Silene exsudans Boiss. & Heldr., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 8: 76. 1849.

Eggens, Frida, Jafari, Farzaneh, Thollesson, Mikael, Crameri, Simon, Zarre, Shahin & Oxelman, Bengt, 2020, Phylogeny and species delimitation in Silene sect. Arenosae (Caryophyllaceae): a new section, PhytoKeys 159, pp. 1-34 : 1

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Silene exsudans Boiss. & Heldr., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 8: 76. 1849.


9. Silene exsudans Boiss. & Heldr., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 8: 76. 1849.


[Turkey, Antalya] in arenosis maritimis portûs Tchinova Lyciae, [12.5.1845], T.H.H. v. Heldreich s.n. (lectotype, designated here: G-BOIS! [G00544614]; isolectotypes: G! [G00226916], BM! [BM000990900], E! [E00286972], LE! [LE01051364], WAG! [WAG0191880]).


5.0-20.0 cm tall, spreading. Stem pubescent in lower part, scabrous, pubescent with sessile glands in upper part; with 4-7 distinct internodes, the uppermost internode obviously longer than the next upper internode. Basal leaves oblanceolate or spathulate, pubescent. Cauline leaves oblanceolate 10.0-25.0 × 1.0-5.0 mm, pubescent, scabrous. Calyx 7.5-8.5 mm long, campanulate at anthesis and clavate in fruit, pubescent, scabrous; teeth unequal; shorter ones 2.0-3.0 mm, deltoid, acuminate; longer ones 2.0-4.0 mm, deltoid, mucronate; marginal hairs long (longer than 0.5 mm). Inflorescence non-divaricate, branch axile (much) less than 90°. Petal claws 5.0-6.0 mm long, ciliate; limbs 3.0-4.5 mm long, bifid, upper-surface pink, lobes ovate, petal limbs cleft to less than middle, lower-surface pink; coronal scales ca 0.5 mm long, ovate, apex dentate or erose. Anthophore 3.0-5.0 mm long, densely puberulent. Anthers included; filaments 5.0-6.0 mm long, glabrous or pubescent. Styles exserted. First pedicel 1.0-2.0 cm in flower, 1.0-3.0 cm in fruit,erect, glabrous, apex antrorse. Capsule 5.0-7.0 mm, ellipsoid, fragile, opaque. Seeds 0.7-0.8 mm wide, 0.8-1.0 mm high, testa smooth.

Distribution and habitat.

S Mediterranean, Turkey (Lycia) (Fig. 7 View Figure 7 ). On sandy beaches near the sea.


Readily distinguished by its short calyx and short, deltoid (or broadly ovate) calyx teeth from S. microsperma subsp. maritima (see also notes about that taxon), its oblanceolate leaves, ascending habit and short size of the plant. Coode and Cullen (1967) considered " S. exsudans " as a synonym of S. kotschyi var. maritima . Our phylogenies (Figs 1 View Figure 1 , 3 View Figure 3 , 5 View Figure 5 ) verify it as belonging to the S. microsperma -group but as a distinct species.

We generated two ITS sequences for S. exsudans , which form a strongly supported clade (PP = 1.00 MPB = 90% MLB = 95%, Fig. 3 View Figure 3 ) in the phylogeny. This species is nested within the unresolved S. microsperma clade in the ITS tree and the RPB2 phylogeny (PP = 0.98 MPB = 86% MLB = 97%, Fig. 3 View Figure 3 , PP = 0.96 MPB = 83%, Fig. 5 View Figure 5 ). The significant morphological differences lead us to treat S. exsudans as a distinct species instead of merging it as subspecies of S. microsperma .