Ewartia carina, Popple, Lindsay W., 2017
Popple, Lindsay W., 2017, A revision of the Ewartia oldfieldi (Distant) species complex (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae) with five new species from eastern and northern Australia, Zootaxa 4263 (3), pp. 401-449 : 441-444
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(Plate 2E; Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 F, 8F, 24C, 29D, 31, 32)
Types. Holotype: ♂ [typed] ‘ Australia:QLD AU.QL.MCW’ / ‘ McIlwraith Rg, NE of Coen’ / ‘ 13°43.247’S 143°19.458’E’ / ‘ 508m 7.Jan.2007 ’ / ‘ K. Hill, D. Marshall, M. Moulds’ / ‘ QM Reg. No. T 207357’ (QM) GoogleMaps ; Paratypes: 1♀ Leo Ck track, approx. 300 m, McIlwraith Rg, N. Qld, 10.i.1990, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (QM) ; 12♂ 2♀ same data as holotype GoogleMaps ; 1♂ Australia, Queensland, AU.QL. MID.04, MIlwraith Rg, NE of Coen , 13°42.677’S, 143°18.696’E, 7.i.2007, K. Hill, D. Marshall, M. Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1♀ same data as previous, AU.QL. MID.05 GoogleMaps ; 4♂ 4♀ Leo Ck track, approx. 300 m, McIlwraith Rg, N. Qld, 10–11.i.1990, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 14♂ 2♀ McIlwraith Ra., Leo Creek track, 300 m, NE of Coen, N. Qld, 7.i.1988, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( MSM) ; 1♂ 1♀ same data as previous ; 1♂ same data as holotype (LWP) GoogleMaps ; 1♂ McIlwraith Ra., Leo Creek track, 300 m, NE of Coen, N. Qld, 7.i.1988, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 1♂ Leo Ck track, approx. 300 m, McIlwraith Rg, N. Qld, 10.i.1990, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (AE).
Additional song recording localities: Australia, Queensland, 07.AU.QL. HUT, Cook’s Hut, Iron Range , ~ 4.3km N of main road JCT, 12.7114°S 143.291°E, 9.i.2007, Hill & Marshall GoogleMaps ; Australia, Queensland, 07.AU.QL.MWR, ~ 31km E of Peninsula Development Rd on road into McIlwraith Range , 13.7144°S, 143.319°E, 8.i.2007, Hill & Marshall (SL). GoogleMaps
Etymology. Latin carinus, meaning “nut-brown”, which refers to the distinctive, yet unusual colour of this species within the genus Ewartia .
Description. Male (Plate 2E; Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 F, 8F, 24C).
Head (including eyes) wider than mesonotum; ventral surface mostly black to brown; postclypeus brown, paler along interior of tranverse grooves, black centrally with a brown to dark brown medial line; genae black; mandibular plates brown to light brown with long silver pubescence; anteclypeus black, brown along medial line; rostrum brown anteriorly, dark brown to black apically; dorsal surface brown with a prominent black band extending broadly between the eyes and surrounding the ocelli and vertices; supra-antennal plate tending olivebrown; ocelli pink; with scattered silver pubescence throughout and long silver pubescence behind eyes. Eyes faded to dark brown in preserved specimens. Antennae black proximally, paler brown distally.
Thorax with scattered silver short pubescence. Pronotum brown, darker along paramedian and lateral fissures; midline brown with two dark brown to black wedge-shaped markings on either side of the anteriolateral margins; pronotal collar olive-green to brown. Mesonotum mainly brown, tending reddish-brown centrally; submedian and lateral sigilla black; scutal depressions black; cruciform elevation brown medially with two black spots anteriorly, pale brown along lateral ridges; wing grooves and metanotum brown, with silver long pubescence.
Legs mostly brown. Coxae brown; fore femora brown with prominent dark brown spines and dark brown bands on inner and outer sides; mid and hind femora brown with dark brown bands on inner and outer sides; fore and mid tibiae brown to pale brown; hind tibiae pale brown; tarsi pale brown becoming darker brown towards apex of claws.
Wings with fore wing costal veins green to pale brown; pterostigma brown; basal membranes orange-brown; veins CuA, CuP and M green to pale brown; other veins brown to dark brown; with eight apical cells. Hind wing veins pale brown or green, becoming darker on the posterior side of the apical cells; plaga surrounded by white to pink coloration anteriorly, otherwise transparent; with six apical cells.
Opercula broadly rounded, pale brown, with plates relatively flat.
Timbals with five long ribs; intercalary ribs present between all long ribs. Long ribs 1–3 attached to basal spur. Long rib 5 comparatively shorter. All ribs sclerotised, brown and well contrasted against timbal membrane.
Abdomen. Tergites reddish-brown, black anteriorly, with scattered silver pubescence. Sternites brown to reddish-brown, with broad dark brown bands along midline, each widening posteriorly; with scattered silver pubescence.
Genitalia. Pygofer dark brown to brown; dorsal beak dark brown to black; upper lobes prominent, with apices graduating to a defined point; basal lobes in lateral view subtly expressed with gradual rounded curvature, in ventral view relatively long and linear, broadly affixed to surrounding pygofer. Uncus brown, in lateral view extended and “duck beak”-like; claspers prominent, apices in ventral view broadly rounded. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres extending well beyond theca; endotheca fleshy; ventral support not extending to the same extent as endotheca.
Female. Markings and coloration identical to male. Abdominal segment 9 brown, with a broad, dark brown midline, extending dorsolaterally along anterior margin; ovipositor sheath extends 0.7–1.6 mm beyond termination of this segment.
Measurements. N= 10♂ 6♀. Means and ranges (in parentheses), mm; BL: ♂ 15.4 (14.1–16.5), ♀ 20.1 (18.9– 20.9); FWL: ♂ 20.9 (19.6–21.7), ♀ 24.2 (23.6–25.0); FWW: ♂ 6.6 (6.0–7.0), ♀ 7.7 (7.4–8.0); HW: ♂ 5.3 (4.9– 5.6), ♀ 6.2 (5.9–6.6); PW: ♂ 4.8 (4.5–5.1), ♀ 5.7 (5.4–6.1); AW: ♂ 4.8 (4.5–5.1), ♀ 5.5 (5.1–5.7).
Distinguishing features. This species is unusual within the genus Ewartia in that it lacks the brown median dorsal stripe present in most other species ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 F; c.f. Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 A–E). The lack of this feature distinguishes it from E. etesia n. sp., E. lapidosa n. sp., E. oldfieldi n. sp., E. roberti n. sp. and E. thamna n. sp. In addition, E. carina n. sp. can be distinguished from E. cuensis by being mainly varied brown to dark brown, rather than uniformly green to yellow-brown. It can be distinguished from E. brevis most readily by the uniform brown colour of the pronotum. In contrast, E. brevis has a pale yellow-brown midline on the pronotum, which is bordered with black.
Distribution and habitat. Ewartia carina n. sp. occurs at Iron Range and McIlwraith Range in Cape York Peninsula, far northern Queensland ( Fig. 25 View FIGURE 25 ). Populations have been found in dry rainforest/ vine thicket communities. It is not known if this species is associated with wattles ( Acacia spp.) like others in the E. oldfieldi species complex. However, it is noted that Acacia polystachya forms a conspicuous component of the dry rainforest community mosaics, which occur on granite and on metamorphics in the McIlwraith Range and Iron Range respectively. It is expected, though not demonstrated, that E. carina n. sp., within its distribution, may be associated with this wattle species. All observations of this cicada have been made during January.
Calling song. Based on a series of recordings made by Kathy Hill and David Marshall (n =7), the calling song of E. carina n. sp. exhibits the typical complex and simple song modes. The complex calling song mode ( Fig. 31 View FIGURE 31 ) contains repeated subphrases (5.8– 10.4 s duration). Each subphrase is composed of a series of alternating macrosyllables (each containing 2–4 syllables; 0.019– 0.045 s duration) and syllables (0.009– 0.015 s duration), each separated by shorts gaps (0.046– 0.079 s duration). This is followed by a syllable sequence (2.760– 6.163 s duration) sometimes interspersed with macrosyllables (each containing 2–5 syllables; 0.022– 0.049 s duration), with all (macro)syllables separated by relatively uniform gaps (0.055– 0.082 s duration). At the conclusion of the syllable sequence, a longer macrosyllable is typically produced (containing 4–8 syllables, 0.039– 0.080 s duration), and this is sometimes also followed by single syllable or a brief syllable sequence (0.050– 0.099 s duration); a short gap then occurs (0.021– 0.036 s), followed by a climactic echeme (0.385– 0.606 s duration). The subphrase then concludes with a brief syllable sequence (0.062– 0.170 s duration), which may or may not be followed by the accentuation prior to commencement of the next subphrase. The accentuation is presented as a gap (0.095– 0.172 s duration) followed by a macrosyllable (containing 3–4 syllables; 0.028– 0.062 s duration), which, in turn, is followed by another gap (0.111– 0.154 s duration). The accentuation appears to be produced at the end of most subphrases. This complex calling song mode is typically produced at intervals throughout the day.
The simple calling song mode of this species ( Fig. 32 View FIGURE 32 ) contains monotonously repeated short echemes or macrosyllables (0.080– 0.172 s duration), each separated by a brief gap (0.036– 0.095 s duration). The simple calling song mode predominates at dusk, but is also produced during the day.
There is no apparent change in frequency spectra between song modes in the calling song. It has a highest amplitude frequency plateau between 11.3 and 17.2 kHz, with a dominant frequency of approximately 14.2 kHz (n =2; e.g. Fig. 29 View FIGURE 29 D).
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