Aleochara (Tinotus) morion Gravenhorst, 1802,

Yamamoto, Shuhei & Maruyama, Munetoshi, 2016, Revision of the subgenus Tinotus Sharp, stat. n., of the parasitoid rove-beetle genus Aleochara Gravenhorst (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae) from Japan, Taiwan, and the Russian Far East, ZooKeys 559, pp. 81-106: 83-87

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.559.6755

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2E4E9D73-C921-4E82-B2E8-864C995F1CD2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/F533EDA1-0E30-B0B7-5A6A-02CC0A265991

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scientific name

Aleochara (Tinotus) morion Gravenhorst, 1802
status

comb. n.

Taxon classification Animalia Coleoptera Staphylinidae

Aleochara (Tinotus) morion Gravenhorst, 1802  comb. n. Figs 1, 4-8, 9-11, 12-19, 36

Aleochara morion  Gravenhorst, 1802: 97 (original description).

Tinotus morion  : Seevers 1978: 196 (male genitalia figured); Hanley 2002: 463 (catalogue of world species of Tinotus  ); Klimaszewski et al. 2002: 285 (key to Nearctic species of Tinotus  ), 294 (redescription); Smetana 2004: 362 (catalogue of Palearctic species of Aleocharinae  ); Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007: 30 (catalogue of Canadian and Alaskan species of Aleocharinae  ), 149 (dorsal habitus photographed); Klimaszewski et al. 2013: 16 (catalogue of Canadian Staphylinidae  ), 60 (redescription), 247 (dorsal habitus photographed), 273 (male and female genitalia figured); Schülke and Smetana 2015: 506 (catalogue of Palearctic species of Aleocharinae  ).

Aleochara (Tinotus) morion  See other references and synonymies in Hanley (2002) and Klimaszewski et al. (2002).

Type locality.

Braunschweig, Germany.

Non-type material examined.

JAPAN: Hokkaidô: 1 male, Nemuroshibetsu, Shibetsu-chô, 18.vii.1977, S.-I. Naomi leg. (KUM); 1 male, Lake Toro, Shibecha, 27.vii.1986, S. Nomura leg. (KUM); 1 male, 3 spec., Kamishumbetsu, Betsukai-chô, 20.vii.1977, S.-I. Naomi leg. (KUM); 1 male, Mt. Mashû-dake (just below the summit), 820 m, Teshikaga-chô, 15.vii.1990, sweeping of Carex  -grass, K. Haga leg. (KUM); 1 female, Shiretoko-tôge Pass, Rausu-chô, 3.viii.1989, bottom of gutter on roadside, K. Haga leg. (KUM); 1 male, 1 spec., Sakae-machi, Oshidomari, Rishirifuji-chô, S.-I. Naomi leg. (KUM); 2 females, 1 spec., Nukanan Dam (right bank), Memuro, Ashoro-chô, 30.vii.1988, human excrement, K. Haga leg. (KUM); 1 male, 1 female, 7 spec., Shihoro, Kamishihoro-chô, GPS 43°32 ’03.9” N, 143°09 ’58.5” E, 13.vii.2014, bear dung, S. Yamamoto leg. (KUM); 2 males, 1 female, 1 spec., Obihiro-shi, 6.vi.1980, H. Togawa leg. (KUM); 2 spec., Obihiro-shi, 7.vii.1980, H. Togawa leg. (KUM); Honshû: 1 female, Inashiki, Ibaraki-ken, 29.iv.1983, S. Ohmomo leg. (KUM); 1 male, Sugaya, Ranzan-machi, Saitama-ken, 10.iv.1994, K. Toyoda leg. (KUM); 1 female, Mt. Gagyû-san, Takahashi-shi, Okayama-ken, 29.v.1977, S.-I. Naomi leg. (KUM). RUSSIA: Far East: 1 male, Maltsevskaya Cape, Churkin, Vladivostok, Primorsky, 22.vi.1997, human excrement, M. Ôhara leg. (HUM).

Reference material examined.

AUSTRIA: Niederösterreich: 1 spec., "Ulrichskirchen / N. Ö., J. Spurny // morion  [HW] / grh. [HW] // Chicago NHMus / M. Bernhauer / Collection" ( FMNH); ITALY: Calabria: 1 spec., "Calabria / Cimina / lg. Paganetti // morion  [HW] / grh. [HW] / det. Bernh. // Chicago NHMus / M. Bernhauer / Collection" ( FMNH).

Diagnosis

(see Klimaszewski et al. 2002). This species can be distinguished from most members of the subgenus Tinotus  by the following combination of characters: body entirely black, rarely light brown (Fig. 1); median lobe of aedeagus of male with a basal protuberance in lateral view (Fig. 16: arrow); spermatheca with a simple and oblong spermathecal head, equally serrate inner walls inside spermathecal head, and with four coils at base (Fig. 19). Aleochara morion  is extremely similar to Aleochara (Tinotus) rougemonti  (Pace, 1993), comb. n. from China, including male-female genital structures, but the former species is discriminated from the latter by having longer sclerites inside a median lobe of the male aedeagus ( Pace 1993: Fig. 160), and by having four coils of the female spermatheca ( Aleochara rougemonti  with two coils; Pace 1993: fig. 162).

Redescription.

Measurements (in mm, n = 30): BL = 2.448 (1.777-2.996); HL = 0.382 (0.315-0.453); HW = 0.392 (0.332-0.451); PL = 0.421 (0.355-0.485); PW = 0.632 (0.518-0.724); EW = 0.737 (0.595-0.853).

Body (Fig. 1): fusiform, compact, and robust; dorsal surface moderately glossy and pubescent, covered with large micro-reticulation. Color (Fig. 1): usually uniformly black to blackish brown; antennomeres I–III dark brown, but segments IV to X darker with numerous minute whitish setae; mouthparts and legs yellowish brown to brown; pubescence yellowish brown to brown.

Head (Fig. 1): subquadrate, as long as width (HW/HL = 1.03, n = 30), widest at just behind eyes; setae on vertex rather dense, directed anteriomedially. Eyes: small, occupying approximately one third of head length, very slightly protruding laterally.

Mouthparts (Figs 5-8): labrum (Fig. 7) moderately transverse, approximately 1.70 times as wide as long (excluding basal apodeme), anterior margin slightly emarginate medially, basal apodeme semi-transparent; surface with pseudopores scattered scarcely. Labial palpus (Fig. 5): setula a well-developed, situated near apical margin of labial palpomere I, while that of b and c strongly reduced. Maxilla (Fig. 6): lacinia with a distal comb consisting of dense-thin spines; galea rather short, as long as maxillary palpomere II; maxillary palpomere IV narrow and short, less than half length of that of III. Mentum (Fig. 8): anterior margin broadly emarginate.

Antennae (Fig. 4): short, moderately shorter than head and pronotum combined; thick, setaceous, becoming gradually and slightly broaden apically in segments IV to X, with segments IV to X clearly transverse; segment XI symmetrical, obtusely pointed at apex; approximate relative length of segments from basal to apex: 22: 14: 16: 5: 5: 5: 6: 6: 7: 7: 19.

Pronotum (Fig. 11): convex above dorsally, transverse (PW/PL = 1.50, n = 30), moderately longer than sutural length of elytra, widest around below of basal half, basal margin weakly rounded; pubescence rather long, dense, directed laterally and posterolaterally; micro-reticulation conspicuous.

Mesoventrite (Fig. 9): completely carinate along midline; inter coxal process broadly elongate, with truncate apex, completely reaching to inter coxal process of metaventrite.

Elytra (Figs 1, 10): together, transverse, rather small, widest at middle; pubescence short, finely scattered densely, diverging posterolaterally in each elytron; dorsal surface rough, somewhat deeply impressed; posterolateral corner of each elytron moderately sinuate.

Legs (Fig. 1): simple, short and, moderately slender; fore and midtibia with dozens of undeveloped spines, respectively.

Abdomen (Fig. 1): first three visible tergites rather shallowly impressed transversely at base; dorsal and ventral surface covered with setae densely.

Male. Tergite VIII (Fig. 12): basal suture fully developed (see Maruyama 2006: 20); posterior margin very weakly serrate, insignificantly emarginate medially; dorsal surface covered with setae rather densely, with five macrosetae. Sternite VIII (Fig. 14): basal suture fully developed; posterior margin very weakly pointed; ventral surface cov ered with setae densely, with approximately six macrosetae. Median lobe of aedeagus (Figs 16, 17): very slender in parameral view; apical lobe slender, weakly narrowing apically, and gently curved paramerally in lateral view; a conspicuous protuberance present at base of apical lobe (see arrow); a pair of simple sclerites, narrowly elongate, longer than half length of apical lobe; flagellum well developed, slightly shorter than median lobe, sharply curved near basal plate. Apical lobe of paramerite (Fig. 18): narrowly elongate, widest just above middle, with sharply pointed apex.

Female. Tergite VIII (Fig. 13): basal suture fully developed; posterior margin very weakly serrate, insignificantly emarginate medially; dorsal surface covered with setae rather sparsely, with five macrosetae. Sternite VIII (Fig. 15): basal suture fully developed; posterior margin rounded; ventral surface covered with setae densely, with approximately seven macrosetae. Spermatheca (Fig. 19): L-shaped; spermathecal head and neck fused together, forming a narrowly elongate capsule; attachment of spermathecal duct inconspicuous; basal part of spermathecal stem moderate in size, slightly longer than spermathecal neck, with four coils attached at base; each part of spermatheca entirely and very weakly sclerotized; inner wall of spermathecal head and neck, along border with head, finely and densely striate.

Distribution.

This species has a wide range in distribution covering the entire Holarctic region, mainly Europe and North Africa ( Schülke and Smetana 2015). The records in the Nearctic region are regarded as those species introduced from Europe ( Klimaszewski et al. 2002). In Russia, the easternmost record reported is from West Siberia ( Schülke and Smetana 2015). We provide new distributional records of Aleochara morion  as follows: new country record, Japan ( Hokkaidô, Honshû); new regional record, the Russian Far East.

Bionomics.

SY collected eight specimens from one Hokkaido brown bear ( Ursus arctos  ) dung found on the roadside of a mixed needleleaf and broadleaf forest in Hokkaidô, Japan (Fig. 36). Aleochara morion  has been found among various habitats, such as decaying organic matter, including fungi, compost, animal excrement, and carrion ( Horion 1967). In addition, this species is found in moss, bark debris, straw, hay, and on sandy soil ( Klimaszewski et al. 2002).

Host records.

Three dipteran families are known as its host ( Maus et al. 1998): Sepsidae  , Drosophilidae  , and Sarcophagidae  .

Remarks.

Whether this species is native to East Asia or just an introduction from Europe is unknown, although the records from North America suggest this species has been introduced ( Klimaszewski et al. 2002). Recently, Pace (2013) recorded Aleochara morion  on the mainland of China.