Geranium kishtvariense Knuth (1923: 229)

Hurrah, Imtiyaz Ahmad & Wagh, Vijay Vishnu, 2021, Revisiting the taxonomy of Geranium kishtvariense (Geraniaceae) & notes on neotypification, Phytotaxa 516 (2), pp. 169-177: 170-175

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.516.2.4

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/EF5487C3-373F-770F-BC8B-05E5FA52F940

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Geranium kishtvariense Knuth (1923: 229)
status

 

Geranium kishtvariense Knuth (1923: 229)   ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 & 2 View FIGURE 2 )

Neotype designated here: — INDIA, Jammu and Kashmir, Baramulla, Khilanmarg , 34.03230˚ N, 74.36540˚ E, 3077 m, 07.07.2018, Imtiyaz A. Hurrah, 303942 ( LWG!; isoneotype LWG!).  

Perennial, herbaceous, 40–45 cm long, weak ascending stem. Rootstock persistent up to 8 cm long and 1.5 cm diam., rhizomatous (rough), roots thin, not tuberous, not fusiform, and not woody. Stem lower region usually glabrescent sometimes with very sparse eglandular hairs, upper part with 0.1–0.4 mm retrose and ca. 0.5 mm retrose, uniseriate occasionally uncinate eglandular hairs, glandular hairs absent. Stipules 7–11 × 3–4.3 mm, broadly triangular apex acute-acuminate, sometimes bifid, abaxially pubescent 0.1–0.3 mm long eglandular hairs, adaxially glabrous, margins ciliate (0.1–0.4 mm long cilia). Leaf lower 1–4 cauline leaves alternate, upper cauline leaves opposite, petiolate-subsessile, distal most pair sessile; petiole 1–23 cm long, covered with 0.1–0.6 mm, retrose hirsute or uncinate eglandular hairs; lamina 4–10 × 5–11 cm, palmatipartite (sect), pentagonal (ratio of main sinus length/middle segment length 0.54–0.65), 5 segments, rhombic-elliptic-lanceolate, middle segment width at base 4–15 mm, 09–34 lobes/teeth, serrate, sharply acute longer than broad in young leaves, as along as broad in older leaves, (ratio of 2 nd sinus length/ middle segment length 0.14–0.21), with sericious eglandular hairs on both surfaces. Inflorescence dichasial cyme, monochasial on branches, cymules solitary with two flowers, nearly overtopping the foliage; peduncles 3–14 cm long with retrose, hispid, 0.2–0.45 mm long eglandular hairs and very sparse 0.3–1.0 mm long glandular hairs; bracteoles 3.2–7.6 × 0.7–1.5 mm, lanceolate with a tail like apex, margins ciliate with 0.1–0.5 mm long cilia, abaxially with 0.1–0.25 mm long eglandular hairs, adaxially glabrous; pedicel 1–4.5 cm long, covered with dense spreading 0.5–1.3 mm long glandular hairs along with sparse straight eglandular hairs ca. 0.7 mm and dense, retrose, unicinate, villous eglandular hairs ca. 0.5 mm long. Sepals 5, lanceolate-ovate, 6.8–9.5 × 2.7–4 mm, mucro 2–3.4 mm long with short hairs, ciliate along margins (cilia 0.1–0.3 mm long), abaxially with 0.1–0.7 mm long, appressed eglandular hairs and 0.2–1.7 mm long, dense, spreading glandular hairs, adaxially glabrous. Petals 5, 13.5–19 × 9.4–13.1mm, pink, slightly cordate with shallow notch at apex ca. 0.42–0.7 mm deep, both surfaces glabrous, ciliate margins at base, adaxial base with dense pilose hairs, abaxial base usually glabrous occasionally with few eglandular hairs. Stamens 10 in 2 whorls; filaments lanceolate 6.3–7.2 × 0.81–0.90 mm, dilated at base tapering smoothly into narrow apex, ciliate margins 0.1–0.4 mm long cilia upto two-third in inner whorl and one-half in outer whorl, abaxially hairy with 0.1–0.4 mm long, strigose hispid eglandular hairs upto one-half on inner whorl and one-third on outer whorl, adaxially glabrous; anthers 1.7–1.9 mm long. Nectaries 5, deltoid, glabrous dorsally, apex with a tuft of hairs. Gynoecium 6–7.1 mm. Fruit 24–29 mm long; mericarp 3.5 mm with hispid eglandular hairs and few glandular hairs at dorsal apical region, transverse vein at apex absent; rostrum 15 mm long with puberulent eglandular hairs and ca. 1.1 mm long glandular hairs with narrow apex 1.5–3 mm long; stigmatic remains 3.5 mm long.

Phenology:— Flowering July–August; Fruiting August–September

Habitat and Distribution:— Geranium kishtvariense   is endemic to India and rare. It has a very restricted distribution area, as observed for threatened species in other countries in the world, in particular where there is a high plant biodiversity ( Isbell et al. 2011, Mishler et al. 2014, Wagensommer et al. 2014, Guerin et al. 2016, Perrino et al. 2018). So far G. kishtvariense   is reported from five localities of Kashmir viz. Kishtvar, Khilanmarg, Gulmarg, Aherbal and Yusmarg ( Fig.3). The habitat appears to be the open grasslands, roadsides and among rock boulders. Its occurrence is restricted to less than10 locations of Gulmarg and Yusmarg at an altitudinal range of 2500 to 3300 m. It thrives together with grasses and other herbaceous species viz. Galium aparine Linnaeus (1753: 108), Geum roylei Wallich (1829: 713)   , Cynoglossum zeylanicum (Sw. ex Lehm.) Thunb. ex Brand. (1915: 546)   , Viola canescens Wallich (1824: 450)   , Polygonum plebeium Brown (1810: 420)   , Parochetus communis Buch.   -Ham. ex Don. (1825: 240) and Rumex nepalensis Sprengel (1825: 159)   .

Conservation status:— We collected Geranium kishtvariense   from Gulmarg and Yusmarg localities of Kashmir, the species is facing a severe threat in both the localities due to anthropogenic activities. Gulmarg is one of the famous tourist places and always flooded with the tourists. While Yusmarg is having vast grass meadows and it is extremely used for grazing and rearing of the livestock by locals as well as the Gujjar community. It is assessed here as Critically Endangered, CR, B1bc (iii, v) ( IUCN 2019), as other Geranium species   ( Wagensommer & Venanzoni 2021).

Taxonomic notes:— Nasir (1983) considered G. kishtvariense   as a synonym of G. rubifolium Lindley (1840: 67)   without giving any reason for this treatment in the taxonomic notes. Yet the protologue of both these species and description of the latter in Knuth monograph (1912) reveals a clear distinction between these two taxa. A detailed comparison of G. kishtvariense   with G. rubifolium   , G. wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet (1821: 90)   and G. rectum Trautvetter. (1860: 459)   is discussed here based on earlier literature, detailed examination of personal collections, and characters recorded in the field ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ).

The alternate phyllotaxy of lower 1–4 cauline leaves and thin non-woody roots arising from rootstock provide its quick and easy distinction from G. rubifolium   as well as G. wallichianum   , both possessing opposite cauline leaves and fusiform woody roots borne on rootstock. Besides this there are other differences that separate the former from latter ones individually: The weak ascending habit (vs robust erect habit), glabrescent lower part of stem (vs hairy lower parts), sparse hairiness at upper part (vs dense eglandular hairs mixed with patent glandular hairs at upper parts), pentagonal lamina with non-cordate base (vs triangular lamina with cordate base) and 0.1–0.5 mm long hairs along the margins of staminal filaments (vs 0.4–0.9 mm long), distinguish G. kishtvariense   from G. rubifolium   . In addition the leaves of G. kishtvariense   are dull pale green and upper most leaf pair sessile as compared to G. rubifolium   consisting of slightly lustrous green leaves and instead 2–3 pairs of distal leaves sessile. The inflorescence is corymb with almost all flowers reaching just above the subtending foliage in contrast to G. rubifolium   where the inflorescence is considerably elongated (as if branching), patent and densely indumented and flowers lifted substantially above the foliage.

Similarly G. kishtvariense   varies from G. wallichianum   in having triangular acute stipules (vs broadly ovate, obtuse stipules), shallow leaf sinus, ratio of main sinus length/middle segment length 0.54–0.65 (vs deeper leaf sinus, ratio of main sinus length/middle segment length 0.75–0.86), no. of lobes in middle segment 9–34 (vs 9–17), glandular hairs mixed with eglandular hairs on inflorescence parts (vs solely patent eglandular hairs on inflorescence parts), petals dented or slightly emarginated with 0.4–0.7 mm deep notch (vs emarginated with 0.4–1.4 mm deep notch), fruits 24–29 mm and stigmatic remains 3.5–4.5 mm long (vs 30–39 mm long fruits and 5–7.6 mm long stigmatic remains). Furthermore G. wallichianum   exhibits the mature fruits reflected back and oriented more or less parallel to pedicel. Such a character is considerably absent in G. kishtvariense   .

Many present workers speculate G. kishtvariense   as G. rectum   likely because Knuth in the protologue mentioned sub G. rectum Trautvetter   within brackets following collector’s name and collection number, along with other details regarding the type locality. Nevertheless our observation after comparing the protologues, the type specimens and other relevant literature, encourage both these taxa are distinct. Geranium rectum   individuals are distinct from G. kishtvariense   for being sparingly leafy, with subulate-lanceolate stipules, narrow petals, glabrous nectaries, staminal filaments lacking hairs abaxially, stigmatic remains 2.3–2.6 mm long, leaf segments with irregular deep incisions and stem bearing only eglandular hairs ( Trautvetter 1860, Edgeworth & Hooker 1875, Shishkin & Bobrov 1963) and comparatively longer 1.5–3.0 mm long glandular hairs also ( Xu & Aedo 2008).

Accordingly, G. kishtvariense   most likely represents a better delimited entity and is treated here as separate and distinct species from G. rubifolium   , G. wallichianum   & G. rectum   .

Specimen examined:— INDIA, Jammu and Kashmir, Kulgam, Aherbal , 7000 ft, 17.05.1972, Abid Hussain, 2946 ( KASH!); Baramula, Khilanmarg, August 1986, M   . Krishnam, 81 ( KASH!); Baramula, Gulmarg , 03.09.1984, S. K   . Raina , 930 SKR ( KASH!); Kishtwar, Warwan Margan Road, 33056 ’ 562” N, 75042 ’ 579” E   , 3230 m, 13.07.2009, Akhtar H   . Malik and Anzar A. Khuroo et al., 1611 ( KASH!); Baramulla, Gulmarg , 28.08.1996, C   . Aedo, CA3887 ( MA!) cultivated; Gulmarg and khilamarg 1000 ft, 07.07.1978, Lancester, C   . Roy 179 ( E!) cultivated   .

Notes on neotypification:— According to Knuth (1923) the type specimen of G. kishtvariense   was housed at B with collection no. 3777. Post World war II, no original material of this concerned species is available, despite the thorough search for duplicates across the world digital herbaria. Later we communicated with the curators of herbaria where Schlagintweit’s collection are known to be deposited i.e, BM, CAS, G, GH, GOET, HBG, JE, M, NY, P, PH, PR, S, US and WRSL, regrettably, none of these herbaria own any such material of G. kishtevariense   . During our search for the original material, instead we located one specimen of G. kishtvariense   , which is a cultivated specimen raised from Lancester C. Roy’s collection with collection no. 177 at MA. However one can easily observe only the inflorescence part that too in fragments, is mounted on the herbarium sheet, making it an implausible choice. Another sheet of this taxon harbored at E is again a cultivated specimen grown at RBGE in the year 2002, again from collection of Lancester C. Roy 179 made on 07 July 1978 from Gulmarg. The specimens although appear to be in good condition and one can think of designating it as the neotype. Unfortunately, the specimen lacks the root which is an important diagnostic character as revealed from the protologue and therefore hinders its selection as type. For further exploration, thorough consultation of Indian Herbaria was carried out and we located four specimens housed in Kashmir University Herbarium (KASH). All these specimens were collected from different places of Kashmir valley only viz. Kishtvar, Gulmarg, Aherbal and Khilanmarg. As per the protologue (Knuth 1912) the roots of G. kishtvariense   are non-tuberous and non-fusiform, lower parts of stem sparsely hairy and upper parts with retrose and appressed hairs, leaf segments serrated and peduncles and pedicels glandular hairy. Among these four specimens the one collected by Raina (930 SKR) is actually G. rubifolium   , wrongly identified as G. kishtvariense   . While the other three specimens are incomplete lacking entire root system (important diagnostically), lower stem part and bear either flowers (2946 and 81 KASH!) or fruits only (1611 KASH!). So a specimen is to be selected which represents at least the major diagnostic characters mentioned in the protologue. On account of this, the specimen collected by authors from Khilanmarg, collection no. 303942, represents a complete specimen bearing roots, flowers as well as fruits and matches perfectly with the protologue. According to Art. 9.8 and Recom. 9B.1. of ICN ( Turland et al. 2018) this specimen with collection no. 303942 deposited at LWG accession no. 107731 is chosen as neotype and duplicates of the same as isoneotypes.

Key to the species:—The species selected for the preparation of taxonomic key belong to the subgen. Geranium   and growing sympatrically in Kashmir Himalaya, characterised by seed ejection fruit dispersal mechanism ( Yeo 1984). The species selected for the preparation of taxonomic key although share various morphological resemblances with Geranium kishtvariense   but differ in other characters that are incorporated in the key.

1a. Sparingly leafy plant; leaves with 5–7 rhombic segments; staminal filaments lacking hairs abaxially; nectaries glabrous ............... ............................................................................................................................................................................................. G. rectum  

b. Amply leafy plant; leaves with 3–5 rhombic/elliptic segments; staminal filaments abaxially pilose; nectaries with tuft of hairs at apex.....................................................................................................................................................................................................2

2a. Stipules broadly ovate with obtuse apex; distal cauline leaves petiolate; glandular hairs absent on entire plant; mature fruits recurving parallel to pedicels; stigmatic remains 5–7.6 mm long........................................................................................................ .................................................................................................................................................................................. G. wallichianum  

b. Stipules deltoid or lanceolate with acuminate apex; distal cauline leaves sessile/petiolate; glandular hairs present; mature fruits erect; stigmatic remains 3.5–4.5 mm long..........................................................................................................................................3

3a. Taproot fusiform woody; cauline leaves opposite, 2–3 pairs of digital cauline leaves sessile, lamina triangular with cordate base; indument conspicuous ................................................................................................................................................... G. rubifolium  

b. Taproot not fusiform not woody; cauline leaves alternate, single distal most pair of cauline leaves sessile; lamina pentagonal with non-cordate base; indument inconspicuous............................................................................................................... G. kishtvariense  

N

Nanjing University

E

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

A

Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum

LWG

National Botanical Research Institute

KASH

University of Kashmir

M

Botanische Staatssammlung München

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

K

Royal Botanic Gardens

SKR

Latvian Research Institute of Agriculture

H

University of Helsinki

C

University of Copenhagen

MA

Real Jardín Botánico

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Geraniales

Family

Geraniaceae

Genus

Geranium

Loc

Geranium kishtvariense Knuth (1923: 229)

Hurrah, Imtiyaz Ahmad & Wagh, Vijay Vishnu 2021
2021
Loc

Geranium kishtvariense

Knuth, R. 1923: )
1923