groups in apical or lateral buds on the previous year's shoots. These galls have so far been found only in groups. A small, thin-walled gall 2–3 mm long and ca. 1.6–2 mm in diameter. The gall surface is smooth and light brown, without ribs. A proportion of galls are partially concealed within the bud scales. The apex of the gall is pointed, usually with a slightly curved tip, without a small tuft of hairs, while in A. kollari tuft of hairs is present. Where many galls develop in a single bud, they may crowd each other and become deformed.

Biology. The sexual generation of Andricus atkinsonae , new species, is only known, which induces tiny bud gall clusters on Quercus brantii Lindl. Adult wasps emerged in April–May. It is possible that the asexual generation of this species develops on Quercus infectoria Olivier (see below).

Comments. Andricus atkinsonae , new species, might be an alternate sexual generation of A. askewi Melika & Stone , A. sternlichti Bellido, Melika & Pujade-Villar or other species which belong to the kollari or coriarius species-group (clade) and are currently known only from their asexual generation. However, until proven otherwise, we must treat A. atkinsonae as a distinct species. Galls of A. atkinsonae are very similar to those of A. burgundus and A. kollari and, in fact, these often cannot be distinguished. Andricus kollari is also known in the area where this new species was collected, but its sexual generation can be easily distinguished from A. atkinsonae on the basis of the adult wasps (see above).

Distribution. Currently known from Iran, West Azarbaijan Province, Sar Dasht (Rabat Station, the most north- western end of the Zagros mountain ridge). It is quite possible that this species is distributed along the Zagros mountains, wherever Quercus brantii Lindl. grows. Further sampling in similar habitats is required to

establish its true distribution.

Andricus pujadevillari Melika, Stone, Sadeghi, Atkinson & Zargaran , new species

Figs 212–223 View FIGURES 212–223

Type material. HOLOTYPE female: Iran, West Azarbaijan , Sar Dasht (Nalas Station), Q. brantii , 2004.V.22. leg. M. R. Zargaran . PARATYPES: 3 females and 2 males with the same labels as the holotype. The holotype in HNHM ; 1 female and 1 male paratypes in RIFR ; 2 female and 1 male paratypes in SPL.

Etymology. The species is named in honour of our friend and cynipidologist colleague, Dr. Juli Pujade- Villar, professor of the University of Barcelona, Spain.

Diagnosis. Andricus pujadevillari , new species, most closely related to Andricus schroeckingeri Wachtl and A. melikai Pujade-Villar & Kwast , however, in the latter two species the lengths of OOL and LOL in the head of the sexual female are equal. Andricus melikai females posses a distinct median mesoscutal line extending at least to the half of the mesoscutum and the mesopleuron is finely striate only in the middle part, while the rest of the mesopleuron is smooth and shiny. It induces a multilocular integral, swelling 15 mm long gall on the leaf vein; gall matures in April–May, developing on Quercus ithaburensis Decne ssp. macrolepis (Kotschy) (= aegilops L.) and is known only from Greece ( Pujade-Villar et al. 2002). In A. pujadevillari , new species, the mesoscutum without median mesoscutal line or it presents in a form of a very short triangle at the most posterior end of the mesoscutum; the mesopleuron entirely and uniformly striate; the gall is also quite different. In A. schroeckingeri females, the genae are more broadened behind eyes, giving the head a more rounded appearance in front view; the lower face with longitudinally elongated cells of the coriaceous sculpture; OOL and LOL are equal in length and 2.0 times as long as the diameter of lateral ocellus; placodeal sensilla on F4–F11; the mesoscutum without distinct rugae in the posterior end; scutellar foveae transverse, broader than high; lateral propodeal carinae less curved outwards in the posterior 1/3, the central propodeal area smooth, shiny, without wrinkles; the prominent part of the ventral spine of the hypopygium shorter, subapical setae also much shorter and more sparse; F1 of male antenna slightly longer than F2. In A. pujadevillari , new species, females genae are less broadened behind eyes; the lower face with rounded cells of the coriaceous sculpture; OOL longer than LOL and more than 2.0 times longer than the cross diameter of the lateral ocellus; placodeal sensilla on F5–F11; the mesoscutum with distinct strong rugae in the posterior half; scutellar foveae rounded, nearly as high as broad; lateral propodeal carinae more strongly curved outwards in the posterior 1/3, the central propodeal area with delicate irregular wrinkles; the prominent part of the ventral spine of the hypopygium longer, subapical setae also much longer and denser; F1 of male antenna distinctly longer than F2.

Description. FEMALE (holotype). Body entirely black, tegulae yellow; eyes and ocelli silvery; antennae yellow, with slightly darker apical flagellomeres; legs yellow, with slightly infuscated coxae and tarsi; metasoma dark brown to black; prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium light brown to yellowish.

Head uniformly coriaceous, with very sparse short white setae, especially on lower face; 1.9 times as broad as long from above, 1.2 times as broad as high, broader than mesosoma in front view. Gena alutaceous, very slightly broadened behind eye in front view, 2/3 as broad as cross diameter of eye in lateral view; malar space very delicately coriaceous, with delicate striae, radiating from clypeus and nearly reaching eye, 0.45 times as long as height of eye. POL 1.25 times as broad as OOL, OOL 2.3 times as long as length of lateral ocellus and 1.6 times as long as LOL. Inner margins of eyes parallel or only very slightly converging ventrally. Transfacial distance 1.3 times as long as height of eye and 1.75 times as long as height of lower face (distance between antennal rim and tip of clypeus); diameter of torulus nearly equal to distance between them, distance between torulus and inner margin of eye 1.4 times as large as the diameter of torulus; lower face delicately coriaceous, with relatively dense short white setae, median elevated area delicately coriaceous. Clypeus small, rectangular, delicately coriaceous, with strongly elevated central area, anterior tentorial pits, epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal line indistinct, shallow, ventrally emarginated. Frons delicately and uniformly coriaceous, central area from toruli to frontal ocellus elevated and slightly impressed right before the frontal ocellus, without setae. Vertex, interocellar area and occiput uniformly coriaceous. Labial palpus 3- segmented, maxillary palpus 4-segmented. Antenna with 11 flagellomeres; longer than mesosoma; pedicel 1.4 times as long as broad, F1 1.3 times as long as F2, 2.1 times as long as pedicel; F2 1.2 times as long as F3, subsequent flagellomeres shorter, F4-F11 nearly equal in length, gradually broadened towards F11, F11 nearly equal F10 or slightly shorter. Placodeal sensilla on F5–F11, absent on F1–F4, long, in one row.

Mesosoma 1.2 times as long as high. Pronotum uniformly transversely striate, emarginated along the ventro-lateral edge, with distinct striae; propleuron black, delicately coriaceous, concave in medio-central part. Mesoscutum rugose in the posterior half, especially internotauli area dull rugose, coriaceous in the anterior half or 1/3, rugose sculpture gradually changing into more delicate coriaceous sculpture towards anterior end; with very few short sparse white setae; mesoscutum slightly broader than long in dorsal view (largest width on the level of the base of tegulae); from the level of tegula narrowing down toward posterior end; notauli complete, shallow and narrow but distinctly impressed, slightly converging and broadened posteriorly; anterior parallel lines distinct and extending to 1/3 length of mesoscutum; parapsidal lines distinct, narrow, started slightly apart from the posterior margin of mesoscutum and extending to 2/3 length of mesoscutum; median mesoscutal line in a form of very short triangular impression or in some specimens absent. Mesoscutellum slightly longer than broad in dorsal view, dull rugose, with strong rugae, strongly overhanging metanotum; scutellar foveae rounded, nearly as long as broad, with shiny and wrinkled black bottom, separated by a distinct median carina. Mesopleuron uniformly delicately transversely striate, acetabular carina delimiting a narrow area laterally, postero-ventral quarter with dense short white setae. Dorsal and lateral axillar areas delicately coriaceous; axilla dull rugose, axillula coriaceous, with dense white setae; height of subaxillular bar posteriorly nearly equal to height of metanotal trough; metapleural sulcus reaching mesopleuron slightly above its half height. Metascutellum uniformly delicately coriaceous, 1.7 times as high as height of smooth, shiny ventral impressed area; metanotal trough uniformly coriaceous, with sparse and short white setae; central propodeal area, smooth, with shiny delicate irregular wrinkles, lateral propodeal carinae curved outwards in the posterior 1/3; lateral propodeal area with dense white setae. Tarsal claws with basal lobe. Forewing longer than body, hyaline, with very short cilia on margin, veins light brown, radial cell 3.6–3.8 times as long as broad; R1 and Rs nearly reaching wing margin; areolet small, triangular, indistinct.

Metasoma slightly longer than head+mesosoma; metasomal tergite 2 occupying more than half of metasoma in dorsal view, with few short basal white setae laterally; all tergites smooth, shiny, in some specimens with very sparse delicate, hardly detectable, very superficially impressed micropuntures. Ventral spine of hypopygium slender, prominent part about 3.2 times as long as broad, with few short white setae, only the most apical setae extending beyond the apex of spine. Body length 2.0– 2.4 mm.

MALE. Similar to female, however, antennae 14-segmented, F1 excavated and expanded apically, placodeal sensilla on F1–F12.

Gall ( Figs 222–223 View FIGURES 212–223 ). Sexual generation. An integral leaf gall. Can occur on the midrib or on lateral veins, visible on both sides of the leaf. Typically distorts the leaf, causing curling and twisting. The gall partially embedded in the leaf lamina along the longer axis of the gall and only partially visible on both sides of the leaf. Gall egg-shaped, 2 mm long with blunt ends, 1.5–2.0 mm in diameter; monolocular; thick-walled, with dense pubescence; the emergence hole is on the upper surface of the gall. 2–3 galls were found on one leaf. The gall of A. pujadevillari is most similar to that of A. schroeckingeri but the egg-shaped gall is embedded into the leaf parenchyma along its longer axis and not along the shorter axis as is the case in A. schroeckingeri .

Biology. The sexual generation is only known to induce tiny integral leaf galls on Quercus brantii Lindl. Adult wasps emerged in April -- May. It is probable that this gall has an asexual generation developing on oaks in the section Quercus ( Stone et al. 2002) , the only available representative of which in this region is Quercus infectoria Olivier.

Comments. The gall is somehow similar to that of Andricus crispator Tschek , which has been recorded in Iran ( Chodjai 1980; Guilan and East Azarbaijan, authors) and in neighbouring Azerbaijan on Quercus castaneifolia C.A.Mey ( Maisuradze 1961). These galls usually occur gregariously, resulting in noticeable deformation of the leaf. The adult wasps of A. crispator can easily be distinguished from A. pujadevillari , new species, by the light brown to yellowish colour of the body and by the absence of marginal cilia on the forewing in A. crispator .

Distribution. Currently known from Iran, West Azarbaijan Province, Sar Dasht (Rabat Station, the most northwestern end of the Zagros mountain ridge). It is quite possible that this species is distributed along the Zagros mountains, wherever Quercus brantii Lindl. grows. Further sampling in similar habitats is required to establish its true distribution.

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

HNHM

Hungarian Natural History Museum (Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum)

NHML

Natural History Museum, Tripoli

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Cynipidae

Genus

Andricus