Kuwania quercus (Kuwana)

Wu, San’An, Nan, Nan, Gullan, Penny & Deng, Jun, 2013, The taxonomy of the Japanese oak red scale insect, Kuwania quercus (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kuwaniidae), with a generic diagnosis, a key to species and description of a new species from California, Zootaxa 3630 (2), pp. 291-307 : 295-300

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https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.3630.2.5

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Kuwania quercus (Kuwana)


Redescription of Kuwania quercus (Kuwana) View in CoL

MATERIAL EXAMINED. LECTOTYPE, adult female, here designated (see notes below). Japan, date not given, Coll. Kuwana, ex Quercus sp., on the same slide as an adult female paralectotype, lectotype on right, paralectotype on left, slide labelled " Kuwania / quercus (Kuw) / From Oak. / Japan / Kuwana, col. / Type material / Entomological Laboratory / Stanford University" [collection data handwritten, apparently by G.F. Ferris, but name of laboratory and university is printed] (BME); PARALECTOTYPES, 12 adult females on 6 slides, 4 first-instar nymphs on 2 slides (3 on one slide, one on another slide with one adult female) and 4 intermediate-stage females on 2 slides, same data as lectotype (BME); 3 boxes with dry type material, one labelled “ Kuwania quercus / ( Kuwania [sic]) / TYPE / material / on Oak Quercus serrata / Kiushiu, Japan / Kuwana” [in handwriting of G.F. Ferris], another labelled “ Kuwania quercus / On Quercus sp. / Tokyo, Japan Kuwana, 1900” [handwriting of G.F. Ferris] and the third box labelled “Co-type of Genus [in red ink] / Kuwania quercus . Kuwana / on Oak / Japan / Kuwana.” (BME); and 5 adult females, 8 intermediate-stage females, 1 first-instar nymph and eggs (all very poor) on 2 slides labelled "CO-TYPE / 9340 / Kuwania quercus Kuw. /on Quercus spp. (Katagi) = / Q. acuta / Kiushiu, Japan / Rec’d Dec. 26, 1900 ” (USNM).

Kuwana’s original description reports that he made the collections in the year 1900 in Tokyo and Kiushiu, although he listed the hosts as Q. myrsinaefolia and Q. acuta, and did not mention Q. serrata. By the time that Kuwana described this Japanese species he was at Stanford University in California (as evidenced by the address on his 1902 paper) and thus Kuwana’s specimens would have been available to Gordon F. Ferris, who worked on Coccoidea at Stanford University from 1917 to 1958 (Wiggins, 1958; McKenzie, 1959). The Ferris collection of Coccoidea was transferred to the BME in 1960 (Miller et al., 1969), which explains how the type specimens of S. quercus came to be deposited there.

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) requires lectotype designated after 1999 to "contain an express statement of deliberate designation" (amended Article 74.7.3). We use the statement ‘here designated’ to satisfy this requirement. A lectotype has been designated for Sasakia quercus Kuwana to provide stability of nomenclature, and designation is done in a revisionary context in agreement with the amended Recommendation 74G of Article 74.7.3.

ADULT FEMALE ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ) (n=13)

Unmounted material. According to Kuwana (1902), adult female in life reddish, antennae and legs reddish brown, usually found in crevices in bark, in a white cottony secretion.

Mounted material. Body elongate, somewhat broadened toward posterior apex, 1.16–1.87 (lectotype 1.62) mm long and 0.62–0.98 (lectotype 0.73) mm wide. Derm membranous with segments distinct. Eyes indistinct, mouthparts wanting. Antennae placed close to each other on apex of head but without contiguous bases, usually 9 segmented; basal segment much enlarged, cone-like, with many short fine hair-like setae and a sclerotized bar on dorsal surface; segment II trapezoidal or cylindrical, with a whorl of short fine hair-like setae and 1 or 2 campaniform sensilla apically; segments III–VIII bowl-like, constricted at base of each segment, with a whorl of long fine hair-like setae apically, segment V–VIII each also with 2 thin-walled pegs (fleshy setae); apical segment ovoid, with 5 or 6 thick thin-walled pegs (fleshy setae), 2 or 3 long hair-like setae and one pair of coeloconic sensilla at apex; basal segment longest, nearly 1/4 of total length of antennae, segment lengths (μm): I 75 –83, II 38 –45, III 33 –38, IV 28–33, V 30–38, VI 33 –38, VII 30–35, VIII 28–35, IX 43 –50. In 2 of 13 adult females, antennae 10-segmented, segments V–IX each with 2 thin-walled pegs (fleshy setae) at apex. Legs moderately developed; coxa stout, with a group (10–15) of small setae on each surface; trochanter with 4 campaniform sensilla and one short hair-like seta on each surface; femur thickest segment; tibia with a tuft of about 6 clubbed setae at ventral distal end; tarsus one-segmented, curved; claw with a denticle and 2 acute digitules, about 1/ 2 in length of claw. Lengths (μm): fore legs: coxa 37.5–72.5, trochanter 40.0–55.0, femur 75.0–117.5, tibia 100.0–152.5, tarsus 47.5–80.0, claw 20.0–22.5; middle legs: coxa 40.0–72.5, trochanter 37.5–55.0, femur 80.0–125.0, tibia 110.0–167.5, tarsus 55.0–87.5, claw 20.0–25.0; hind legs: coxa 45.0–75.0, trochanter 37.5–60.0, femur 87.5–125.0, tibia 110.0–165.0, tarsus 57.5–87.5, claw 20.0–25.0; ratio of length of trochanter +femur to length of tibia + tarsus of hind leg 1:1.34–1.52; ratio of length of tibia to tarsus of hind leg 1.82–1.91:1. Thoracic spiracles with sclerotized bar and spiracular atrium 12.5–19.0 μm in diameter, without disc pores within, but with one or 2 multilocular pores near opening, each pore 5.0 μm in diameter, with 7 or 8 outer loculi; abdominal spiracles in 4 pairs on margin of abdominal sterna I–IV, smaller than thoracic spiracles, each with atrium 9.5–12.5 μm in diameter, with one disc pore within atrium, this pore same size and structure as that at opening of thoracic spiracles. Anal ring circular, subapical, near anterior edge of last abdominal tergum. Vulva on ventromedial abdomen between segments VII and VIII.

Dorsum. Disc pores of one type only, each 3.5–4.0 μm in diameter, with a rather deeply invaginated centre and 5 or 7 outer loculi; numerous, forming transverse band on each segment, more numerous toward posterior apex. Setae tiny and slender, about 3.2–6.3 μm long, scattered over dorsal surfaces.

Venter. Disc pores of three types: (1) large multilocular disc pores, each ca. 5.0 µm in diameter, with a rather deeply invaginated centre and 7 or 8 outer loculi, mostly distributed in a large group on abdominal sterna V–VIII; (2) small multilocular disc pores, of same size and structure as those on dorsum, distributed on most of ventral surface except last abdominal segments; and (3) discoidal disc pore, each ca. 5.0 μm in diameter, about 12–18 in number, located on segments VI and VIII around vulva. Setae of 2 sizes, larger each 43.0–63.5 μm long, a few on head and near coxae; small setae similar to those on dorsum, scattered over all ventral surfaces.

FIRST-INSTAR NYMPH ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ) (n=4)

Unmounted material. According to Kuwana (1902), crawler in life red, with antennae and legs pale.

Mounted material. Body oval, 0.24–0.27 mm long and 0.13–0.15 mm wide. Eyes present, round and prominent, 3–4 µm in diameter. Mouthparts well developed, with long stylets, labium 2-segmented. Antennae close together at base, 6-segmented, 75 μm long, apex club-shaped; basal segment large and cone-like, segment III cylindrical, segment II narrow and ring-like, with 1 campaniform sensillum; segments IV and IV also narrow and ring-like; apical segment broadest and longest, elongate ovoid, with 3 thin-walled pegs (fleshy setae), 2 or 3 long hair-like setae and one pair of coeloconic sensilla at apex. Length of antennal segments (μm): I 19, II 7, III 9, IV 5, V 6, VI 29. Legs developed, thick and short; trochanter with 2 campaniform sensilla on each surface; femur enlarged; tibia and tarsus fused; claw thick and curved, with a subapical denticle; a pair of knobbed claw digitules longer than claw. Lengths (μm): fore legs: coxa 11, trochanter+ femur 25–30, tibia + tarsus 19–22, claw 9–10; middle legs: coxa 10–12, trochanter+ femur 25–31, tibia + tarsus 19–21, claw 9–10; hind legs: coxa 10, trochanter+ femur 27–31, tibia + tarsus 20–22, claw 10–11; length of trochanter + femur nearly equal to that of tibia + tarsus. Thoracic spiracle without sclerotized bar and with no disc pores within atrium; abdominal spiracles apparently absent. Anus circular, subapical, located dorsally on anterior part of last abdominal segment. Posterior end of body with a pair of long hair-like apical setae, each 98–112 μm long, about half length of body.

Dorsum. Prothorax with one pair of long hair-like setae on margin, each 34–41 μm long. Short setae, each 4.0–5.0μm long, forming submedian longtidudinal rows on dorsal surface and submarginal longtidudinal rows only on abdomen. Disc pores of one type: discoidal pores each about 5μm in diameter, 20 in number, on margin of dorsum, distributed as follows: head with one pair near base of antennae; prothorax with 2 pairs, abdominal segments I–VII each with one pair.

Venter. With 3 pairs of long hair-like setae: one pair in front of mouthparts, each 10–14μm long; one pair submedially on venter behind coxa of fore leg, each 46 μm long, and a pair of short hair-like setae, 14–20 μm long on submedian ventral surface of last segment. Short setae, each 4.0–6.0μm long, forming submarginal and submedian longtidudinal rows on abdomen. Disc pores of 2 types: (1) multilocular disc pores, each with 6 outer loculi and 3.5–4.0 μm in diameter, 4 in number, with one near each thoracic spiracle; (2) discoidal pores, each about 1.5μm in diameter, only 2 in number, present in front of long hair-like setae on submedian ventral surface of last segment [This kind of simple disc pore was illustrated as a hair-like seta in figure 18A of Ferris (1919) and we also initially considered it to be a broken seta (based on only one individual), but we changed our opinion after examining and finding no setae in this position on 11 individuals of Kuwania raygilli sp. nov.].


Unmounted material. According to Kuwana (1902), body in life red.

Mounted material. Body broadly oval, almost circular, ca. 0.39–0.86 mm long, 0.30–0.75 mm wide, derm more or less sclerotized, with indistinct segmentation. Eyes absent. Mouthparts developed, labium 2-segmented. Antennae reduced to small plate-like structures, each with 3 short thin-walled pegs (fleshy setae). Legs wholly absent. Thoracic spiracles each with atrium 6.3–7.9 μm across and each with 9–12 multilocular pores in atrium; each atrial pore 3.5–4.0 μm in diameter and with 9, 10 or 12 (mainly 10) outer loculi. Abdominal spiracles in 4 pairs, one on each of anterior 4 abdominal segments, smaller than thoracic spiracles, each with atrium 4.0–5.6 μm across and with 5–7 multilocular disc pores (like those of thoracic spiracles) in atrium. Anal ring circular, located subapically on dorsum.

Dorsum. Setae absent. Multilocular disc pores of one type, 5.0–6.0 μm in diameter, with 7 to 10 (mainly 8 or 9) outer loculi, numerous, mainly forming a broad longitudinal band along margin, and a longitudinal band medially on dorsum, each of these 3 bands narrower and with fewer pores towards posterior end of body, but number and distribution of this type of disc pore quite variable, even different between 2 halves of one specimen.

Venter. Derm with almost no setae, only a small group (3–5) of small conical setae with round tip, located just behind opening of each thoracic spiracle. Multilocular disc pores similar to those as on dorsum, forming a longitudinal marginal band, the number also quite variable, even different between 2 halves of one specimen.

Remarks. K. quercus has been found only in China and Japan, and it appears to be an east-Asian species. There are two other Kuwania species recorded from Asia, i.e., K. bipora and K. pasaniae . K. quercus differs from K. bipora by the adult female having 4 pairs of abdominal spiracles and discoidal pores on the abdominal venter, and by the first-instar nymph having a discoidal pore on margin of abdominal segments II–IV and a pair of long hair-like setae behind the coxa of each fore leg, and by the intermediate-stage female lacking trilocular pores near the opening of the abdominal spiracles. K. quercus differs from K. pasaniae by adult female having 4 pairs of abdominal spiracles and each tibia having about 6 clubbed setae.













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