Sadocus asperatus (Gervais, 1847)

Pessoa-Silva, Marilia, Hara, Marcos Ryotaro & Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo, 2021, Revision of the southern Andean genus Sadocus Sorensen, 1886 (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae), ZooKeys 1025, pp. 91-137: 91

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1025.57806

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:231B6931-2787-496E-B6B4-B87D59F5AC02

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/F5D43E8E-278D-5AE2-8249-E292A2DB4ACF

treatment provided by

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scientific name

Sadocus asperatus (Gervais, 1847)
status

 

Sadocus asperatus (Gervais, 1847)   Figures 2 View Figure 2 , 3A-E View Figure 3 , 8A, B View Figure 8 , 9A-C, E View Figure 9 , 11A, B View Figure 11 , 12A-C View Figure 12

Gonyleptes asperatus   Gervais, 1847: 577 [desc]; 1849: 26, pl. 1, fig 9 [rdesc]; Butler 1873: 113 [cat]; Sørensen 1902: 17 [syst]. Transferred to Lycomedes   by Sørensen 1902. ( MNHN, type lost, not examined) (RPR visited the museum but the curator was unable to find the type material)

Lycomedes asperatus   : Sørensen, 1902: 17 [syst]; Roewer 1913: 127-130, fig 57 [key, rdesc].

Lycomedicus asperatus   : Roewer, 1923: 442, fig 556 [rdesc]; 1925: 17 [cit]; 1929: 213 [cat]; Mello-Leitão 1931b: 84 [cit]; Canals 1936: 69 [cat]; Roewer 1938: 6 [cat]; Mello-Leitão 1939: 624 [cat]; Soares and Soares 1954: 270 [cat]; Ringuelet 1959: 329, fig 44 [rdesc]; H. Soares 1968: 264 [cit]; Cekalovic 1968: 8 [cat]; 1985: 18 [cat].

Sadocus asperatus   : Kury, 2003: 191 [cat]; Kury et al. 2020b [cat].

Sadocus   (?) Gonyleptes subsimilis   : Sørensen, 1902: 17 [cit]; Roewer 1913: 127-130, fig 57 [syst]. Synonymy with L. asperatus   established by Roewer 1913.

Gonyleptes polyacanthoides   Gervais, 1847: 577 [desc]; Butler 1873: 114 [cat]. Synonymy with G. subsimilis   established by Butler 1873. ( MNHN, type lost, material not examined) (RPR visited the Museum but the curator was unable to find the type material)

Gonyleptes subsimilis   Gervais, 1849 [desc]: 25, pl. 1, fig 8; Butler 1873: 114 [cat]; Sørensen 1902: 6 [syst], 16 [syst]. Synonymy with Sadocus   (?) Gonyleptes subsimilis   established by Sørensen 1902 ( MNHN, type lost, material not examined) (RPR visited the museum but the curator was unable to find the type material)

Gonyleptes bicornis   Gervais, 1849: 21, pl. 1, fig 4a-b [desc]; Butler 1873: 114 [cat]; Sørensen 1902: 19 [syst]. (type material depository unknown). syn. nov.

Lycomedes bicornis   : Sørensen, 1902: 20, fig 4-4b [rdesc]; Roewer 1913: 136-137, fig 62 [rdesc].

Lycomedicus bicornis   : Roewer, 1923: 445, fig 561 [cit]; Canals 1936: 69 [cat]; Soares and Soares 1954 a: 270 [cat]; Cekalovic 1968: 7 [cat], 1985: 18 [cat].

Sadocus bicornis   : Kury, 2003: 191 [cat]; Kury et al. 2020b [cat].

Discocyrtus calcitrosus   Loman, 1899: 7, fig 5 [desc]; Sørensen 1902: 19 [syst]. (type ZMB 7837, ma holotype - examined by detailed photographs).

Lycomedes calcitrosus   : Sørensen, 1902: 19 [syst]. Synonymy with L. asperatus   established by Roewer 1913.

Lycomedicus calcitrosus   : Moritz, 1971: 193 [cat].

Material examined.

Chile, date and collector unknown, 1 ma ( MCZ 31267 View Materials ). Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Santiago, date or collector unknown, 6 ma, 3 fe ( SMF 1369); Same, El Canelo, 16.I.1980, collector unknown, 2 ma ( AMNH); Same , 16.I.1980, collector unknown, 1 ma, 1 fe ( AMNH). Región de Valparaíso, collection date or collector unknown, 8 ma, 19 fe ( SMF 5382). Región de Biobío, Provincia de Concepcion , 22.I.1985, N.I. Platnick & O.F. Francke coll., 1 ma ( AMNH); Same , Estero Nonguen (-36.831501, -73.008374), 13.III.1977, T. Cekalovic coll., 1 ma ( MCZ 31275 View Materials ); Same, Cerro Caracol, Mirador Aleman (-36.834167, -73.047778), 15.IX.1968, T. Cekalovic coll., 1 ma, 3 fe ( MZSP 9965); Same, Provincia de Arauco, Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta (-37.800000, -73.033333), 30.XI.2003, I. Avila, S. Ocares & D. Silva coll., 1 ma ( CAS 9055050); Same, Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta (-37.8043374259, -73.0344813614, date or collector unknown, 1 ma, 1 fe ( CAS 9052227); Same, Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta (-37.827500, -73.009722), 9.XII.2010, F. Marques, F. Cadiz & F. Carbayo coll., 5 ma ( MZSP 36839); Same, Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta, (-37.827500, -73.009722), 9.XII.2010, F. Marques, F. Cadiz & F. Carbayo coll., 6 ma, 1 fe ( MZSP 36840); Same, Cayucupil, Pichinahuel, 23.XII.1976, collector unknown, 1 ma ( AMNH); Same (-37.766667, -73.333333), 9.II.1965, T. Cekalovic coll., 1 ma ( MZSP 27695). Region de Nuble , Provincia Diguillín, Chillán, Las trancas Nuble, XII.1976, collector unknown, 1 ma, 3 fe ( AMNH); Same, ?. XII.1976, collector unknown, 1 ma, 2 fe ( AMNH); Same, 11-17.I.1983, L.E. Pena coll., 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, XII.1974, collector unknown, 1 ma, 3 fe ( AMNH); Same, Las Trancas, (-36.600, -72.117), I.1967, L. Peña coll, 1 ma ( MCZ 38272 View Materials ); Same, Los Lleuques (-36.85800, -71.61700), 11-7.V.1975, G. Moreno coll., 1 ma, 4 fe ( MCZ 3125). Región de Araucanía, Provincia de Cautin , 27.I.1985, N.I. Platnick & O.F. Francke coll., 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, 6.XII.1992, T. Cekalovic & S. Gonzalez coll., 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, Fundo de las Selvas, 16-20.II.1981, L.E. Pena coll., 3 ma, 1 fe ( AMNH); Same, Fundo de las Selvas, 16-20.II.1981; L.E. Pena coll., 3 ma, 1 fe ( AMNH); Same, Villarrica (-39.03, -72.121), 1-30.I.1965, L. Peña coll., 1 ma ( MCZ 38265 View Materials ); Same, (-39.03, -72.121), 1-30.I.1965, L. Peña coll., 5 ma ( MCZ 31263 View Materials ); Same, 1 ma ( MCZ 31264 View Materials ); Same, 6 fe, 4 ma ( MCZ 31232 View Materials ); Same, 1 ma, 3 fe ( MCZ 31270 View Materials ); Same, Flor del Lago Ranch (-39.2044664427, -72.1279383487), 11.XII.2003, I. Avila & D. Silva coll., 1 ma, 2 fe ( CAS 9055035); Same, 2 ma ( CAS 9055009); Same, Pucón, 12.I.1951, E. Ross & A. Michelbacher coll., 3 ma, 7 fe ( CAS 9055052); Same, Angol, Sierra Nahuelbuta, 13.I.1951, E. Ross & A. Michelbacher coll., 1 ma ( CAS, 9055400); Same, Angol (-37.829000, -73.007278), 25-27.XII.2016, A. Anker & P.H. Martins coll., 1 fe ( UFMG 22643); Same, 2 fe ( UFMG 22644); same, 1 ma ( UFMG 22645); Same, 1 ma, 1 fe ( UFMG 22646); same, 2 fe ( UFMG 22647); Same, 1 ma ( UFMG 22649); Same, Temuco, 8.I.1951, E. Ross & A. Michelbacher coll., 1 ma ( CAS 9052224); Same, Cerro Ñielol (-38.726389, -72.590833), 26.I.2010, R. Pinto-da-Rocha, F. Cádiz L. & D. Cádiz L. coll., 5 ma, 5 fe ( MZSP 36836); Same, Provincia de Malleco , Caracatín, VI.1975, collector unknown, 1 ma, 1 fe ( AMNH); Same, Purén, Monumento Natural Contulmo, (-38.01256, -73.18517), 12.XI.2014, G. Giribet, G. Hormiga & A. Pérez-González coll., 1 ma, 1 fe ( MCZ 138066); Same, Monumento Nacional Contulmo (-38.012778, -73.187500), 12.XII.2010, F. Marques, F. Cádiz & F. Carbayo coll., 9 ma, 10 fe, 3 juvs. ( MZSP 36967). Región de Los Lagos, Provincia de Llanquihue , 13.II.1994, T. Cekalovic coll., 6 ma, 9 fe ( AMNH). Región de Los Ríos, Provincia de Valdivia , date or collector unknown, 2 ma, 4 fe ( SMF 783); Same, 2 ma, 3 fe ( SMF 778); Same, 28.II.1993, T. Cekalovic coll., 2 ma ( AMNH); Same, (-39.81389, -73.24583), 15-20.XI.1978, E. Krahmer coll., 3 ma, 4 fe ( MCZ 31274 View Materials ); Same, Panguipulli, Puerto Fuy, 24.II.1978, collector unknown, 1 ma ( AMNH); Same, Valdivia GoogleMaps   , Isla Teja (-39.81389, -73.24583), 6.III.1965, H. Levi coll., 1 ma ( MCZ 31231 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis.

Sadocus asperatus   resembles S. ingens   , S. polyacanthus   , and S. dilatatus   by the bifid prodorsal apical apophysis on coxa IV. S. asperatus   can be distinguished from the latter species by the combination of the following characters: lateral margin of dorsal scutum covered by granules; trochanter IV with a blunt retro-dorsal apical apophysis being half of the podomere length, and a rhombus retro-ventral apical tubercle; femur IV curved (in dorsal view), with a retro-lateral row of spiniform apophysis (the middle one longest).

Redescription.

Male ( CAS 9055035). Measurements. Dorsal scutum maximum length 6.3; dorsal scutum maximum width 7.2; prosoma maximum length 2.5; prosoma maximum width 3.2; leg femora I 3.2; II 6.5; III 5.5; IV 7.2. Dorsum (Fig. 3A View Figure 3 ). Dorsal scutum type gamma triangular. Carapace with granules sparsely distributed. Scutal areas I-IV with eight, four, two and four granules, respectively; scutal area III with one pair of paramedian spiniform tubercles; scutal area IV incompletely divided. Lateral margin of dorsal scutum mostly covered in granules (from posterior half of carapace to posterior margin of dorsal scutum). Posterior margin of dorsal scutum and free tergite I each with a pair of paramedian tubercles. Chelicerae. Segment I with basal tubercle, bulla with small setae, each finger with five teeth. Pedipalps. Coxa dorsal face smooth, ventral face with two apical tubercles. Trochanter dorsal and ventral faces smooth. Femur ventral face granulate. Patella with sparsely distributed setae. Tibial setation: prolateral IiiiIi/IiiiIi; retro-lateral iIiIi/IiIi. Tarsal setation: prolateral and retro-lateral IiIi/IiIi. Legs (Fig. 3B-E View Figure 3 ). Coxa IV with one long, oblique, bifid prodorsal apical apophysis and one retro-ventral apical spine. Trochanters I and II each with one pair of prodorsal spiniform tubercles. Trochanter III with one medio-ventral tubercle and three retro-lateral ones. Trochanter IV prodorsal and proventral faces with few granules, the prodorsal apical apophysis long (ca. half the podomere length); retro-lateral face with one basal, one central, and one apical tubercles; one retro-dorsal apical spiniform apophysis (ca. ¼ podomere length); ventral face with setiferous tubercles sparsely distributed. Femur III with one retro-basal tubercle. Femur IV sigmoid, with dorsal row of apophysis on the basal half abruptly decreasing in size apically, becoming granules; prolateral row with central-subapical tubercles; retro-lateral row of granules with spiniform apophysis (basal most and central one longer than the others, apical most oblique, curved ventrad); ventral face with two short retro-lateral sub-apical spiniform apophyses and one proapical spiniform apophysis. Patella IV ventral face mostly smooth, with one probasal, one proapical and one retro-apical large, spiniform tubercles. Tibia IV roughly with two ventral rows of granules increasing in size from central to apical becoming spines. Tarsal counts: 6, 9, 7, 8. Penis (Fig. 11A, B View Figure 11 ). Ventral plate of penis with moderate cleft on anterior margin, three pairs of MS A, one pair of MS B, four or five pairs of MS C and one pair of MS D, without MS E.

Coloration. Immersed in ethanol: carapace, trochanter-patella IV brown, tibia light brown, legs I-III, pedipalps, and chelicerae yellowish-brown. Live specimens (Fig. 9A-C, E View Figure 9 ): carapace, coxa, and trochanter black, light gray spot (inverted T shape) from ocularium to scutal area II; femora I-III orange; patellae-tibiae I-IV brown.

Variations (n = 56). Scutal area I-IV tubercles (5 minimum, 16 maximum per site), Measurements. Dorsal scutum maximum length 6.0-8.5; dorsal scutum maximum width 6.7-11.6; prosoma maximum length 2.5-3.5; prosoma maximum width 3.2-4.8; leg femora: I 3.2-5.0; II 6.5-10.0; III 5.5-8.5; IV 7.2-11.0.

Female ( CAS 9055035). Measurements. Dorsal scutum maximum length 6.3; dorsal scutum maximum width 8.1; prosoma maximum length 2.6; prosoma maximum width 3.7; leg femora: I 3.7; II 7; III 6.1; IV 7.2.

Redescription.

Dorsum (Fig. 8A, B View Figure 8 ). Scutal areas I, II, and IV with three, five, and two granules, respectively. Legs. Coxa IV with one prodorsal apical apophysis and one retro-ventral apical spine shorter than on the male, trochanter IV with retro-lateral row of tubercles, the apical one longest, femur IV with pro- and retro-ventral rows of tubercles, patella-metatarsi IV unarmed. Tarsal counts: 6, 9, 7, 8. Ovipositor (Fig. 12A-C View Figure 12 ). Two main groups of lobes delimited by a constriction, ovipositors peripheral setae inserted into sockets that are a mixture of dorsal and ventral sockets, the dorsal lobe with five setae and the ventral one with six; each main group of lobes divided by a fissure.

Variations (n = 66). Tubercle variation in the scutal areas: I 2-7; II 1-8; III 2-8; IV 3-5. Free tergites I-III each with one pair of blunt or pointed spiniform tubercles. Measurements. Dorsal scutum maximum length 5.9-8.2; dorsal scutum maximum width 8.0-9.6; prosoma maximum length 2.4-3.5; prosoma maximum width 3.7-4.5; leg femora: I 3.5-4.5; II 6.7-8.7; III 5.7-7.0; IV 7.0-8.9.

Type locality.

Of Gonyleptes asperatus   and Gonyleptes subsimilis   : CHILE. Of Discocyrtus calcitrosus   : CHILE, Región de Los Rios, Provincia de Valdivia, Corral.

Geographical distribution

(Fig. 2 View Figure 2 ). Chile, Región de Los Ríos, Valdivia, Corral; Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Santiago; Región de Valparaíso; Región de Biobío, Provincia de Concepción, Provincia de Arauco, Provincia de Nuble; Región de Araucanía, Provincia de Cautin, Provincia de Malleco; Región de Los Lagos, Provincia de Llanquihue.

Taxonomic notes.

After examining the original description and the drawing of Gonyleptes bicornis   , we concluded that it is of a male of S. asperatus   . In the original description, the spines on the free tergite, the two apical apophyses on the trochanter IV and uneven spines in the inner part of the “leg” (referring to the femur IV) are mentioned. Those characters lead us to conclude that it is S. asperatus   .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Opiliones

Family

Gonyleptidae

Genus

Sadocus

Loc

Sadocus asperatus (Gervais, 1847)

Pessoa-Silva, Marilia, Hara, Marcos Ryotaro & Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo 2021
2021
Loc

Lycomedicus asperatus

Roewer 1913
1913
Loc

Lycomedicus bicornis

Roewer 1913
1913
Loc

Lycomedicus calcitrosus

Roewer 1913
1913
Loc

Discocyrtus calcitrosus

Loman 1899
1899
Loc

Sadocus

Sorensen 1886
1886
Loc

Sadocus

Sorensen 1886
1886