Neobuthus amoudensis, Kovařík & Lowe & Awale & Elmi & Abdi, 2018

Kovařík, František, Lowe, Graeme, Awale, Ahmed Ibrahim, Elmi, Hassan Sh Abdirahman & Abdi, Ali, 2018, Scorpions of the Horn of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part XVII. Revision of Neobuthus, with description of seven new species from Ethiopia, Kenya and Somaliland (Buthidae), Euscorpius 271, pp. 1-82 : 4-14

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Neobuthus amoudensis

sp. n.

Neobuthus amoudensis sp. n.

( Figs. 1–54, 402, 438, Tables 1 and 5)


Neobuthus ferrugineus: Kovařík & Lowe, 2012: 3–7 (in part, male from Ethiopia).

TYPE LOCALITY AND TYPE DEPOSITORY. Somaliland, Borama, campus Amoud University, 09°56'49"N 43° 13'23"E, 1394 m a.s.l. GoogleMaps ; FKCP.

TYPE MATERIAL EXAMINED. Somaliland, Borama, campus Amoud University, 09°56'49"N 43°13'23"E, 1394 m GoogleMaps

a.s.l., 1♂ (holotype) 2♂ ( Nos. 1200, 1201) 5♀ 4juvs. (paratypes), 4-5.II.2017 ( Locality No. 17 SA) , 9-13. IX. 2017, 10♂ (Nos. 1306, 1307, 1310, 1311, 1312, 1313, 1314, 1315, 1316) 3♀ 9juvs. (paratypes), (Locality No. 17SR). Ethiopia, Dekhata valley, near Babile , Harar, 09°12'17.9"N 42°21'53.3"E, 975 m a.s.l., 17. VII.2011 GoogleMaps , 1♂ (paratype), leg. F. Kovařík. Most types including the holotype are in the collection of the first author ( FKCP) , three paratypes (2♂ 1♀) from 17SR are in the GLPC collection .

ETYMOLOGY. A patronym in honor of Amoud University of Republic of Somaliland.

DIAGNOSIS. Total length 18–20 mm (males), 23.5–25.7 mm (females); carapace with area between anterior median carinae fuscous; tergites with fuscous variable pigmentation; pedipalp relatively slender, males with femur L/ W 2.36 –2.50, patella L/ W 2.28 –2.38, chela L/ W 4.17 –4.26; chela movable finger with 6 subrows of primary denticles, 4–5 external accessory denticles flanking proximal end of each subrow; trichobothria d 2 usually present on femur and patella; dorsoexternal and ventroexternal carinae on pedipalp patella in female present, smooth; posterior margins of tergites usually lacking macrosetae; pedipalps, legs, metasoma and telson with moderately short, stout macrosetae in males, and long, fine setae in females; males with coxae sparsely granulated, sternites III–VI shagreened to smooth medially, sternite VII finely granulated with 4 weak, granulated carinae; females with sternites III–VI smooth, sternite VII with 4 weak granulated carinae; metasoma I–III with median lateral carinae present in both sexes; lateral surface of metasoma V in males densely granulated, with granules separated; soles of telotarsi with relatively sparse setation, leg III of adults with 12–16 ventral macrosetae on telotarsus; pectine teeth: 15–22 (males), 14–17 (females).

DESCRIPTION. Total length of adult males 18–20 mm, of adult females 23.5–25.7 mm; measurements of carapace, telson, segments of metasoma and pedipalps given in Table 1; positions and distribution of trichobothria on pedipalps shown in Figs. 34–37, 39 and 41; trichobothrium d 2 usually present on pedipalp femur and present on patella; base color pale yellow to light orange with variable fuscous pigmentation ( Figs. 4 and 5) and extensive patterns of dark maculation on pedipalps, metasoma and partially on legs; chelicerae yellow with dark reticulation on anterior manus, dentition reddish. Sexual dimorphism: strong, adult males substantially smaller, but without differences in shapes of pedipalps, metasoma and telson; pedipalp patella and femur granulate and matte in males, smooth and glossy in females; sternites smooth in females, partially granulated in males; macrosetae on pedipalps, legs, metasoma and telson much longer and finer in females than males; other sex differences cited below.

Pedipalp ( Figs. 15–16, 33–52). Pedipalp mostly sparsely hirsute; finely granulated in males and smooth in females; femur with five conspicuously granulose carinae, more strongly developed in males; patella with seven granulose carinae in males, and five smooth carinae in females; ventroexternal and dorsoexternal carinae on pedipalp patella in female are present and smooth; chela with carinae missing or weakly indicated.

Carapace ( Figs. 7, 9, 11–12). Strongly trapezoidal (narrower anteriorly), wider than long (L/ W 0.81 –0.88); posterior median postocular area flat, anterior median preocular area gently sloped downwards towards anterior margin; lateral flanks steeply sloped; ocular tubercle broad, prominent, located slightly anterior to middle of carapace; anterior margin straight, finely microdenticulate, with coarser granules overlapping edge, bearing 6–8 macrosetae; anterior median carinae weak, coarsely granular, other carinae indistinct; dense granulation covering most of carapace.

Chelicera ( Figs. 19–21). Fingers with typical buthid dentition ( Vachon, 1963, Lowe & Kovařík, 2016); fixed finger with large distal denticle, 1 subdistal denticle and 2 basal denticles fused into bicusp, single denticle on ventral surface at level of bicusp; dorsal margin of movable finger with 5 denticles: 1 large distal denticle, medium-sized subdistal and medial, and 2 small, partially fused basal denticles; ventral margin with 2 denticles.

Mesosoma ( Figs. 2–14). Tergites I–VI bear three carinae of which the lateral pair may be less conspicuous mainly on tergites I–IV; tergite VII bears five well-defined carinae (median, submedians and laterals); tergites I–VI densely granular, with coarser granules on posterior lateral areas; tergite VII densely granular; sternites III– VI smooth in females, smooth medially and granulate laterally in males; sternite VII with four well-defined carinae, densely, finely granulated in both sexes; sternum type 1, triangular in shape, smooth, with deep posteromedian invagination; genital opercula smooth; genital papillae present; pectines extending to around a quarter of sternite V in male and around end of sternite IV in female; pectine teeth 15–22 in males, 14–17 in females; combs with 3 marginal lamellae and 6–8 middle lamellae; marginal lamellae, middle lamellae and fulcra with dense cover of short dark reddish macrosetae; fulcra with 2–4 setae.

Hemispermatophore ( Figs. 22–26). Typical of the genus.

Legs ( Figs. 17–18). Coxa, femora, patella and tibia of all legs bearing variable numbers of short to medium length, straight, dark-reddish macrosetae; tarsi with mix of short and longer, dark-reddish macrosetae; basitarsi I– III slightly compressed with flat retrolateral surfaces, with bristle combs consisting of retrosuperior series of longer macrosetae, plus retroinferior and proinferior series of shorter macrosetae; telotarsi with two rows of short setae on ventral aspect, 12–16 macrosetae on telotarsus III; tibial spurs moderate on leg IV and almost reduced on leg III.

Metasoma and telson ( Figs. 27–32). Metasoma and telson sparsely hirsute, macrosetae moderately short in male and longer in female, straight and reddish; metasomal segments I–III with 10 carinae, IV with 6–8 carinae, V with 2 carinae; segments I–III with moderate, granulate dorsolateral carinae, other carinae relatively well developed; segment IV with weakly indicated dorsolateral carinae; segment V with strong, granulate to dentate-lobate ventrolateral carinae; segments I–IV with dense granulation on all intercarinal surfaces except dorsal surfaces which are almost smooth, with only solitary granules; segment V densely granular on lateral and ventral surfaces, more coarsely so on ventral surface, granules not arranged along any traces of carinae; telson smooth, ventral surface sparsely, weakly granular; vesicle slightly elongated; aculeus stout, shorter than vesicle, tip of aculeus almost vertically directed.

AFFINITIES. The described features distinguish N. amoudensis sp. n. from all other species of the genus. According to the distribution (see Fig. 438) the type locality of N. amoudensis sp. n. is near to the localities of N. gubanensis sp. n. and N. factorio sp. n. From these two species N. amoudensis sp. n. can be unequivocally separated by the dorsoexternal carinae on the pedipalp patella which are present in females of N. amoudensis sp. n. ( Fig. 46) and absent or only weakly indicated in females of N. gubanensis sp. n. and N. factorio sp. n. ( Figs. 167 and 249).

COMMENTS ON LOCALITY AND LIFE STRATEGY. The type locality is a riverbed of an occasional river ( Fig. 47 in Kovařík et al., 2018: 9, figs. 45–46 in Kovařík et al., 2017: 18, and fig. 145 in Kovařík et al., 2018: 19). The locality lies in the grounds of Amoud University Campus and is a study site for detailed research. The first author (F.K.) visited the locality 17SA on 4–5 February 2017 (winter dry season). At this locality, the authors recorded a daytime temperature of 24.7 ºC (4 February, 16:08 h), and nighttime temperatures of 21.4 ºC shortly after sunset, dropping to 19.3 ºC (minimum temperature on 5 February at 19:20 h). The recorded humidity was 41% on 5 February at 19:20 h. The first author (F.K.) again visited the same locality on 9–13 September 2017 (summer minor dry season, 17SR) and recorded maximum daytime temperatures of 29.1 ºC (10th September 2017) and 31.8 ºC (12 September 2017), and a minimum nighttime temperature of 19.6 ºC. The recorded humidity was between 31% (minimum at night) and 79% (maximum at day). All specimens were collected at night by ultraviolet (UV). At this locality, in addition to N. amoudensis sp. n., the first author also recorded

Barbaracurus somalicus (Hirst, 1907) , Gint amoudensis Kovařík et al., 2018 (type locality), Parabuthus abys-

sinicus Pocock, 1901 ( Buthidae ); Pandinurus kmoniceki Kovařík et al., 2017 (type locality) and Pandinops pugilator (Pocock, 1900) ( Scorpionidae ).


Museum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Laboratiore de Paleontologie














Neobuthus amoudensis

Kovařík, František, Lowe, Graeme, Awale, Ahmed Ibrahim, Elmi, Hassan Sh Abdirahman & Abdi, Ali 2018

Gint amoudensis Kovařík et al., 2018

Kovarik 2018

Pandinurus kmoniceki Kovařík et al., 2017

Kovarik 2017

Neobuthus ferrugineus: Kovařík & Lowe, 2012: 3–7

: Kovarik & Lowe 2012: 3 - 7

Neobuthus awashensis

Kovarik & Lowe 2012


Pocock 1890


C. L. Koch 1837


Latreille 1802