Toloonops chickeringi (Brignoli)

Bolzern, Angelo, Platnick, Norman I. & Berniker, Lily, 2015, Three new genera of soft-bodied goblin spiders (Araneae, Oonopidae) from Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala, American Museum Novitates 2015 (3824), pp. 1-60: 19-27

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1206/3824.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/EF06F35B-FFCD-4849-F30E-FDB4946E0516

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Toloonops chickeringi (Brignoli)
status

new combination

Toloonops chickeringi (Brignoli)   , new combination

Figures 115–129 View FIGURES 115–129 , 156–159 View FIGURES 145–159

Oonops chickeringi Brignoli, 1974: 200   , figs. 2A–I (male holotype from Cueva del Panteon , Teopisca, Chiapas, Mexico, in MCVR; examined).

DIAGNOSIS: Male resembles those of T. tolucanus   (figs. 101, 102, 104, 106–108) in having endites medially with horn-shaped, pointed projections (figs. 116, 117, 121), but differ in having the endite projections pointing more laterally (rather than posteriorly, figs. 117, 121), a reduced, finger-shaped second distal sclerite (fig. 122, partly broken off on SEM image), and from this and all other species in having strong spines on tibiae I and II. Females differ from those of all other species in having strong spines on the palp and anterior tibiae, by the horseshoe-shaped but medially separated, porous plate and the suboval, moderately sclerotized median genitalic process (figs. 127, 128).

MALE (PBI_ OON 49586 View Materials , figs. 115–123): Total length 2.07. Carapace surface smooth. Endites medially with horn-shaped, pointed projections. Abdomen moderately extending anteriad of pedicel. Leg spination (spines on leg II less distinct): femora: I d1-0-0; III, IV d1-0-1; tibiae: I v2-1-1; II p0-1-0, v1-0-1; III, IV p0-1-1, v1-0-2, r0-1-1; metatarsi: I p0-1-1, v2-2-0, r0-0-1; II p1-0-0, v1-0-1, III v1-0-2, r0-0-1; IV p0-1-1, v1-0-2, r0-1-1. Bulb with basal part protruding ventrally; embolus abruptly curved prolaterad, distally moderately tapering, ventrally longitudinally ribbed with longitudinal folding, bearing field of tiny spikes, tip with distinct folding, embolus opening shifted proximally, ventroanteriorly from tip; second distal sclerite reduced, finger shaped (broken off in SEM), originating ventroprolaterally at embolus base.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 49586 View Materials , 49219, figs. 124–129, 156–159): Total length 2.22. Female palp spines: femur v2-1-1; patella p0-1-1; tibia d0-0-1, p2-2-1; tarsus d2-2-2, p1-2-2, v2-2-2. Palp segments moderately elongated. Epigastric scutum moderately protruding. Leg spination: femur II d1-0-0; tibiae: I p0-1-1, v2-1-1; II v2-2-2; III p0-1-1, v2-0-2, r0-1-1; metatarsi: II p1-0- 0, v2-2-0; III v2-0-2, r0-1-1. Anterior, median genitalic processes, lateral extensions visible through epigastric scutum, reddish brown. Narrow lateral extensions connected by horseshoeshaped but medially separated, porous plate; anterior genitalic process narrow, tubelike, protruding anteriorly, apex enlarged; median genitalic process suboval, moderately sclerotized; posterior genitalic process large, pocketlike, long, oval (better seen in undigested specimen).

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: MEXICO: Chiapas: Cueva del Panteon, Teopisca , May 19, 1971 (R. Argano, V. Sbordoni, MCVR PBI_ OON 49220 View Materials ), 1♂ (holotype)   , same ( MCVR PBI_ OON 49216 View Materials , 49219)   ,

2♀ (paratypes); 5 mi W San Cristobal, 16.75°N, 92.68333°W, Aug. 24, 1966, pine-oak forest (J., W. Ivie, AMNH PBI_ OON 49586 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 1♂, 3♀.

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico (Chiapas).

The belmo   G roup

Toloonops belmo   , new species

Figures 130–136 View FIGURES 130–144

TYPE: Male holotype from a Berlese sample of forest litter on limestone taken at a site 2.5 miles south of Belmopan, Cayo, Belize (Aug. 04, 1972; S., J. Peck), deposited in   FMNH (72196, PBI_ OON 49257 View Materials )   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition shortened from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of T. verapaz   (figs. 139–144) in having short horn-shaped projections posteromedially on the endites (fig. 132), the palpal femur attaching to the patella subbasally, the patella and tibia enlarged, and a spherical bulb (figs. 133–135). They differ in having the embolus distinctly longer than the bulb (rather than nearly as long, fig. 134), and a second distal sclerite much shorter than the embolus (rather than reaching 3/4 of embolus length, figs. 141, 143).

Male (PBI_ OON 49257 View Materials , figs. 130–136): Carapace length 0.74 (abdomen missing), surface smooth. Endites posteromedially with short horn-shaped projection, pointing posterolaterad. Leg spination: femora: I d1-0-1, p0-0-1; II, III d1-0-1; tibiae: III d1-0-0, p1-0-1, v0-1-2, r1-0-1; IV d1-0-1, p1-0-1, v0-1-2, r1-0-1; metatarsi: I, II v0-1-0; III d1-0-0, v0-1-2, r1-0-1; IV d1-0-1, p1-0-1, v0-1-2, r1-0-1. Palpal femur attaching to patella subbasally, patella, tibia both enlarged. Bulb spherical, not tapering apically; embolus moderately flattened, slender, abruptly curved prolaterad, distinctly longer than bulb, embolus opening large, shifted anteriad, with distinctly protruding tip; second distal sclerite basally broad, flat, long, triangular, distally strongly narrowed, leaf shaped, originating prolaterally of embolus base, much shorter than embolus.

FEMALE: Unknown.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: None.

DISTRIBUTION: Belize (Cayo).

Toloonops verapaz   , new species

Figures 137–155 View FIGURES 130–144 View FIGURES 145–159

NOTE: Males and females have not been collected together, show some somatic differences (e.g., eye size, carapace shape, size), and may be mismatched.

TYPE: Male holotype from an oak forest litter sample taken at an elevation of 1660 m at a junction 3.5 km south of Pantín , Baja Verapaz, Guatemala (May 23, 1991; R. Anderson), deposited in   AMNH (PBI_ OON 49256 View Materials )   .

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition shortened from the type locality.

DIAGNOSIS: Males resemble those of T. belmo   (figs. 131–136) in having short horn-shaped projections posteromedially on the endites (fig. 138–140), the palpal femur attaching to the patella subbasally, the patella and tibia enlarged, and a spherical bulb (figs. 142–144). They differ in having an embolus nearly as long as the bulb (rather than distinctly longer, fig. 143), and a second distal sclerite reaching 3/4 of embolus length (rather than much shorter than the embolus, figs. 141–143). Females differ from those of all other species in the distinct shape of the translucent genitalic process (fig. 148), the mushroom-shaped anterior genitalic process, the tube-shaped, convoluted, and strongly sclerotized median genitalic process, and the peanutshaped posterior genitalic process (figs. 149, 150).

MALE (PBI_ OON 49256 View Materials , figs. 137–144): Total length 1.42. Carapace surface smooth. Endites posteromedially with distinct short horn-shaped projection, pointing posteriad. Abdomen extending anteriad of pedicel. Leg spination: femora III, IV d1-0-1; tibiae III, IV d0-1-0, p1-0-1, v0-1-2, r1-0-1; metatarsi: III v0-1-2, r1-0-1; IV d1-0-1, p1-0-1, v0-1-2, r1-0-1. Palpal femur attaching to patella subbasally, patella, tibia each moderately enlarged. Cymbial cone not detected. Bulb spherical, not tapering apically; embolus moderately flattened, abruptly curved prolaterad, ventrally with longitudinal rim, nearly as long as bulb, embolus opening large, shifted anteriad, with distinctly protruding tip; second distal sclerite basally broad, flat, triangular, distally strongly narrowed, leaf shaped, protruding, originating prolaterally of embolus base, reaching 3/4 of embolus length.

FEMALE (PBI_ OON 49260 View Materials , figs. 145–155): Total length 1.84. Eyes moderately reduced. Female palp spines: tibia d0-1-1, p2-0-2; tarsus d1-1-0, p2-2-2. Epigastric scutum slightly protruding. Leg spination: tibia III p1-0-1, v0-1-2, r1-0-1; metatarsi: III v0-1-2, r0-0-1; IV d1-0-0, p1-0-1, v0-1-2, r1-0-1. Median genitalic process, lateral extensions each visible through epigastric scutum, reddish brown. Narrow lateral extensions indistinct, anterior genitalic process mushroom shaped, protruding anteriorly; median genitalic process convoluted, tube shaped, strongly sclerotized; posterior genitalic process pocketlike, broad, peanut shaped, dorsally covered by porous, membranous lamella.

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: GUATEMALA: Baja Verapaz: 8.6 km W Chilascó   , May 24, 1991, oak-pine- Liquidambar   forest litter, elev. 1560 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 49265 View Materials ), 1♂; 7 km E Purulha   , May 25, 1991, Cloud forest litter, elev. 1600 m (R. Anderson, AMNH PBI_ OON 49260 View Materials ), 2♀.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala (Baja Verapaz).

Guatemoonops   , new genus

TYPE SPECIES: Guatemoonops purulha   , new species.

ETYMOLOGY: The generic name refers to the fact that this oonopinae group is almost exclusively known from Guatemala and is masculine in gender.

DIAGNOSIS: Male members of this genus differ from most other soft-bodied oonopines in having the bulb and cymbium separated (figs. 170, 223, 235, 268). From those groups with bulb and cymbium separated, they differ in having the endites with a distinctly stepped anterolateral rim (in lateral view, figs. 162, 167, 220, 233, 263) without a serrula (fig. 167), from members of Neotrops   in having posteriorly directed endite projections (figs. 165, 166, 222, 234, 238, 265, 266), from members of Toloonops   in having the cymbial cone well separated from the tarsal organ (fig. 168), and from members of Heteroonops   in the position of the endite projection (figs. 165, 222, 234, 238, 265, 266) as well as the shape of the bulb and distal sclerites (figs. 170–174, 223–225, 235–237, 239, 240, 267–270). Females differ in having strongly sclerotized internal genitalia with the anterior genitalic process protruding anteriorly, with a T-shaped apex, subapically with a rounded sclerite, the median and posterior processes very complex and diversely shaped (figs. 202, 203, 228–231, 245, 246, 253, 254, 260, 261, 275, 276), and by the absence of elongated, highly spinose pedipalps with laterally dilated or elongated patellae (figs.199, 272).

DESCRIPTION: Total length of males 1.65–1.77, of females 1.99–2.25. Carapace, sternum, mouthparts, legs typically pale orange to orange brown, without any pattern, abdomen soft portions typically white to yellow-brown, without any pattern. Cephalothorax: Carapace broadly oval in dorsal view, anteriorly narrowed to approximately half its maximum width, pars cephalica slightly elevated in lateral view, anterolateral corners without extension or projections, with rounded posterolateral corners, without depressions or radiating rows of pits, posterolateral edge without pits, posterior margin not bulging below posterior rim, posterolateral surface without spikes, surface of elevated portion of pars cephalica, sides all smooth, platelets present everywhere; fovea absent, lateral margin undulate, rebordered, without denticles; plumose setae near posterior margin of pars thoracica absent; marginal, nonmarginal pars cephalica, pars thoracica setae needlelike, scattered. Clypeus margin unmodified, curved downward in front view, vertical in lateral view, low, ALE separated from edge of carapace by less than their radius, median projection absent; setae needlelike. Chilum absent. Six eyes, well developed, all eyes subequal or ALE moderately larger, ALE oval, PME almost squared, PLE oval; posterior eye row recurved from above, straight from front; ALE separated by their radius to diameter, ALE-PLE separated by less than ALE radius, PME touching throughout most of their length, PLE-PME separated by moderately less or more than PME radius. Sternum as long as wide or slightly longer than wide, not fused to carapace, surface without transverse ridges or pits, median concavity, hair tufts both absent, with radial furrows between coxae I–II, II–III, III–IV, furrows, surface all smooth without microsculpture, radial furrow opposite coxae III absent, sickle-shaped structures absent, anterior margin unmodified, posterior margin not extending posteriorly of coxae IV, without posterior hump, anterior corner unmodified, lateral margin without infracoxal grooves, distance between coxae approximately equal, extension of precoxal triangles present, lateral margins unmodified; setae abundant, needlelike, densest laterally, originating from surface. Chelicerae straight, anterior face unmodified, without teeth on promargin or retromargin (scanned only in G. purulha   and male G. rhino   and G. zacapa   ); fangs without toothlike projections, directed medially, shape normal, without prominent basal process, tip unmodified; setae needlelike, evenly scattered; paturon inner margin with scattered setae, distal region, posterior surface both unmodified, promargin with row of flattened setae (scanned only in G. purulha   ), inner margin unmodified, laminate groove absent. Labium rectangular or trapezoidal, fused to sternum, indented at middle, same as sternum in sclerotization; typically with six or more setae on anterior margin (3–5 in G. jaba   ), subdistal portion with unmodified setae. Endites same as sternum in sclerotization, distally not excavated, in males anterolateral rim distinctly stepped (in lateral view), most anterior part hyaline, anteromedially and/or medially with distinct projections (unmodified in females), in females serrula present in single row (scanned only in G. purulha   ), absent in males (scanned in G. purulha   , G. rhino   , and G. zacapa   ). Female palp without claw, typically with spines on tibia and tarsus (tarsus with chaotic pattern of several spines, except G. zacapa   with only indistinct spines); patella without prolateral row of ridges, tarsus unmodified. Abdomen: Ovoid, without long posterior extension, rounded posteriorly, interscutal membrane without rows of small sclerotized platelets. Booklung covers large, ovoid, without setae, anterolateral edge unmodified; posterior spiracles connected by groove. Pedicel tube short, unmodified, scutopedicel region unmodified, plumose hairs, matted setae on anterior ventral abdomen in pedicel area, cuticular outgrowths near pedicel all absent. Dorsal scutum absent. Epigastric scutum present but indistinct in males, weakly sclerotized in females (strongly sclerotized in G. chilasco   ), not surrounding pedicel, sometimes protruding, in females small lateral sclerites typically present but indistinct (absent in G. chilasco   ), without lateral joints. Postepigastric scutum present but indistinct in males, weakly sclerotized in females (strongly sclerotized in G. chilasco   ), anterior margin unmodified, without posteriorly directed lateral apodemes, short, almost rectangular, only around epigastric furrow, not fused to epigastric scutum. Spinneret scutum, fringe of setae, supraanal scutum all absent. Abdominal setae needlelike, epigastric area setae not basally thickened; dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets absent, interscutal membrane with setae. Colulus represented only by setae (sometime indistinct plate detectable). Anterior lateral spinnerets bisegmented, basal segment with oblique membranous strip, posterior medians unisegmented, posterior laterals bisegmented; spigots scanned only in G. purulha   , in male anterior laterals with one major ampullate gland spigot and two piriform gland spigots (three in female), posterior medians with two spigots (four in female), posterior laterals with three spigots (five in female). Legs: Femur IV not thickened, same size as femora I–III, patella plus tibia I nearly as long as carapace, tibia I unmodified, Emerit’s glands present, tibia IV specialized hairs on ventral apex, ventral scopula both absent, metatarsi I, II mesoapical comb, metatarsi III, IV weak ventral scopula all absent. Leg spines present on all femora, tibiae, and metatarsi, sometimes also on patella I ( G. augustin   and G. chilasco   ). Tarsi without inferior claw. Superior claws (scanned only in G. purulha   ) with inner face smooth, with denticulated row in female (absent in male), tarsi I, II with five teeth on outer row, none on inner row, tarsi III, IV with three teeth on outer row, none on inner row. Trichobothrial base longitudinally narrowed, aperture not gratelike, hood covered by numerous low, closely spaced ridges. Tarsal organs with three receptors on legs I, II, two on legs III, IV, palps (scanned only in male and partly in female G. purulha   ). Genitalia: Male epigastric area with sperm pore not visible; furrow without Ω-shaped insertions, without special setae. Male palp of normal size, not strongly sclerotized, right and left palps mirror images, proximal segments, cymbium pale orange, embolus dark, prolateral excavation absent; trochanter of normal size, unmodified; femur of normal size, two or more times as long as trochanter, without posteriorly rounded lateral dilation, attaching to patella basally; patella shorter than femur, not enlarged, without prolateral row of ridges, setae unmodified; tibia with three trichobothria; cymbium moderately narrow in dorsal view, not fused to bulb, not extending beyond distal tip of bulb, plumose setae, stout setae, distal patch of setae all absent, cymbial cone present, distant from tarsal organ, close to distal cymbial rim; bulb 1.5–2 times as long as cymbium, stout, tapering apically. Embolus massive, ventrally with longitudinal folding, basally broad with distinct massive dorsal rim, embolus opening large, suboval; second distal sclerite strongly sclerotized, protruding. Female genitalia externally conspicuous, genitalic process distinctly visible through epigastric scutum; internally with all sclerites strongly sclerotized, distinct lateral extensions, anterior genitalic process protruding anteriorly, with T-shaped apex, subapically with rounded sclerite, medially, posteriorly complex, diversely shaped, typically dorsally covered by platelike structure.

DISTRIBUTION: Specimens are known only from southern Mexico and Guatemala.

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Oonopidae

Genus

Toloonops

Loc

Toloonops chickeringi (Brignoli)

Bolzern, Angelo, Platnick, Norman I. & Berniker, Lily 2015
2015
Loc

Oonops chickeringi

Brignoli, P. M. 1974: 200
1974