Andricus stellatus Melika & Tavakoli, 2008

Tavakoli, M., Melika, G., Sadeghi, S. E., Pénzes, Z., Assareh, M. A., Atkinson, R., Bechtold, M., Mikó, I., Zargaran, M. R., Aligolizade, D., Barimani, H., Bihari, P., Pirozi, F., Fülöp, D., Somogyi, K., Challis, R., Preuss, S., Nicholls, J. & Stone, G. N., 2008, New species of oak gallwaps from Iran (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), Zootaxa 1699 (1), pp. 1-64 : 20-22

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.1699.1.1

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scientific name

Andricus stellatus Melika & Tavakoli

new species

Andricus stellatus Melika & Tavakoli , new species

Figs 135–153 View FIGURES 135–145 View FIGURES 146–153

Type material. HOLOTYPE female: IRAN, Kermanshah, Gahvareh and Javanrod, Q. infectoria , X-XI.2005. leg. M. Tavakoli, Lor.151 . PARATYPES: 21 females: 19 females with the same labels as the holotype; 2 females labelled as ” IRAN, West Azarbaijan , Sar Dasht (Ghasem rash station), Q. infectoria , 8. October 2003. leg. Aligolizade, AW 4qi2B9”. The holotype and 5 female paratypes in HNHM ; 5 female paratypes in RIFR ; 8 female paratypes in SPL; 3 female paratypes in NHML .

Other material examined. Galls collected from Q. infectoria in Kordestan province (Marivan) in midsummer (only parasitoids emerged from these galls).

Etymology. The species name stellatus reflects the star-like shape of most asexual generation galls of this species.

Diagnosis. Andricus stellatus , new species, belongs to the kollari clade, in which the anterior surface of the foretibia with short, applied setae. Currently the kollari -group comprises 13 Western Palaearctic species ( Stone et al., in prep.). Majority of species in the kollari -group have antennae with 11 flagellomeres, only in two species, Andricus moreae (Graeffe) and A. sternlichti Bellido, Pujade-Villar & Melika , antennae with 12 flagellomeres, as in A. stellatus . In all three species, the general colour of the body is light brown; the mesoscutum slightly longer than broad; the anterior rim and ventro-lateral edge of the pronotum are broad; the acetabular carina laterally delimiting a broad area; the prominent part of the ventral spine of hypopygium 5.7–6.3 times as long as broad. Most closely related to A. sternlichti in which the mesoscutellum is rounded, subquad- rate, uniformly dull rugose; the metascutellum with distinct longitudinal subparallel striae; the ventral impressed area of the metascutellum with coriaceous sculpture; lateral propodeal carinae slightly curved outwards in the middle, while in A. stellatus , new species, the mesoscutellum is broader than long, dull rugose, with more delicate sculpture behind scutellar foveae and in the central part of the scutellar disc; the metascutellum very delicately coriaceous, without longitudinal striae; the ventral impressed area of the metascutellum smooth, shiny; lateral propodeal carinae slightly curved outwards in the posterior 1/3.

Description. ASEXUAL FEMALE (holotype). Body, antennae and legs entirely and uniformly light brown, eyes silvery; tip of mandibles dark brown to black. Wing veins distinct, dark brown.

Head delicately uniformly coriaceous, with sparse white setae, 2.4 times as broad as long from above; 1.5 times as broad as high and as broad (measured across genae) as mesosoma in frontal view. Gena minutely coriaceous and strongly broadened behind eye, nearly 2.0 times as broad as cross diameter of eye. Malar space with few indistinct striae, radiating from clypeus and extending to 2/3 of distance to eye, 0.5 times as long as height of eye. POL 2.1 times as broad as OOL; OOL nearly 2.0 times as long as diameter of lateral ocellus and 1.2 times as long as LOL. Transfacial distance 1.4 times as long as height of eye and 2.1 times as long as height of lower face (distance between antennal rim and ventral margin of clypeus); diameter of antennal torulus 1.9 times as long as distance between them and slightly smaller than the distance between torulus and inner margin of eye. Lower face delicately coriaceous, without striae, the median part from toruli to the base of clypeus elevated. Clypeus quadrangular, only slightly broader than high, delicately coriaceous, with distinct deep anterior tentorial pits, with distinct epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal line, ventral margin emarginated, medially incised. Frons, vertex and occiput delicately coriaceous. Antenna with 12 flagellomeres; slightly longer than mesosoma; pedicel 2.0 times as long as broad; F1 the longest flagellomere, 1.2 times as long as F2 and 2.3 times as long as pedicel, slightly longer than scape; F2 1.4 times as long as F3; F3 nearly equal to F4; subsequent flagellomeres gradually shorter; F12 1.6 times as long as F11; placodeal sensilla on F2–F12, absent on F1.

Mesosoma slightly longer than high; with uniform dense white setae. Pronotum alutaceous to delicately coriaceous laterally. Mesoscutum very delicately coriaceous, without punctures. Notauli complete, distinctly impressed, slightly converging posteriorly; anterior parallel and parapsidal lines distinct, both extending to half length of mesoscutum; median mesoscutal line absent or in some paratype females scarcely traceable in a form of a very short impressed triangle. Mesoscutellum slightly broader than long, dull rugose, with more delicate sculpture behind scutellar foveae and in the center of scutellar disk; slightly overhanging metanotum. Scutellar foveae transversely ovate, with shiny smooth bottom, separated by a distinct broad delicately coriaceous central carina. Mesopleuron, including speculum, uniformly alutaceous, with very minute delicate punctures, hardly traceable, with sparse setae; acetabular carina delimiting a narrow area laterally; dorso-axillar area delicately coriaceous; lateral axillar area with delicate wrinkles; axillar carina with delicate parallel longitudinal striae; axillula alutaceous, with dense white setae, subaxillular bar smooth, shiny, in the most posterior part higher than height of metanotal trough. Metascutellum very delicately coriaceous, without longitudinal striae, as high as height of smooth, shiny ventral impressed area; metanotal trough smooth, shiny, with very few white setae; lateral propodeal carinae uniformly broad, slightly curved outwards in the posterior 1/3, with few long white setae in anterior half only; central propodeal area smooth, shiny, with irregular delicate wrinkles; lateral propodeal area alutaceous, with sparse white setae; nucha short, with delicate longitudinal wrinkles. Foretibia with uniformly located short setae, as in all species of the kollari -group. Tarsal claw with strong basal lobe. Forewing longer than body, hyaline, with very short dense cilia on margin, radial cell 4.2 times as long as broad; R1 nearly straight, not reaching wing margin; Rs straight, nearly reaching wing margin, areolet large, triangular, closed and distinct; Rs+M extending to 2/3 of distance between areolet and basalis.

Metasoma slightly longer than head+mesosoma; metasomal tergite 2 with antero-lateral patch of dense setae, all subsequent tergites with short white setae only laterally, in a form of short band posteriorly; all terg- ites smooth, without micropunctures. Ventral spine of hypopygium slender, prominent part 6.0 times as long as broad, with sparse, white setae, apical setae not extending beyond the apex of the spine. Body length 4.2– 5.3 mm.

Gall ( Figs 146–153 View FIGURES 146–153 ). A monolocular gall on lateral and terminal buds of shoots, consisting of a globular body divided into (most commonly 4) segment-like parts by radiating grooves. Each segment bears a long spine (sometimes bifurcating), giving an overall effect of a star, most commonly with 4 points. The gall surface is dull, sometimes pubescent, and the spines sometimes have longitudinal striations. The spines range in length from 6 to 35 mm. Each segment of the gall contains a larval chamber (4–6 mm long and 2–3 mm in diameter) located in the lower part of the gall. The wall of the larval chamber is fused to the hard and lignified inner gall parenchyma. The lower part of each gall segment lacks external grooves and is covered with bud scales. The gall is green when young, turning reddish-purple to reddish-brown when mature. The individual segments of the gall somewhat resemble the gall of A. galeatus in surface texture. The gall induced by A. sternlichti is globular, while the gall of A. stellatus is very differently shaped ( Figs 146–153 View FIGURES 146–153 ). The gall of A. stellatus somewhat resembles that of A. coriarius and A.coriariformis (new species, see above).

Biology. Only the asexual generation is known from galls on Quercus infectoria Olivier. Rare.

Comments. The extreme rarity of purely asexual lifecycles in oak gallwasps ( Stone et al. 2002) suggests that A. stellatus p robably has a sexual generation. The clade of Andricus species that includes A. stellatus all have lifecycles involving alternation between oaks in the sections Quercus (for the asexual generation) and Cerris (for the sexual generation). The sexual generation galls in this clade are commonly small and inconspicuous bud or catkin galls ( Melika et al. 2000; Cook et al. 2002; Rokas et al. 2003b), and it is probable that the same is true for this new species. Possible hosts from the Cerris oak section in the region include Quercus libani Olivier and Q. brantii Lindl. (= Q. persica Jaub. et Spach ).

Distribution. Iran, Kermanshah (Gahvareh, Pale and Javanrod), Lorestan (Ghelaei), Kordestan (Marivan), and West Azarbaijan (Sar Dasht) provinces.


Hungarian Natural History Museum (Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum)


Natural History Museum, Tripoli