Ewartia lapidosa, Popple, Lindsay W., 2017

Popple, Lindsay W., 2017, A revision of the Ewartia oldfieldi (Distant) species complex (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae) with five new species from eastern and northern Australia, Zootaxa 4263 (3), pp. 401-449 : 422-429

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Ewartia lapidosa

n. sp.

Ewartia lapidosa n. sp.

(Plates 1E, 1F; Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 C, 7C, 7D, 8B, 8C, 9C, 9D, 15–23)

Types. Holotype: ♂ [typed] ’ AUSTRALIA QLD’ / ‘ Bringalily State Forest’ / ‘ Jump-up’ . 26.Oct.2006 ’ / ‘ L. W. Popple, A. Ewart’ / ‘ 28°11’20”S 151°07’26”E’ / ‘228-0009’ / ‘QM reg. no. T207358’ (QM) GoogleMaps ; Paratypes: QUEENSLAND: 1♀ QLD: Biggenden, Bluff Range foothills, 1–7.i.1972, H. Frauca ( ANIC) ; 5♂ 2♀ QLD: 26°04’ Sx 150°49’E, ‘ Wongan Hills’ , site 3, 520m, 11.xii.2001, 10257, Monteith, Cook & Wright, MV Light, vine scrub ; 1♂ SEQ: 26°40’S 150°18’E, 11km E. Miles, 360m, 3.iii.1998, C. J. Burwell, S. G. Evans (all QM); 4♂ ‘ Possum Park’ , - 20km N. Miles, S.Q., 20.i.2001, A. E[wart], Ironbark-Lancewood woodland, 26°30.30’S 150°06.03’E GoogleMaps ; 4♂ 60.0 km E. Croydon, 12.4 km W. Gilbert R. xing, N.Q. A.E., Lancewood , 27.i.2005, 18°13.57’S 142°45.71’E GoogleMaps ; 1♂ Lkt Tower , ~ 11 km NNW., R. Wicks, Res. Stn., Bringalily S.F., via Inglewood, SQ., 18.xii.2006, A.E., 28°11.28’S 151°07.46’E GoogleMaps ; 8♂ 18♀ ‘ Coo-ee Yards’, Red Hill Road, Chinchilla , 9044/650500, 9.i.1994, [A. Ewart] ; 3♂ 1♀ Hookswood Rd, 4.7km N. of Racecourse Rd Jct., Miles, Q., Light , 26°35.88’S 150°12.54’E, 14.xii.1997, [A. Ewart] GoogleMaps ; 1♂ Hookswood Rd, 4.7km N. of Racecourse Rd Jct., Miles, Q., Light , 26°35.88’S 150°12.54’E, 22.xi.1997, [A. Ewart] GoogleMaps ; 1♂ Hookswood Rd , 1.7km N. of Racecourse Rd Jct., Miles, Q., 22.xi.1997, [A. Ewart] ; 1♂ 5.2 km S. Charleville, S.W.Q., Mulga , 8.xii.2000, A.E., I. Rattray, 26°26.86’S 146°14.54’E GoogleMaps ; 1♀ Cracow, Qld , 18.ii.1979, [A. Ewart] ; 1♂ Sandstone Ridge, S.W. Chinchilla, Qld, B944/435320, 10.i.1995, [A. Ewart], Recorded (all AE); 1♂ Australia, Queensland, 2km S. of Eidsvold , SEQ, 25.i.2003, L. & W. Popple, 230- 0028 ; 1♂ 25°22’48”S 151°08’59”E, 2km S. of Eidsvold , 28.xii.2004, L. W. Popple, A. shirleyi , 229-0001 GoogleMaps ; 2♂ 6♀ Australia Qld, Possum Park, 19km N. of Miles , 25.Nov.2005, L. W. Popple, N. Hando, 228-0001 to 228-0008 ; 3♂ same data as holotype, 228-0010 to 228-0012 GoogleMaps ; 1♂ AUSTRALIA QLD, Gurulmundi State Forest , 3.xii.2011, L. W. Popple, 26°24’33”S 150°05’19”E, 228-0013 GoogleMaps ; 1♂ QUEENSLAND: Australia Queensland, Hookswood Rd , 20km N. Miles, SEQ, 19.Dec.2002, L.W. & J.M. Popple, 230-0027 ; 5♂ 1♀ Australia Queensland, 6 km west of Thane , 11.xii.2001, Hand collected, L. W. Popple, 28°09’41”S 151°57’59”E, 230-0003 to 230-0008 GoogleMaps ; 1♂ same data as holotype GoogleMaps ; 2♂ 1♀ Australia Qld, Leichhardt Highway, 1km N. of Miles , 25.Nov.2005, L. W. Popple, N. Hando, Acacia aprepta , 229-0004 to 229-0006 ; 5♂ 1♀ Australia QLD, Cynthia-Wuruma Jct. Rd, 26.Nov.2006, Recorded, L. Popple & A. McKinnon, 25°12’15”S 151°06’23”E, 229-0007 to 229-0012 GoogleMaps ; 1♂ 1♀ Australia QLD, Possum Park , 28.xii.2011 – 1.i.2012, L. Popple & A. McKinnon, 26°30’19”S 150°12’31”E, 229-0029 to 229-0030; 1♂ 1km N. of Auburn River NP, SW of Mundubbera , SEQ, 2.xi.2002, L. Popple, S. Billington, 230-0002 ; 1♂ Australia Queensland, 25°22’42”S 151°07’46”E, Eidsvold, Burnett River , 28–29.xii.2004, L. W. Popple, 231-0026 GoogleMaps ; 1♂ Razorback Road , 10.x.2016. Acacia sp., L. W. Popple, 27°44'14"S 152°07'00"E, 229-0032 (all LWP) GoogleMaps ; 1♂ Australia QLD, AU.QL. ISE, ~ 65km SW of Nebo , 21°57.879’S 148°14.524’E, 349m, 02.iii.2008, K. Hill, D. Marshall, M. Moulds, C. Owen, M. Humphrey, C GoogleMaps . SIMON LAB VOUCHER, legs in ETOH, body pinned, 08.AU.QL. ISE.01, “ oldfieldi complex”; 1♂ Australia QLD, AU.QL.MVB, 44km NW of Morven , 26°07.142’S 146°52.527’E, 434m, 08.ii.2008, K. Hill, D. Marshall, M. Moulds, C. Owen, M. Humphrey, C GoogleMaps . SIMON LAB VOUCHER, legs in ETOH, body pinned, 08.AU.QL.MVB.01, “ oldfieldi black stripe”?; 1♂ 1♀ “ Mourangee ”, nr Edungalba , on rosewood, 15.xi.1987, Robert Adams ; 1 ♂ Capella , 8.ii.1981, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 1♂ 2♀ 20 km N. of Moonie , 17.xii.1983, D. Kitchin ; 1♂ Chesterton Range N.P., 13.i.1995, Acacia sp., Colin Dollery; 1♀ 3 km W. of “ Mourangee ”, nr Edungalba , 7.xii.1983, E.E. Adams ; 2♂ Isla Gorge S., 22.x.1989, R. Eastwood ; 1♂ Isla Gorge Nat. Park, 25°11’S 149°58’E, 10.ii.1991, G. and A. Daniels, C. Burwell GoogleMaps ; 3♂ 3♀ AU.QL.EXP, Expedition Rg. on Dawson Hwy , 24°38.658’S 149°1.292’E, 437 m, 7.i.2009, Hill Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1♀ 2 km W. of Mourangeee Hsd, nr Edungalba , 4.xi.1986, E. E. Adams ; 3♂ 4♀ 16 km SW. of Coppabella, S. end of Kerlong Rg., 7.ii.1981, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 1♂ AU.QL. MRA, rest area, ~ 17 km N. of Monto , 24°48.066’S 150°59.016’E, 555m, 6.i.2009, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, Owen GoogleMaps ; 3♂ Coominglah Range, 24 km N. of Monto , 6.i.1975, M.S. & B. J. Moulds ; 1♂ Miles , 24.xii.1985, S. Lamond ; 1♂ Weir River, S. of Moonie , 22.xii.1989, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 5♂ 3♀ AU.QL.MOH, 5 km E. of Moonie , 27°31.404’S 150°38.684’E, 403 m, 2.i.2009, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, Owen (all MSM); NEW SOUTH WALES GoogleMaps : 2♂ 8mi. ESE. of Tottenham, N.S.W., 4.i.1951, Key & Chinnick (both ANIC); 1♂ Mt Hope gravel pit, 32°50.24’S ; 145°52.53’E, 21.xi.10, Popple & Emery; 1♂ 40Km N. Coonabarabran, 30°57.53’S; 149°25.08’E, 446m, 05.i.13, N., C. & D. Emery; 1♂ Killarney Gap, nr Bingara , 30°08.13’S ; 150°09.31’E, 620m, 05.i.13, N., C. & D. Emery; 1♂ Whitegum Lookout, Warrumbungle NPk, 31°18.14’S, 149°02.05’E, 680m, 13.xii.14, C. & D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♂ Whitegum Lookout, Warrumbungle NPk, 31°18.14’S ; 149°02.05’E, 680m, 15.ii.15, N. & D. Emery; 3♂ Whitegum Lookout, Warrumbungle NPk, 31°18.14’S ; 149°02.05’E, 680m, 18.i.15, C. & D. Emery (all DE) 1♂ AUSTRALIA: NSW AU.NS.MHE, 40km ESE of Mt Hope on Euabalong-Mt Hope Rd , 215m. 32°57.532’S 146°14.175’E, 12.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall, C. SIMON LAB VOUCHER, body pinned, legs in ETOH, 11.AU.NS.MHE.01, oldfieldi cx, specimen recorded; 1♂ same data as previous, 11.AU.NS.MHE.02, oldfieldi cx GoogleMaps ; 1♂ Round Hill Nature Reserve , 27.xii.1976, G. Daniels ; 2♂ Bumberry , 30.xii.1976, G. Daniels ; 3♂ Yetman , 17.xii.1983, M.S. B.J. Moulds; (all MSM).

Etymology. The name is derived from the Latin lapidosus, meaning stony or pebbly. This refers to the stony or pebbly substrate with which this species is commonly associated.

Diagnosis (Plates 1E, 1F; Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 C, 8B, 8C, 9B, 9C).

Male and female specimens match the description given for E. oldfieldi , with differences in markings and colouration as follows. Ventral surface of head mainly brown to olive-brown; postclypeus brown to ochraceous, extensively black along midline and transverse grooves; anteclypeus mainly black, dark ochraceous on midline; rostrum brown anteriorly, becoming dark brown towards apex. Dorsal surface of brown with a black band extending from between the eyes to the anterior margin, surrounding the ocelli and reaching the adjacent posterior margin; ocelli pink. Eyes deep red in living specimens, faded to brown in preserved specimens. Antennae dark brown, paler towards apex. Thorax olive-brown to yellow-brown, sometimes fading to dull pale yellow-brown in dried specimens. Pronotum olive-brown to yellow-brown with a brown to ochraceous midline, bordered by dark brown, extending from back of the head where it is initially almost as broad as separation between inner margins of eyes, abruptly narrowing posteriorly to a width approximately equal to the separation between the inner margins of the lateral ocelli, then broadening briefly in posterior 1/5th before narrowing abruptly immediately anterior to margin of pronotal collar. Mesonotum yellow-brown to olive-brown; midline broad, brown to reddish-brown or dark brown, with lateral edges contrastingly yellow; submedian sigilla brown with dark brown margins or entirely dark brown; lateral sigilla yellow-brown to dull olive-brown, sometimes indistinct. Legs with coxae and femora yellow-brown or olive brown; tibia olive to pale brown; tarsi pale brown, becoming darker brown towards apex of claws. Wings with fore wing costal veins green to pale brown; pterostigma brown to reddish-brown. Hind wing veins pale brown, becoming darker on posterior side of apical cells. Abdomen with tergites yellow-brown or orange-brown to olive-brown; midline approximately broad, though narrower than midline of mesonotum, brown or reddish-brown to dark brown, sometimes diffuse. Sternites yellow-brown, orange-brown or dull olive-brown. Female abdominal segment 9 yellow-brown to olive-brown, with a brown midline; ovipositor sheath extends approximately 1 mm beyond the termination of abdominal segment 9.

Measurements. N= 21♂ 12♀. Means and ranges (in parentheses), mm; BL: ♂ 17.3 (15.7–20.2), ♀ 19.7 (18.4– 22.0); FWL: ♂ 22.7 (19.9–24.3), ♀ 24.1 (23.2–26.0); FWW: ♂ 7.8 (6.6–8.9), ♀ 7.9 (6.6–8.3); HW: ♂ 6.1 (5.4– 6.7), ♀ 6.3 (5.7–6.8); PW: ♂ 5.2 (4.5–5.8), ♀ 5.4 (5.0–5.9); AW: ♂ 5.3 (4.6–5.8), ♀ 5.3 (5.0–5.7).

Distinguishing features. Ewartia lapidosa n. sp. has a conspicuous, dark brown stripe medially along the dorsum, which extends from the proximal edge of the pronotum posteriorly to the apex of the abdomen. This feature distinguishes it readily from E. brevis , E. carina n. sp. and E. cuensis ; however, a similar stripe is present in E. etesia n. sp., E. oldfieldi , E. roberti n. sp. and E. thamna n. sp. In E. lapidosa n. sp., the stripe on the pronotum narrows conspicuously as it reaches the posterior margin. This distinguishes it consistently from E. oldfieldi , in which the stripe broadens conspicuously towards this posterior margin (compare Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 A and 2C). Additionally, in E. lapidosa n. sp., the stripe on the pronotum is noticeably broader than the separation between the lateral ocelli. This feature contrasts with E. roberti n. sp., in which the stripe is narrower than the distance between the inner margins of the lateral ocelli (compare Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 B and 2C). In E. lapidosa n. sp., the black colouration on the dorsal side of the head is extensive and, in particular, it surrounds the lateral ocelli. This distinguishes it from E. thamna n.

sp., which has no black colouration on the dorsal side of the head. In most cases, males of E. lapidosa n. sp. can be distinguished from the superficially similar E. etesia n. sp., by their broader head width (> 5.8 mm), although there are exceptions with head widths as narrow as 5.4 mm, which overlap with E. etesia n. sp.. In these cases, it is helpful to note the non-overlapping geographical distributions of the two species ( E. lapidosa n. sp. in eastern Australia and E. etesia n. sp. in the Top End of the Northern Territory). In addition, females of E. lapidosa n. sp. can be distinguished from both E. oldfieldi and E. etesia n. sp. by their short ovipositor length, which extends <1 mm beyond the apex of abdominal segment 9. In E. oldfieldi , this extends 2.0– 2.5 mm, and in E. etesia n. sp., it extends approximately 3 mm.

Distribution and habitat. Ewartia lapidosa n. sp. occurs in the subcoastal and inland semi-arid areas of Queensland and New South Wales from near Georgetown and the White Mountains near Pentland in the north, south-east to Moogerah Dam and south to Mount Hope, Bumberry, Capertee and Singleton ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 ). Populations are found almost exclusively in association with wattle species that grow on hard, stony ground. The cicadas are found where wattles ( Acacia spp.) occur both as a monoculture scrub and as a middle canopy or shrub layer component of open forest. Adults occur from late September to March.

This species is typically found on wattles ( Acacia spp.), growing in stony and sandy soils, including soils derived from sandstone. In New South Wales, it is typically found on Acacia cheelii , and has also been collected from A. doratoxylon at Mount Hope. In central and southern central Queensland, it is often found in association with Lancewood ( Acacia shirleyi ), but has also been found on A. julifera and A. burrowii . Around Charleville, St George and Morven, adults occur in association with Mulga ( Acacia aneura ). North of Miles, it is typically found on Acacia crassa . At Moogerah Dam, specimens were observed calling on Acacia blakei . Adults occur between late September and March.

Calling song. The complex calling song mode of E. lapidosa n. sp. ( Figs 16–20 View FIGURE 16 View FIGURE 17 View FIGURE 18 View FIGURE 19 View FIGURE 20 ) contains repeated subphrases of highly variable duration (mainly between 1.1 and 15.6 s; all statistics n = 107 recordings). The opening section of each subphrase varies; however these often contain a regular pattern of macrosyllables (each 2–5 syllables, 0.021– 0.068 s duration) separated by a set of 1–5 discrete syllables (each 9–11 ms duration, gaps 0.034– 0.072 s duration). Alternatively, this section may contain a long syllable sequence (1.016– 8.337 s duration, with intersyllable gaps of 0.041– 0.115 s duration), or there may be a combination of macrosyllables separated by syllables (as described above) and a syllable sequence. More rarely, the opening section may become dominated by long sets of macrosyllables. This last pattern typically indicates a transition between the complex and simple calling song modes. The opening section sometimes concludes with 1–2 longer duration macrosyllables (each comprising 5–8 syllables, 0.061– 0.095 s), although it may also end abruptly. It is then followed by either a single echeme (0.149– 0.824 s duration) or a series of 2–6 echemes of variable duration (each between 0.180 and 0.658 s), each punctuated by either a single syllable or syllable sequences of variable duration (each between 0.109 and 0.452 s, and containing successively decreasing intersyllable gaps of 0.008– 0.035 s duration), which denotes the climax. In some cases, a final syllable sequence then ensues (0.190– 2.801 s duration, with intersyllable gaps of 0.010– 0.081 s duration). At the end of some subphrases this is followed by an accentuation, which typically comprises 1–3 (typically 2) macrosyllables (each containing 2–5 syllables), each separated by 1–5 syllables (with intersyllable gaps of 0.031– 0.106 s duration) or an uninterrupted gap (0.142– 0.326 s), and followed by a final gap (0.065– 0.197 s duration). This calling song mode is typically produced at intervals throughout the day and interchanges with the simple calling song mode.

The simple calling song mode of this species ( Fig. 21 View FIGURE 21 ) contains monotonously repeated short echemes or macrosyllables (0.060– 0.166 s duration), each separated by a brief gap (0.044– 0.128 s duration). Sometimes the echemes or macrosyllables become separated by a single discrete syllable, which is typically indicative of a transition between the simple and complex calling song modes. The simple calling song mode predominates at dusk, but is also produced during the day.

The presentation of the frequency spectra does not change between song modes. In each mode the calling song typically has a highest amplitude frequency plateau between 10.0 and 15.5 kHz, with a dominant frequency between 11.2 and 13.8 kHz (mean=12.4, n =54; e.g. Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 C, D).

Ewartia lapidosa n. sp. exhibits some geographical variation in the structure of the complex calling song mode across geographical space, specifically in subphrase duration ( Figs 22 View FIGURE 22 , 23 View FIGURE 23 ). Notably, this attribute is quite consistent across its distribution in New South Wales. However, it is far more variable in Queensland, with individuals tending to produce more drawn-out subphrases, particularly in central and northern areas and shorter subphrases across the south ( Fig. 22 View FIGURE 22 ). At Possum Park and at a site within Gurulmundi State Forest, subphrase durations appear to be bimodal, with the different durations associated with calling males that occur in parapatry in different groves of wattles at each of these locations (albeit with limited recording data; Figs 22 View FIGURE 22 , 23 View FIGURE 23 ). The most extreme example is in a series of three recordings made in the Nebo district of central Queensland by K. Hill and D. Marshall ( Fig. 23 View FIGURE 23 ). Field observations suggest that production of the longer duration subphrases may be linked with occurrence in taller species of wattle ( Acacia spp.), but this is speculative and has never been investigation in detail. This situation could potentially indicate the presence of a complex of cryptic species within E. lapidosa n. sp.; however further study would be required to explore the consequences of this song variation.


Australian National Insect Collection


Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Professor Alberto Carvalho


Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource Center


Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.


Royal Botanic Gardens, National Herbarium of New South Wales