Novakiella trituberculosa (Roewer, 1942)

Framenau, Volker W., Vink, Cor J., Scharff, Nikolaj, Baptista, Renner L. C. & Castanheira, Pedro de S., 2021, Review of the Australian and New Zealand orb-weaving spider genus Novakiella (Araneae, Araneidae), Zoosystematics and Evolution 97 (2), pp. 393-405: 393

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zse.97.67788

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A32F2CCD-3CB8-4570-87D1-3B38CA555E3C

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/F1386934-2556-57E8-AF70-7E571FBBE97E

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scientific name

Novakiella trituberculosa (Roewer, 1942)
status

 

Novakiella trituberculosa (Roewer, 1942)  

Figs 1 View Figure 1 , 2 View Figure 2 , 3 View Figure 3 , 7 View Figure 7 , 8 View Figure 8

Epeira tri-tuberculata   Urquhart 1887: 78-79, pl. 7, fig. 2; pl. 8, fig. 1 (preoccupied by Epeira trituberculata   Lucas, 1846; currently listed as junior synonym of Cyclosa insulana   (Costa, 1834).

Epeira tri-tuberculata   Urquhart 1888: 120-121, pl. 11, figs 7, 8.

Aranea trituberculosa   Roewer 1942: 834 (replacement name).

Novakia trituberculata   Court and Forster 1988: 119-124, figs 359, 553-562.

Novakiella trituberculosa   Court and Forster, in Platnick 1993: 457.

Type material.

Syntypes of Epeira tri-tuberculata   Urquhart, 1887, 2 females, Karaka, New Zealand (37°06'S, 174°53'E), A.T. Urquhart ( CMNZ 2005.135.112). Examined.

Other material examined.

AUSTRALIA: Australian Capital Territory: 1 female, 1 juvenile, Canberra , 35°18'S, 149°08'E (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Kaleen, Canberra , 35°17'S, 149°13'E, 25.iv.1990 ( SAM 31192 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, 1 female, Kaleen, Canberra , 35°17'S, 149°13'E, 21.v.1988 (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Red Hill, 14 Pera Place , 35°20'S, 149°08'E, 24.ii.1982, M. S. Harvey leg. ( WAM T73527 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, same locality, 01.iv.1983, M. S. Harvey leg. ( WAM T73571 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; New South Wales: 1 male, Beecroft , 33°45'S, 151°04'E, 25.i.1999, J. Noble leg. ( AM KS58630) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Botany , 33°57'S, 151°12'E, 04.vii.1961, R. Mascord leg. ( AM KS32651) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, same locality, 26.vii.1966, R. Mascord leg. ( AM KS32652) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Coonabarabran, ' Smokey Hole' , 31°16'S, 149°17'E, 04.x.1978, E. Edmondson leg. ( AM KS7545) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Dulwich Hill , 33°54'S, 151°08'E, 17.ii.1977, H. Ehmann leg. ( AM KS0741) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Epping Strip , 33°46'S, 151°05'E, 10.i.1996, J. Noble leg. ( AM KS49920) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Hillsdale, Sydney , 33°57'S, 151°13'E, 03.ii.1972, R. Mascord leg. ( AM KS34148) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Khancobin , 26.iv.1990 (SAM)   ; 1 female, Lord Howe Island, Erskine Valley Transect, 31°34'58"S, 159°04'45"E, pitfall traps, 01.xi.1978, T. Kingston leg. ( AM KS88175) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Lord Howe Island, Goat House Cave , 31°33'54"S, 159°05'18"E, 10.ii.1971, M. Gray leg. ( AM KS20999) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Mount Colah , 33°40'S, 151°07'E, M. Gray leg. ( AM KS48820) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Park Beach, Coffs Harbour , 30°18'S, 153°07'E, 23-24.v.1986 (SAM) GoogleMaps   , 1 male, Punchbowl , 33°56'S, 151°03'E, 02.xii.1940, Ms Levitt leg. ( AM KS33550) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, The Rock Nature Reserve , 30km SW Wagga Wagga, 35°16'S, 147°05'E, sweeping/beating, 13.xii.2000, C. A. Car leg. ( AM KS93847) GoogleMaps   ; Queensland: 1 male, Bardon, Brisbane , 27°27'S, 152°58'E ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Burleigh Heads , 28°06'S, 153°26'E ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, 1 juvenile, Endfield Station , 27°55'S, 149°43'E ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Eurimbula , 24°11'S, 151°50'E, C. Horseman leg. ( AM KS12771) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Gatton, Queensland Agricultural College , 27°34'S, 152°20'E, S. Pearce leg. ( QM S66755 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male Hurdle Gully , 13km WSW Monto, 24°54'00"S, 150°59'55"E, 23.ix-20.ix.1997, G. Monteith leg. ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Jerons St Park , 27.xi.2009, R. Whyte leg. ( WAM S84676 View Materials )   ; 1 male, Jevons , 26.xii.2009, R. Whyte leg. ( QM S84670 View Materials )   ; 1 female, same locality, 01.i.2010, R. Whyte leg. ( QM S84672 View Materials )   ; 1 male, Masthead Island, Great Barrier Reef , 23°32'S, 151°44'E, C. Hedley leg. ( AM KS32650) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Mt Gavial , 1km S, 23°36'S, 150°29'E, 17.xii.1998, D. J. Cook leg. ( QM S69354 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Oakey , 27°27'S, 151°42'E ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Teewah Creek, Cooloola , 26°02'S, 153°03'E ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Walton Bridge Reserve , 20.xi.2009, R. Whyte leg. ( QM S84666 View Materials )   ; South Australia: 1 male, Baird Bay , 33°09'S, 134°22'E, 12.i.1995, J. M. Waldock & P. Payne leg. ( WAM T73553 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, 1 female, Beautiful Valley Caravan Park, adjacent, near Wilmington , 32°39'S, 138°06'E, 14.iv.1993 (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Belalie Creek, Jamestown , 33°12'S, 138°36'E, 10.iv.1993, D. Hirst leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 2 males, Cape Gantheaume , 1km N Point Tinline, Kangaroo Island, 35°59'S, 137°37'E, 10.xi.1987, D. Hirst leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Caracoorte Cave Reserve , 37°05'S, 140°47'E, 25.iv.1979, D. Lee leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Caroline Forest, ' Snowgum Reserve' , 37°56'S, 140°56'E, 20.iv.1979, G. Grass leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Coromandel Valley, Mt Lofty Ranges , 32°05'S, 138°38'E, 02.iii.1996, L. N. Nicolson leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Dog Lake Road, SE Langhorne Creek, 35°17'S, 139°02'E, J. Eckert leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Eucla , 77km E, 31°28'S, 129°37'E, 23.ii.1978, B. Y. Main leg. ( WAM T87424 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Forestville , 34°57'S, 138°35'E (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Gluepot Reserve , 11.3km W Gluepost Homestead, 33°45'16"S, 139°59'58"E, 26.xi.-06.xii.2000 (SAM NN19454) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Kangaroo Island, 35°45'S, 137°37'E (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Kangaroo Island, Western River Wilderness Protection Area, Waterfall Creek near waterfall, 35°41'44"S, 136°54'37"E, beating, 09-10.v.2010, M. G. Rix & D. Harms leg. ( WAM T102789) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Lake Gilles Conservation Park , 33°05'S, 136°39'E, 21.xi.1995 (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Langhorne Creek , 35°18'S, 139°02'E, C. Wilson leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, 1 juvenile, Marino Rocks to Halletts Cove , near railway line, 35°04'S, 138°30'E, 05.ix.1967, H. M. Cooper leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 2 females, Melrose , camping area, 32°49'S, 138°11'E, 14.iv.1987, D. Hirst leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Mitcham , 34°59'S, 138°37'E, 21.i.1979, R. V. Southcott leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 2 females, Muston , Kangaroo Island, 35°49'S, 137°44'E, 03.vii.1967, H. M. Cooper leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Nappyalla , 35°20'S, 139°07'E, J. Eckert leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Port Wakefield , 34°11'S, 138°09'E, 14.iii.2004, B. S. Pavey leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Port Wakefield , T-junction W, 34°11'S, 138°09'E, B. Pavey leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Pyap , 34°27'S, 140°29'E, 02-09.vi.1990, L. N. Nicolson leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Sellicks-Aldinga Scrub , 35°17'S, 138°27'E, 22.ix.1987, D. Hirst leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Serpentine Lakes , 28°30'S, 129°00'E, 16.iv.1994, D. Hirst leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, St Peters, Adelaide , 33°55'S, 151°11'E, 27.i.1975, P. Walker leg. ( AM KS32104) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Walkerville, Adelaide , 34°53'S, 138°37'E, 20.vi.1984, J. Thurmer & D. Hirst leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Windsor Gardens, Adelaide , 34°52'S, 138°39'E, 20.vi.1988, D. Hirst leg. (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 2 males, East Risdon , 42°50'S, 147°21'E, 27.iv.1961, V. V. Hickman leg. ( AM KS28582) GoogleMaps   ; Tasmania: 3 males 1 juvenile, Launceston , 41°27'S, 147°10'E, 06.iv.1928, V. V. Hickman leg. ( AM KS28538) GoogleMaps   , 1 female, same locality, 03.ix.1929, V. V. Hickman leg. ( AM KS28547) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Liberty Creek Track, S side Macquarie Heads , 42°12'S, 145°12'E ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 3 males, 2 females, 2 juveniles, New Town , 42°53'S, 147°19'E, 10.ii.1934, V. V. Hickman leg. ( AM KS28699) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, St. Columba Falls , 41°19'17"S, 147°55'34"E, 07.iii.2006, G. Hormiga leg. ( NHMD) GoogleMaps   ; Victoria: 1 female, Balwyn, 24 Yandilla Street , 37°48'S, 145°04'E, 05.iv.1981, M. S. Harvey leg. ( WAM T73551 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, same locality, 31.iii.1981, M. S. Harvey leg. ( WAM T73572 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, same locality, 12.i.1981, M. S. Harvey leg. ( WAM T73573 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, same locality, 05.iv.1981, M. S. Harvey leg. ( WAM T73574 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, same locality, 28.xii.1982, M. S. Harvey leg. ( WAM T73577 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Beaconsfield , 38°03'S, 145°15'E, 07.xi.1893 (MV K9424) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Cann River , 20km N, 37°17'S, 149°12'E, 17.vi.1987, R. J. Raven leg. ( QM S13154 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Canterbury, 7 Quantock St , 37°49'S, 145°04'E, 13.vi.1981, M. S. Harvey leg. ( WAM T73556 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 3 females Croydon , 37°47'S, 145°16'E, 28.ii.1999, S. W. Fulton leg. (MV K10088 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, 1 female, 1 juvenile, Echuca , 36°08'S, 144°45'E, 01.xi.1955 (MV K9427) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Emerald , 37°56'S, 145°27'E, 13.v.1948, C. Oke leg. ( AM KS32504) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Frankston , 38°08'S, 145°08'E, 30.iv.1994 (SAM) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Nyah to Kooloonong (no exact location), B. Harvey leg. (MV K9451)   ; Western Australia: 1 female, Attadale , 32°01'S, 115°48'E, 20.vii.1962, A. R. Main leg. ( WAM T87192 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Bannister , 32°39'S, 116°33'E, 15.vi.1985, B. Y. Main leg. ( WAM T73564 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Bannister , 32°39'S, 116°33'E, 15.vi.1985, B. Y. Main leg. ( WAM T73565 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female ( WAM T73566 View Materials )   ; 1 male, Boolathana Station , 24°24'49"S, 113°44'41"E, pitfall trap, 15.i.-31.v.1995, J. M. Waldock et al. leg. ( WAM T73548 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Boya, Helena Valley , 31°54'S, 116°03'E, 06.x.1982, B. Y. Main leg. ( WAM T73561 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female ( WAM T73562 View Materials )   ; 1 female, same locality, 08.x.1982, P. Hussey leg. ( WAM T73563 View Materials )   ; 1 male, Commonwealth Road, West , 32°44'13"S, 118°16'16"E, wet pitfall trap, 30.x.1997 - 15.v.1998, N. A. Guthrie leg. ( WAM T74852 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Durokoppin Nature Reserve , 31°24'S, 117°46'E, 03.vi.1989, B. Y. Main leg. ( WAM T73567 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, same locality, 05.v.1987. B. Y. Main leg. ( WAM T73568 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Grass Patch, Fitzg. Loc. 41, 32°13'56"S, 121°46'00"E, 29.xi.1978, A. F. Longbottom leg. ( WAM T73578 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Hurlstone Nature Reserve , 32°32'32"S, 119°22'42"E, wet pitfall trap, 30.x.1997 - 20.v.1998, P. van Heurck et al. leg. ( WAM T74854 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Jarrahdale (Alcoa) Mine area , 31°16'S, 116°06'E, K. E. C. Brennan leg. ( WAM T48214 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, vacuum collector, M. L. Moir leg. ( WAM T48215 View Materials )   ; 1 female, N of Lake King-Norseman Road , 33°04'54"S, 119°59'53"E, wet pitfall trap, 15.x.1999 - 25.x.2000, N. A. Guthrie leg. ( WAM T74863 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Lake Morgan, Helms Arboretum , 33°43'09"S, 121°48'29"E, wet pitfall trap, 15.x.1999 - 01.xi.2000, P. van Heurck et al. leg. ( WAM T74853 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Mount Gibson iron-ore mine, 29°36'02"S, 117°12'25"E, pitfall trap, 15-30.iv.2005, S. Thompson leg. WAM T67918 View Materials GoogleMaps   ); 1 male, Roe Plain, between Mundrabilla and Madura , 32°04'S, 126°31'E, 26.ii.1990, B. Y. Main leg. ( WAM T87431 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Stirling Range National Park, Moingup Spring , 34°24'S, 118°06'E, 10.vi.1993, J. M. Waldock & A. Sampey leg. ( WAM T74423 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Torbay Hill, Lot 40, 35°04'S, 117°37'E, 07.x.1983, B. Y. Main leg. ( WAM T73569 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, same locality, 06.x.1993, B. Y. Main leg. ( WAM T73570 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve , track near coast, 34°59'25"S, 118°09'35"E, 01.v.2008, M. Rix & M. S. Harvey leg. ( WAM T81707 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . NEW ZEALAND: North Island: 1 male, Paranui Scenic Reserve , 35°05′S 173°27′E, at night, 16.ii.2000, G. Hall leg. ( NZAC 03038710) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Karaka , 37°06'S, 174°53'E, A.T. Urquhart leg. ( CMNZ 2005.135.112) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Hamilton , 37°48′S 175°18′E, 2014, B.N. McQuillan leg. ( LUNZ 00012963) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Hamilton , 37°48′S 175°18′E, 2014, B.N. McQuillan leg. ( LUNZ 00012964) GoogleMaps   ; South Island: 1 female, Kaituna Valley , 43°44′S 172°42′E, 24.v.1975, R.R. Forster leg. ( NZAC 03038712) GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis.

Male N. trituberculosa   can easily be distinguished from N. boletus   sp. nov. by the much stronger apico-prolateral spur on tibia of leg II and the morphology of key pedipalp sclerites (Figs 1C-E View Figure 1 , 2A, B View Figure 2 , 4D-F View Figure 4 , 5 View Figure 5 ): median apophysis with a longer basal portion and a smaller pointed curved and acute tip in N. trituberculosa   (projection to the tip flattened, much longer, reaching beyond the radix base and tip rounded in N. boletus   sp. nov.), conductor lobe two-lobed in N. trituberculosa   (mushroom-shaped in N. boletus   sp. nov.), and embolus almost straight in N. trituberculosa   (with tip strongly bent, thin and very acute in N. boletus   sp. nov.). Females of N. trituberculosa   differ from those of N. boletus   sp. nov. by details in the epigyne plate (Figs 3C View Figure 3 , 6C View Figure 6 ), specifically its subtriangular shape in N. trituberculosa   (trapezoidal in N. boletus   sp. nov.); the transverse and short wrinkles, mainly laterally visible in N. trituberculosa   (more pronounced and crossing the plate in N. boletus   sp. nov.); copulatory openings less conspicuous in N. trituberculosa   (clearly visible in N. boletus   sp. nov.); and bridge thin and longer in N. trituberculosa   (subtriangular, much wider at posterior margin in N. boletus   sp. nov.).

Redescription.

Male ( WAM T73571 [images]; WAM T73573 [measurements]): Total length: 5.3. Carapace (Fig. 1A View Figure 1 ) 2.7 long, 2.1 wide, light brown with large black bands on lateral margins and yellowish setae throughout except from fovea to pedicel; cephalic area subquadrate; fovea longer than wide and bearing a long black spot. Eyes ringed in black, lateral ones located on small tubercles (Fig. 1A View Figure 1 ). AME 0.22, ALE 0.11, PME 0.14, PLE 0.11; row of eyes: AME 0.58, PME 0.40, PLE 0.86. Chelicerae with paturon light brown and fangs reddish-brown; three promarginal teeth, central one largest, two or three retromarginal teeth, basal one largest. Legs (Fig. 1A, B, E View Figure 1 ) yellow with dark brown spots on joints; tibiae II with strong apico-prolateral spur that carries a stout spine; metatarsi and tarsi of leg II slightly curved; leg formula IV > I > II > III; length of segments (femur + patella + tibia + metatarsus + tarsus = total length): I - 3.97 + 1.30 + 3.25 + 2.86 + 0.97 = 12.35, II - 2.73 + 1.17 + 2.21 + 0.90 + 0.97 = 7.98, III - 2.34 + 0.71 + 1.23 + 1.30 + 0.72 = 6.30, IV - 3.51 + 0.97 + 2.14 + 2.14 + 0.84 = 9.62. Labium wider than long, subtriangular, brown (Fig. 1B View Figure 1 ); endites rounded, light brown (Fig. 1B View Figure 1 ). Sternum slightly longer than wide, light brown, with thick black edges and large anterior guanine white spot (Fig. 1B View Figure 1 ). Abdomen (Fig. 1A, B View Figure 1 ) 3.06 long, 2.47 wide; subtriangular, longer than wide, abdominal humps strong and posterior end reaching over spinnerets; dorsum beige with posterior darker folium pattern; sparsely covered with long brown setae; sides dark olive-grey; venter beige and irregularly mottled with brown spots. Pedipalp (Figs 1C, D View Figure 1 , 2A, B View Figure 2 ) length of segments (femur + patella + tibia + cymbium = total length): 0.58 + 0.26 + 0.26 + 0.78 = 1.88; conductor lobe bilobed, basal lobe rounded and apical lobe pointed and connected to a wide and concave lateral expansion, whose ectal border has a dense black field of scale-like structures; terminal apophysis with an inflated and membranous body, ending in curved and pointed well-sclerotised tip; embolus slightly sinuous in mesal view, tapering apically towards conductor when expanded (Fig. 2A, B View Figure 2 ); conductor very conspicuous and subquadrate with a projected and sclerotised tip; median apophysis stout, heavily sclerotised, forming an arch over the radix, medially curved and extended into a basally pointing tip.

Female ( WAM T73556): Total length: 9.0. Carapace 3.5 long, 2.8 wide, eyes, chelicerae, legs, labium, endites and sternum essentially as in male (Fig. 3A, B View Figure 3 ). Eye measurements: AME 0.18, ALE 0.09, PME 0.14, PLE 0.14; row of eyes: AME 0.63, PME 0.47, PLE 1.46. Pedipalp length of segments (femur + patella + tibia + cymbium = total length): 1.12 + 0.48 + 0.48 + 1.20 = 3.28. Leg formula IV > I > II > III; length of segments (femur + patella + tibia + metatarsus + tarsus = total length): I - 3.92 + 1.60 + 3.20 + 2.96 + 0.96 = 12.64, II - 3.68 + 1.52 + 2.88 + 0.90 + 0.88 = 9.86, III - 2.40 + 0.88 + 1.44 + 1.44 + 0.80 = 6.96, IV - 4.08 + 1.36 + 2.56 + 2.48 + 1.04 = 11.52. Abdomen (Fig. 3A, B View Figure 3 ) 5.00 long, 4.80 wide, similar to male in shape and colour, but slightly more rounded, with less projected humeral humps. Epigyne plate subtriangular, with smooth anterior portion near the basis of scape and lateral wrinkles; scape broken off (Fig. 3C-E View Figure 3 ) (as in all specimens examined by us). If present, scape triangular with indistinct transverse wrinkles ( Court and Forster 1988, figs 554, 555). Spermathecae spherical and very large, occupying most of the genital area, medially connected to copulatory openings (Fig. 3D, E View Figure 3 ).

Remarks.

The study was conducted over many years and at different institutions and therefore imaging and descriptive work based on variable specimens (plural) availability at the time. This explains why the male N. trituberculosa   is here redescribed based on two specimens; one imaged many years ago, but not measured, and the measurements added for a second specimen more recently.

Habitat preferences and life history.

In Australia, mature males of N. trituberculosa   were found between November and June, with peaks in January and April. Mature females were found all year round with the lowest numbers of records in November and December. Here, the species is mainly found in "pastoral habits" and constructs a horizontal orb-web amongst low grasses or weeds, with the centre pulled up by stabilizing threads. The webs are up to 0.1 m above ground. Additionally, habitat descriptions on specimen labels include “woodland”, "open forest", "shrubs near ground", "in long grass", but the species also seems to occur in more disturbed habitats such as "among garden rubbish", "ex toilet", "walking on wall at night", "inside house on wall", "stationary on door knob". In New Zealand it is mostly found in pastoral habitats ( Court and Forster 1988), which suggests that it is introduced.

Distribution.

Novakiella trituberculosa   has been recorded from all Australian states, except Northern Territory, south of ca. 22°S Latitude (Fig. 7 View Figure 7 ). In New Zealand the species is more frequently found in the North Island but it has also been found in some South Island localities ( Court and Forster 1988) (Fig. 8 View Figure 8 ).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Araneidae

Genus

Novakiella