Brontostoma discus ( Burmeister, 1835 )

Gil-Santana, Hélcio R., Oliveira, Jader & Bérenger, Jean-Michel, 2021, A revalidation and new synonymies among some species of Brontostoma Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae), Zootaxa 4958 (1), pp. 388-405: 390-393

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4958.1.25

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A7EEBFCE-FEBB-4877-A2AC-81689C813CC8

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4711007

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/F063878B-FFED-B401-FF26-FF7AFAD1FE2D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Brontostoma discus ( Burmeister, 1835 )
status

 

Brontostoma discus ( Burmeister, 1835)  

( Figs. 1–11 View FIGURES 1–7 View FIGURES 8–11 , 16–19 View FIGURES 16–19 , 22–36 View FIGURES 20–22 View FIGURES 23–26 View FIGURES 27–31 View FIGURES 32–36 )

Ectrychotes discus Burmeister (1835: 238)   (description).

Mindarus discus: Stål (1859: 179)   (checklist), Mayr (1866: 156) (checklist), Stål (1872: 101) (checklist), Berg (1883: 11) (checklist, comments on coloration), Lethierry & Severin (1896: 134) (catalog).

Ectrichodia venusta Walker (1873: 58)   (description), synonymized with Mindarus discus   by Distant (1902: 289).

Ectrichodia discus: Walker (1873: 60)   (catalog).

Ectrichotes [sic] discus: Walker (1873: 60)   (catalog).

Brontostoma discus: Wygodzinsky (1949:22)   (catalog), Wygodzinsky (1951: 40, 44–45) (key; Ectrichodia haematodes Blanchard   reinstated as a junior synonym, discussion about variation among specimens, list of numerous specimens identified as B. discus   examined from several countries), Maldonado (1990: 29) (catalog), Dougherty (1995: 203) (citation, geographical distribution), Coscarón et al. (1999: 899, 905) (listed as predator of Triatoma infestans (Klug)   ( Triatominae   ), fig. 20.4), Gil-Santana & Zeraik (2003: 124) (checklist), Gil-Santana et al. (2004: 127, 128) (citation; key), Gil-Santana et al. (2005a: 258–260) (fig. 4, female of B. discus   with its eggs, fig. 11, nymph of Ghinallelia brasiliensis (Dohrn)   ( Emesinae   ) over a group of eggs of B. discus   , hypothesis of possible predatory interactions of the former on the latter species), Gil-Santana et al. (2005b: 77, 78, 80) (citation; key), Forero (2006: 4–5) View Cited Treatment (citation, geographical distribution, fig. 1), Martin-Park & Coscarón (2011: 51) (catalog), Gil-Santana et al. (2013: 62, 63, 64) (citations; figs. 4–5, syntypes deposited in ZMHB, 4, “typus,” female, 5, male, “ paratypus,”, figs. 8–9, schematic drawings, 8 (A, B), fore (A) and middle (B) femora, lateral view and fig. 9 (posterior process of pygophore), both are misidentifications and correspond to B. haematodes   ; discussion about alleged differences between B. discus   and B. nanus   and general comments about them), Martins et al. (2016: 358) (checklist), Coscarón (2017: 255) (catalog, geographical distribution in Argentina and exhaustive list of references to this country), Melo et al. (2017: 481) View Cited Treatment (checklist).

Brontostoma nanus Carpintero (1980: 12–13   , 32, fig. 17) (description; dorsal view of the head, schematic drawing), Maldonado (1990: 29) (catalog), Dougherty (1995: 203) (citation, geographical distribution), Bachmann (1999: 216) (catalog of types deposited in MACN), Gil-Santana et al. (2004: 127) (citation), Gil-Santana et al. (2005b: 78) (citation), Gil-Santana et al. (2013: 62, 63, 64) (citation; fig. 6, holotype male deposited in MACN, figs. 7, 10, schematic drawings, 7 (A,B), fore (A) and middle (B) femora, lateral view, fig. 10, posterior process of pygophore; discussion about alleged differences between B. discus   and B. nanus   and general comments about them), Coscarón (2017: 256) (catalog, record from Argentina based on Dougherty 1995: 203), Melo et al. (2018: 18) (specimen at IFML from Bolivia, not type specimen). New subjective synonym.

Brontostoma discur   [sic]: Quintanilla et al. (1981: 156) (checklist).

Brontostoma discus discus: Carpintero (1981: 89)   (as possible predator of T. infestans   ( Triatominae   ) in Argentina). Brontostoma discuss   [sic]: Coscarón (1998: 161) (checklist).

Note. A few of the references cited by Coscarón (2017) about occurrences of B. discus   in Argentina were not included, because they were not available for consultation and are a repetition of the same localities.

Diagnostic features. Brontostoma discus   seems to be closer to B. haematodes   , sp. reval. In B. discus   , the fore and middle femora have a small group of papillae restricted to the ventral, basal portion ( Figs. 29 View FIGURES 27–31 , 32 View FIGURES 32–36 ), and a spiniform process surrounded by setae distad to the area with the papillae ( Figs. 25–30 View FIGURES 23–26 View FIGURES 27–31 ). The papillae of the femora of a male specimen of B. discus   are longitudinally striated when observed under high magnification ( Figs. 33–34 View FIGURES 32–36 ). In males, the medial process of the pygophore is sub-rectangular with a strong median notch ( Figs. 35–36 View FIGURES 32–36 ).

Type specimens. In ZMHB there are three syntype specimens of Ectrychotes discus   , a female labeled as “typus” ( Figs. 1–4 View FIGURES 1–7 ), another female ( Figs. 5–7 View FIGURES 1–7 ) and a male ( Figs. 8–11 View FIGURES 8–11 ) labeled as “ paratypus ”. These syntypes measured 16.2 mm (female “typus”), 15.2 mm (female “ paratypus ”) and 17.5 mm (male “ paratypus ”) in length. This relative difference recorded between the size of the male and the females might be simply a populational level variation.

All labels of the syntypes specimens of Ectrychotes discus   state that they were collected in the Brazilian State of “ Pará ” ( Figs. 3, 7 View FIGURES 1–7 , 10 View FIGURES 8–11 ), and not in “ Bahia ”, another Brazilian State, as indicated in the original description ( Burmeister 1835). It was possibly a mere confusion when transcribing the data about the type specimens caused by the fact that H. Burmeister simultaneously described (e.g. Burmeister, 1835, 1838) many species from the Brazilian States of Bahia, Pará and Rio de Janeiro, with several of the respective type specimens deposited in ZMHB (e.g. Gil-Santana 2016). The need to establish the type locality of a species when it is in doubt or it is wrongly recorded is not only a question of observing the rules or recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ( ICZN 1999) (e.g. recommendation 76A.2), it may also be an important issue for future taxonomic or systematic studies using molecular techniques when specimens need to be collected ( Gil-Santana & Alencar 2015). The type locality of a nominal species is the place of capture or collection of the name-bearing type; if there are syntypes and no lectotype has been designated, the type locality encompasses the localities of all of them. Although the original description of the taxon should also be taken into account when ascertaining or clarifying a type locality (recommendation 76A.1.3), we consider that the place of origin of all syntypes (“ Pará ”), as indicated by their labels ( Figs. 3, 7 View FIGURES 1–7 , 10 View FIGURES 8–11 ), must be the only one to be considered. Because we believe that the original statement of Burmeister (1835) of B. discus   as being from Bahia is erroneous, we propose (recommendation 76A.2 of ICZN) that the typelocality of Ectrychotes discus   is the Brazilian State of “ Pará ”.

The male syntype (“ paratypus ”) is designated here as the lectotype of Ectrychotes discus   , becoming the standard for the application of its name ( ICZN, Art. 74.1). By consequence, the female syntypes became paralectotypes ( ICZN, Art. 74.1.3)   .

The synonymy of Ectrichodia venusta   under B. discus ( Distant 1902)   is confirmed here after the examination of the female syntypes by HRG-S ( Figs. 16–19 View FIGURES 16–19 ) because both specimens present the spiniform prominences and setae basally on the fore and middle femora. Also, as both showed to be in accordance with the diagnostic features considered here, we consider that they collectively constitute the name-bearing type ( ICZN, Art. 73.2), and we are not designating a lectotype at this time for E. venusta   . The female syntypes of E. venusta   measured 17.0 mm (specimen from “ Pernambuco ”) ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 16–19 ) and 16.5 mm (specimen from “ Brazil?”) ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 16–19 ) in length.

Brontostoma nanus   was described based on a single male from “ Paraguay. Aragua ”, measuring 15.12 mm in length ( Carpintero 1980) ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 20–22 ). Bachmann (1999), however, argued that the specimen was probably from Venezuela, because the collecting place (“ Aragua ”), could be the State of Aragua in the latter country. However, considering that there is a place in Paraguay called “Areguá”, it is possible that a mere typo occurred when transcribing the locality and the specimen was actually from Paraguay. The holotype of B. nanus   was not available to be examined in MACN this time, therefore, it was not possible to examine or obtain images of the labels. The holotype of B. nanus   has the diagnostic characters on the fore and middle femora and the medial process of the pygophore as described above for B. discus   . These observations were provided by Manuel Baena to HRG-S in 2013 by direct examination of the specimen. Dougherty (1995) recorded this species as only from Argentina, which may have possibly been a mistake because most of the species described by Carpintero (1980) were from this country. Judging by its structural features of the fore and middle femora and the medial process of pygophore, B. nanus   is considered to be the same as B. discus   and is therefore considered as its junior synonym.

Material examined. Ectrychotes discus Burmeister   : [ BRAZIL]: female paralectotype (here designated): [green handwritten label]: Discus / N. / Stollt.zo f 139 [unreadable marking] // [green handwritten label]: Parà [space] Sieber [“S” of “Sieber” partially cut off at the upper margin of the label] // [printed red label]: Typus // [printed label]: 3050; female paralectotype (here designated): [handwritten label]: x Ectrychotes   / discus   ♀ / Burm. / Paratypus // [green handwritten label]: Para / Sieber // [printed red label]: Paratypus // [handwritten label]: 3050; male lectotype (here designated): [handwritten label]: x Ectrychotes   / discus   ♂ / Burm. / Paratypus // [green handwritten label]: Para / Sieber // [printed red label]: Paratypus // [handwritten label]: 3050 ( ZMHB).

Ectrichodia venusta Walker   : female syntype: [ BRAZIL], [printed label]: 72. ECTRICHODIA VENUSTA.   // [printed rounded label with light blue circle]: SYN- / TYPE // [printed rounded label with green circle]: Type // [printed label]: ♀ // [handwritten rounded double faced label]: 59 / 99 [opposite side of same rounded handwritten label]: Pernam / buco // [printed label]: QR CODE / NHMUK 013585367 View Materials   ; female syntype: [ BRAZIL?], [printed label]: Ectrichodia   . / venusta. / Walker’s Catal. // [printed rounded label with light blue circle]: SYN- / TYPE   // [printed label]: ♀ // [handwritten rounded double faced label]: 54 / 76 [opposite side of same rounded handwritten label]: ─? // [printed label]: QR CODE / NHMUK 013585368 View Materials ( BMNH)   .

Additional specimens: BOLIVIA, Santa Cruz, Rio Paray , 1 male, xi.1993, Maier A. leg., Brontostoma discus   , J-M. Bérenger det. (J-MB)   . BRAZIL, Mato Grosso [do Sul], Urucum , 1 male, i.1955, Comissão I. O. Cruz [leg.], Brontostoma discus, Wygodzinsky   det., 1959; Pará   , Taperinha , 1 male, [no date], G. Hagmann leg. “Museu Nacional,” n° [blank], Brontostoma discus, Wygodzinsky   det., 1959, ( MNRJ)   ; Rio de Janeiro, Cachoeiras de Macacu , 2 males, ii.1997, N. Tangerini leg., Brontostoma discus, Gil-Santana   det., 2019, ( CTJMSB)   . FRENCH GUIANA (all currently determined as Brontostoma discus   by J.-M. Bérenger): Cayenne, 1 male, iv. 1975;   Degrad Corrèze, Route de régina ( RN2), pk 62,   1 male, 18.xii.1995, Kindl P. leg.;   Degrad Kwata, 2 males, 9.iii.1995, 14.xii.1996, Moragues G. leg.;   Degrad Kwata sur crique Bagot, 2 females, i.1995, Rignon D. leg.,   1 male, 30.ix.1995, Bérenger JM leg.;   Forêt de Maya , 1 male, 19.xii.2015, SEAG leg.;   Kourou, Piste Mt des singes, 1 male, xi.1989, Bleuzen leg.;   Macouria, savane des trois rois, 1 female, viii.2004, Misran LM leg.;   Montsinery, 1 male, xi.1986, Bleuzen leg.;   N4, (Matourienne), pk 6,2, 1 male, 15.vi.1996, PL, B. Hermier leg. (J-MB)   .

MACN

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

JM

Jura Museum, Eichstatt

PL

Západoceské muzeum v Plzni

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Reduviidae

Genus

Brontostoma

Loc

Brontostoma discus ( Burmeister, 1835 )

Gil-Santana, Hélcio R., Oliveira, Jader & Bérenger, Jean-Michel 2021
2021
Loc

Brontostoma discur

Quintanilla, R. H. & Rizzo, H. F. & Nunez, A. S. 1981: 156
1981
Loc

Brontostoma discus discus:

Coscaron, M. C. 1998: 161
Carpintero, D. J. 1981: )
1981
Loc

Brontostoma nanus Carpintero (1980: 12–13

Melo, C. M. & Zamudio, M. C. & Dellape, P. M. 2018: 18
Coscaron, M. C. 2017: 256
Gil-Santana, H. R. & Baena, M. & Grillo, H. 2013: 62
Gil-Santana, H. R. & Lopes, C. M. & Marques, O. M. & Jurberg, J. 2005: 78
Gil-Santana, H. R. & Costa, L. A. A. & Marques, O. M. 2004: 127
Bachmann, A. O. 1999: 216
Dougherty, V. 1995: 203
Dougherty, V. 1995: 203
Maldonado, C. J. 1990: 29
Carpintero, D. J. 1980: 13
1980
Loc

Brontostoma discus: Wygodzinsky (1949:22)

Coscaron, M. C. 2017: 255
Melo, C. M. & Dellape, G. & Olivera, L. & Varela, P. S. & Montemayor, S. I. & Dellape, P. M. 2017: 481
Martins, D. S. & Ferreira, P. S. F. & Fornazier, M. J. & Santos, J. S. 2016: 358
Gil-Santana, H. R. & Baena, M. & Grillo, H. 2013: 62
Martin-Park, A. & Coscaron, M. C. 2011: 51
Forero, D. 2006: 4
Gil-Santana, H. R. & Costa, L. A. A. & Baena, M. & Zeraik, S. O. 2005: 258
Gil-Santana, H. R. & Lopes, C. M. & Marques, O. M. & Jurberg, J. 2005: 77
Gil-Santana, H. R. & Costa, L. A. A. & Marques, O. M. 2004: 127
Gil-Santana, H. R. & Zeraik, S. O. 2003: 124
Coscaron, M. C. & Loiacono, M. S. & De Santis, L. 1999: 899
Dougherty, V. 1995: 203
Maldonado, C. J. 1990: 29
Wygodzinsky, P. 1951: 40
Wygodzinsky, P. 1949: )
1949
Loc

Ectrichodia venusta

Distant, W. L. 1902: 289
Walker, F. 1873: )
1873
Loc

Ectrichodia discus: Walker (1873: 60)

Walker, F. 1873: )
1873
Loc

Ectrichotes [sic] discus: Walker (1873: 60)

Walker, F. 1873: )
1873
Loc

Mindarus discus: Stål (1859: 179)

Lethierry, L. & Severin, G. 1896: 134
Berg, C. 1883: 11
Stal, C. 1872: 101
Mayr, G. L. 1866: 156
Stal, C. 1859: )
1859
Loc

Ectrychotes discus

Burmeister, H. 1835: )
1835