Basiceros disciger ( Mayr 1887 )
treatment provided by
|Basiceros disciger ( Mayr 1887 )|
Ceratobasis disciger Mayr 1887: 581 (worker) Brazil.
Brown & Kempf 1960: 180 (gyne).
Brown 1974: 140 (male diagnosis).
Combination in Basiceros: Emery 1924: 328 .
Combination in Basiceros: Brown 1974: 140 .
Type material. BRAZIL: Santa Catarina: no locality, no date, Hecko (?) col., (one worker — holotype of Ceratobasis disciger ) [ NHMW] (examined); no locality, no date, Goeldi col. (one worker — paratype [?]) [ AMNH] (examined) .
Diagnosis. Head in frontal view with vertexal margin crested, medially emarginate and confluent at this point with the central convexity of head dorsum.
Description. Worker (n=5). HL 1.13–1.39, HL2 1.14–1.41, HW1 1.03–1.27, MdL 0.56–0.64, SL1 0.66–0.75, SL2 0.73–0.84, PDL 0.09–0.11, A3L 0.03, AFL 0.33–0.36, FuL 0.78–0.89, EL 0.09–0.16, EW 0.09–0.13, ML 1.34– 1.55, MfL 0.91–1.11, MtL 0.75–0.88, PH 0.28–0.31, PL 0.53–0.69, PW 0.25–0.31, PPL 0.38–0.48, PPW 0.50–0.53, GL 1.34–1.63, GW 1.00–1.09, TL 5.20–6.34, CI 91–94, CS 1.08–1.31, MCI 47–50, SI 66–72, ESI 12–18, SAI2 223–236, EI1 0.17–0.21, MFI 112–114, PTI 180–188.
Size small to medium, comparatively. Color yellowish-brown to dark brown; appendages lighter, yellowish to dark brown. Mandibles generally lighter than the predominant body coloration; covered by sparse and minute piligerous punctures, apex with short yellowish setae; interdental setae present, yellowish and filiform, subequal to teeth length. Basimandibular setae present, fine and erect. Suberect and clavate hair on the dorsomedial region of each stipe. Frontoclypeal margin covered with spaced piligerous punctuations. Pilosity on head dorsum restricted to a pair of clavate hairs on the posteromedian region, close to the median emargination of vertexal crest.
Head lateral and vertexal margins covered by yellowish clavate or subclavate hairs, erect to suberect in the following configuration: seven clavate hairs on the side of head, starting from the region above the eyes and bordering the anterior limit of scrobe and the posterior limit of vertexal crest; four hairs on each side of the dorsal (anterior) edge of vertexal crest; three hairs on each side (before median emargination) on vertexal margin. Ventral head surface densely covered by suberect and clavate hairs. Mesosoma and metasoma with subdecumbent pilosity surrounding the anterolateral margin of pronotum; on dorsum of mesonotum and propodeum; on lateral of propodeal declivitous margin; densely on the dorsum of petiolar and postpetiole nodes; one to two pairs on each side of the anterolateral region of postpetiolar sternite; on the laterodorsal regions of gaster; on the anterolateral region of procoxae and on the dorsum of meso- and metacoxae; on the legs, from trochanters to basitarsus dorsa. Erect and clavate hairs in the following configuration: two pairs on each margin of humeral angle, two pairs on the dorsum of mesonotum; two pairs on the dorsum of petiolar node: one pair at the anterior limit and one pair at the posterior limit; two to three pairs on the dorsum of postpetiole: one pair close to the median region and another pair at the posterior limit; five to eight pairs on each side of the first gastral tergite; row of six hairs in the visible portion of the second, third and fourth gastral tergites; similar configuration of gastral dorsum also on the ventral region of this somite. Mesosternum shelf (surrounded by epicnemial carina) with short, filiform setae along its length. Long and filiform setae present in the anterior portion of the procoxa and on the median portion of the first gastral sternite. Thick and suberect setae present from the ventral margin of basitarsus to apical tarsomere. Antenna pilosity: dorsal surface of scape primarily covered by short, subdecumbent, subclavate hairs; external margin of scape with long erect hairs; funiculus densely covered with short yellowish setae; ventral margin of scape with longitudinal rows of curved and subdecumbent medium setae.
Body mostly smooth and shiny on glabrous regions. Head punctuate-rugose; irregular rugae present on the posterior portion of the frontal tumosity; surface of antennal scrobe predominantly punctuate-foveate, posterolateral portion punctuate-rugose; ventral margin rugose. Pronotum laterally foveate; anterior margin with irregular transverse rugae. Dorsum of mesonotum, anterodorsal region of propodeum, dorsal surface of meso- and metacoxae and dorsum of petiolar and postpetiolar nodes punctuate-rugose. Anterior portion of mesopleuron punctuate-rugose. Side of propodeum with oblique and irregular rugae. Surface of propodeal slope sparsely punctuate-rugose. Gaster densely punctuate-reticulate; tergite of abdominal segments V, VI, and VII finely and densely punctuate, slightly opaque, tergal margins smooth and shiny; sculpture of first gastral sternite limited to the lateral limits and posterior portion of this sclerite; remaining surface smooth, from subopaque to shiny. Antennal scapes smooth or finely rugose, usually shiny. Funiculi densely and finely punctuate, usually opaque. Legs smooth or rugose; procoxae punctuate-foveate.
Head disc-shaped, laterally convex; sides of head bordered by a raised margin that extends from the eye height to posterolateral region and behind the head, forming a crest. Face with central tumosity from the frontoclypeal portion to vertex margin, resembling the shape of a bowling pin (narrower in its central portion). Frontal sulcus present along the tumosity. Vertexal margin with convex corners, slightly projected backward; vertexal crest conspicuous and moderately emarginated. Cervical margin carinate. Palp formula 2,2; palps strongly fused, giving the impression of being unsegmented. Stipes subrectangular. Labrum cuneiform; distal margin bilobed, lobes tapered and separated by narrow cleft. Mandibular triangular; in full-face view, lateral margins of mandibles slightly concave; basal margin lamellar close to basal angle, which is obtuse; masticatory margin with 11–13 triangular teeth, apical tooth slightly curved; in lateral view mandibular apex slightly curved ventrally. Clypeus anteriorly lamellate; anterolateral portion gently convex; anterior margin slightly concave in its median portion. Scape with slightly obtuse basal angle and concave margin before the beginning of a translucent and crenulate lamellar portion. Deep antennal fossa.
Lateral profile mesosoma with a bulging promesonotal complex, obliquely inclined on its posterior portion; propodeum oblique, anterior margin raised and abruptly followed by the sloping face. In dorsal view, promesonotal suture practically indistinct; metanotal suture broad and strongly impressed, longitudinally costulate. Mesopleuron anteriorly emarginate, interrupted at the meeting with a conspicuous epicnemial fossa. In dorsal view, propodeum dorsum anteriorly narrow, slightly triangular. Propodeal slope laterally carinate and with transverse carina connecting to short, triangular, and slightly upward curved propodeal projections. Opening of the propodeal spiracle rounded. Metapleural gland bulla protruding, prominent; opening transversal and covered by cuticular lamella. Petiolar peduncle longitudinally carinate on the dorsal surface. In lateral view, petiole claviform; petiolar node with anterior surface slightly concave, dorsal margin dome-shaped to convex; postpetiole convex. Subpetiolar process highly variable: from absent to composed of bifid anterior process followed by spines and/or angular lamellar processes. In dorsal view, petiolar node longitudinally trapezoid, anterior margin narrower and rounded, posterior margin straight; postpetiole slightly wider than long; anterior margin emarginate; posterior margin convex and widely inserted to the anterior concavity of gaster. Gaster anteriorly emarginate; median gastral sulcus present, practically obsolete and extending over the entire dorsum of the first tergite, slightly narrower posteriorly. Calcar of strigil pectinate. Tarsal claws simple.
Gyne (n=4). HL 1.25–1.44, HL2 1.28–1.47, HW1 1.25–1.41, MdL 0.59–0.69, SL1 0.75–0.78, SL2 0.81–0.91, PDL 0.11, A3L 0.03, AFL 0.34–0.41, FuL 0.88–1.03, EL 0.19–0.22, EW 0.19, LOD 0.06–0.08, MOD 0.06–0.09, OOD 0.44–0.55, ML 1.59–1.89, MSL 0.75–0.91, MSW 0.78–0.94, MLL 0.28–0.38, MLW 0.42–0.50, MfL 1.06– 1.19, MtL 0.84–0.95, PH 0.38–0.41, PL 0.72–0.81, PW 0.31–0.38, PPL 0.47–0.53, PPW 0.56–0.61, GL 1.72–1.97, GW 1.25–1.38, TL 6.38–7.33, CI 97–100, CS 1.25–1.42, MCI 47–53, SI 64–67, ESI 22–25, SAI2 223–236, EI1 0.27–0.33, MTI 103–104, MLI 133–155, MFI 115–118, PTI 191–200.
Color similar to workers; sizer slightly larger; mesosomal sculpture more developed. Pronotum with irregular foveae close to anterior margin of mesoscutum; dorsum of mesoscutum with coarse and irregular longitudinal rugae,
forming fovea of different sizes. In lateral view, pronotum, mesoanepisternum and mesokatepisternum with coarse and/or foveal punctuations, both sparse; surface of metanepisternum and metakatepisternum slightly granulate, subopaque; dorsum of the propodeum declivitous face covered by transversal rugae. Cephalic dorsum with three ocelli: median ocelli inserted slightly below and lateral ocelli inserted just above the pair of clavate and erect hairs. Head pilosity as in workers. Pilosity of anterolateral margin of pronotum denser and longer than in workers. Clavate and erect hairs on mesosoma in the following conformation: three pairs close to humeral angles and surrounding the posterior limit of pronotum; about eight pairs on the dorsum of mesoscutum; three hairs on the lateral margin, just above wing insertions; one pair on each parapsis; one pair on the lateral region of axillae; two pairs on the dorsum of mesoscutellum; a pair on the metanotal flange, suberect. Pilosity of petiole same as for workers; hairs on postpetiolar dorsum more abundant; postpetiolar sternite with four pairs of curved and subdecumbent clavate hairs. Hairs on gaster more abundant than on workers. In dorsal view, mesoscutum anteriorly rounded, slightly cuneiform and with smooth and shiny median carina; posterior margin slightly convex medially at the meeting with scutoscutellar suture; notauli indistinct; parapsidal lines narrow and inconspicuous, involved by the sculpture, slightly curved; parapsis shallow; tegulae subrectangular, apically rounded. Pre-scutellum narrow; axillae projected posteriorly, rounded and slightly depressed. Scutoscutellar suture well-marked, sulcus broad and semicircular, relatively shallow. Mesoscutellum transversely subrectangular, anterior limit concave. Dorsal face of propodeum strongly inclined; in lateral view, declivitous margin emarginate; propodeal projections obtuse and angled. In lateral view, anapleural sulcus broader anteriorly at the connection with the epicnemial fossa, narrowing posteriorly. First gastral sternite with median region slightly projected on basal half. Wing venation unknown (only dealate gynes were examined).
Male (first description) (n=3). HL 0.81–0.90, HW1 0.75–0.84, HW2 0.88–0.95, MdL 0.37–0.39, SL2 0.19–0.22, PDL 0.11–0.13, A3L 0.33–0.38, AFL 0.59–0.63, EL 0.28–0.31, EW 0.25–0.27, LOD 0.08–0.09, MOD 0.08–0.09, OOD 0.34–0.37, ML 1.45–1.58, MSL 0.72–0.81, MSW 0.72–0.75, MLL 0.250–0.28, MLW 0.41–0.44, MfL 1.16– 1.19, MtL 0.86–0.92, PH 0.23–0.28, PL 0.63–0.69, PW 0.25–0.28, PPL 0.31–0.37, PPW 0.40–0.47, GL 1.40– 1.65, GW 0.90–0.98, TL 4.98–5.59, CI 892–931, CS 0.78–0.88, MCI 43–46, SI 25–26, ESI 142–150, SAI 57–58, SAI2 31–35, EI1 0.66–0.71, EI2 85–88, MTI 92–100, MLI 155–162, MFI 64–71, PTI 244–266. (In bold, measurement from a male with dilated gaster).
Size slightly smaller than conspecific gyne. Color dark brown to black; shiny portion of mesoanepisternum dark brown; yellowish to brown appendages, coxae brown. Distal portion of mandibles amber. Wings dark brown. Mandibles with long fine semierect to subdecumbent yellow hairs on dorsum and apex, slightly longer on the latter. Head with two main types of hair: medium, yellow and fine, subdecumbent; primarily on the frontal disc of clypeus; and long and whitish to yellowish, sometimes with a curved apex along the genal carina, on the vertexal margin and ventral surface. The second hair type is widely present throughout the body: on the dorsum of the mesosoma, waist and gaster, ocellar region, procoxae and petiolar dorsum. Antennomeres with short yellowish appressed setae. Legs with medium yellowish decumbent to decumbent setae. White and short hairs from subdecumbent to decumbent on anterior half of the mesokatepisternum and on procoxae dorsa.
Body uniformly punctuate-reticulate, minor changes on diameter and degree of sculpture impression. Apical portion of mandibles smooth and shiny. Irregular longitudinal rugae sometimes present above compound eyes, reaching posterolateral corner of postgenal carina, on neck, and weakly on vertexal margin close to the occipital carina. Mesoscutellum dorsum, metakatepisternum, and propodeum strongly rugose. Mesoanepisternum slightly darker, smooth and very shiny in just over half or 2/3 of its length; mesokatepisternum fully punctuate-reticulate. Oblique rugae present or not on the lateral region of propodeum, near the edge of declivitous face. Dorsolateral rugae present on the anterior portion of the petiolar node.
Head subpiriform; in full-face view, median triangular crest on its top, just above the ocelli; occipital carina wide and lamellar, medially concave. Palp formula 1,1; palps slightly compressed on its apical half; maxillary palp slightly larger in size and slightly wider than labial. Stipes subrectangular. Mandibles triangular, apically curved; masticatory margin with 11 triangular teeth of similar size. Clypeus with central disc convex, slightly elevated; anterior margin lamellar, ranging from distinct to slightly inconspicuous; slightly concave. Postgenal carina present and well-marked, extending to the vertexal margin. Narrow and linear carina, smooth, just after the supraclypeal region and extending posteriorly into the head until just above the antennal fossae. Antennal arch expanded as a swollen posterolateral lobe, completely hiding the antennal bulb in full-face view. Pedicel longer than wide, third antennomere about twice as long as pedicel. Compound eyes large and globular, protruding from the cephalic capsule. Ocelli projected, caramel-colored; transversal rugae present or not between the lateral ocelli.
In dorsal view, mesoscutum cuneiform, elongated anteriorly. Smooth and shiny carina present on the anteromedial region of mesoscutum, variably extending as a line near the dorsal margin. Notauli V-shaped, broad and extending close to posterior limit of parapsides—from there, converging as a single, indistinct line until the transscutal suture. Parapsidal lines smooth and shiny; slightly depressed, curved on anterior portion, subparallel and slightly sinuous on its median portion; apex wider. Parapsides narrow, slightly elliptical. Transscutal suture slightly angled medially, median portion from distinct to relatively indistinct. Axillae protruding, strongly curved posteriorly; hookshaped and with rounded apexes. Anapleural sulcus broad and scrobiculate, strongly impressed—mesoanepisternum raised above mesokatepisternum. Scutoscutellar sulcus smooth and deep, with transversal carinae. Mesoscutellum subrectangular; depressed on posteromedian region; posterior margin strongly concave and depressed. Posterior margin of metanotum lamellar. Propodeal projections short, laminar, and obtuse; slightly projected upwards or not. Propodeal lobes auricular. Calcar of strigil short and pectinate. Tarsal claws simple; arolia present, short and narrow. In lateral view petiole claviform; dorsal face from bulging to strongly convex; ventral margin without subpetiolar process. Postpetiole approximately half the length of petiole in lateral view. In dorsal view, petiolar node longitudinally elliptical; petiolar spiracle projected. Forewing type 2; hindwing with 4–5 submedian hamuli.
Etymology. from the Greek, “ disci ”, variant of “ dískos ”: disco; “ Gerous ” = “ ger ”, a derivative of the Latin “ gerere ” which means to possess, to carry + “ ous ”, a Latin suffix that forms adjectives that in general mean “to possess, full of” certain quality. Dr. Gustav Mayr must have named this species based on the shape of the vertexal margin, whose rounded corners form a distinct cephalic disc.
Comments. Brown & Kempf (1960: 179) mention the transitional form of Aspididris discigera within the genus Basiceros when comparing the head shape between B. convexiceps and Aspididris militaris . The authors conclude that “while the generic split seems almost academic, the distinction can still be drawn rather clearly on a practical basis, and there seems to be no good reason to synonymize Aspididris (under Basiceros ) unless further intergradient species are found” (what eventually happened after Brown’s 1974 description of B. conjugans ).
Among all Basiceros species, B. disciger presents the greatest morphological variation, associated with its wide geographic distribution (see below). Features in adult workers and gynes, such as size, sculpture (especially head, mesopleuron, and gaster), body coloration, impression of the metanotal suture, shape of petiolar node, and the amplitude of the median convergence of the vertexal crest appear in different combinations and gradations, making it difficult to distinguish a specific obvious pattern on the geographic scale covered by this species. Regardless, head shape (with a median emarginated vertexal crest), promesonotum profile, and specialized pilosity (when not lost to abrasion) are considerably uniform characters in all specimens examined. After examining a significant number of specimens from different geographic regions, a more comprehensive concept regarding species boundaries for B. disciger is adopted for the present study. Nevertheless, it cannot be disregarded for this taxon to be an assemblage of cryptic species, situation that a phylogeography study could potentially address.
The examination of AntWeb photographs of specimens collected in Misiones, northeastern Argentina (CASENT0006143) and Itapuá, southern Paraguay (CASENT0173734) revealed that they are intercastes. In fullface view, the Argentinian specimen shows a frontal sulcus (generally narrow and restricted to the frontal region of the head) wide and surrounded by piligerous punctuations, extending to the widest point of the head, a little above the median ocellus. The lateral ocelli are located just above the posterior limit of this sulcus. In the Paraguayan specimen, although the frontal sulcus is not as conspicuous, it is present surrounded by piligerous punctuations. The median ocellus is partially hidden under the integument, and the lateral ocelli are present as integumentary impressions bearing a clavate hair. Although the frontal sulcus is present in the true gynes of B. disciger , the ocelli are inserted close to the median convergence of the vertex crest, contrary to what was observed in these two intercastes. In addition to the presence of this sulcus and the ocelli, the mesosoma has clavate hairs surrounding what would be the mesoscutal impression; in dorsal view, it is possible to distinguish the impression of the scutellar sulcus and a wider and more marked metanotal suture than in workers. Since it is only possible to establish the presence of ovaries by dissecting the specimen before fixing it, there is no way to attribute a reproductive role to these two specimens. However, these specimens are not considered the result of teratology, as other B. disciger specimens either had similar characteristics of these intercastes, contrasting to specimens that showed defective formations of appendages, especially the head—probable failures during their development.
Of all specimens examined during the dissertation project, about 45% were of B. disciger . Many projects developed under the guidance of the senior author of the present study were developed in points located across the Atlantic Forest biome, especially in the Serra do Mar mountain chain. For this reason, the MZSP has impressive material from the Southeast region of Brazil. For example, for the present study, several specimens from the Picinguaba region within the Serra do Mar State Park were examined, from distinct sites.
Distribution. Basiceros disciger displays the widest geographic distribution in Basiceros . For the present study, new records are presented for Argentina (first record), Bolivia (first records), Colombia, Ecuador (first records), Paraguay (new records), Peru, and Venezuela. For the Brazilian territory, specimens were collected across a large extension of the Atlantic Forest, from the States of Rio Grande do Sul to Alagoas. When considering the records for Western Amazon, Atlantic Forest, State of Mato Grosso, Bolivia, and Paraguay, the “V-shaped” distribution of B. disciger can probably be explained by old connections (mid to late Miocene) between modern Cerrado and southern Mato Grosso to the Chaco and savannas of Bolivia and Paraguay; those connecting the Atlantic and Amazon forests in the past.
Natural history. Basiceros disciger debunks the myth that Basiceros species are rarely collected. The advent of extensive collections and the use of Winkler extractors reveal that, at least for B. disciger , this genus is a common inhabitant of litter and topsoil layers. For example, Scott-Santos (2008) studied six different elevation ranges in the Picinguaba region of Serra do Mar State Park, collecting 20 1m 2 litter samples in each elevation range, submitted to Winkler extractors for 48 hours. Scott-Santos found B. disciger in 14 and 12 samples at altitudinal quotas of 400 and 600m, respectively. This species is also found in areas with a relative degree of anthropization. One specimen was collected in a trail edge area, in the Xixová-Japuí State Park (southwest of the state of São Paulo) with tertiary vegetation in a medium degree of regeneration (Probst et al., in review).
Material examined. ARGENTINA: Misiones: 20km SE de Puerto Iguazú, 31.xii.1990, Stewart B. Peck & Jarmila Peck cols., CASENT 0006143 (1 intercaste) [ CAS]; BOLIVIA: Cochabamba: 109km E of Cochabamba, 17°08’52”S 65°42’64”W, 1400m, 03.ii.1999, R. Anderson, n. 18627 (1 worker); Caranavi: near Radio (not identified), 800 m (GPS refers to town at 960m a.s.l.), 24–26.vi.1981, Kugler & Lambert cols., MCZ 546465 (1 worker) [ MCZ]; Santa Cruz: Buena Vista, Lat. -17.45 Long. 63.66667, 18.xii. 1993, 350m, P.S.Ward#12438-19/ CASENT 0914887 (1 worker) [ UCDC]; BRAZIL: Alagoas: Quebrângulo, Reserva Pedra Talhada, 05.viii.1999, K. A. Santos col. (5 workers) [ CEPEC]; Quebrângulo—WF, 09°19’S 36°28’W, Carmo, J. C. S. do col. (1 worker) [ MZSP]; Bahia: Ilheus, Pimenteira, 14°32.72’S 39°25.39’W, 06.x.1997, Santos, J. R. M. & Carmo, J. C. S. cols., n. 928 (?) (1 gyne) [ CEPEC]; Vitória da Conquista, Poço Escuro, 14°50’28”S 40°50’20”W, 09–17.i.2001, Carmo, J. C. S. col. (3 workers) [ CEPEC]; Espírito Santo: Reserva Biológica Nova Lombardia; 4 km N de Santa Teresa, 24.ii. 1967, 900m, W.L. Brown col., MCZ 546466 (2 workers, 1 male) [ MCZ]; Santa Teresa, Estação Biológica Santa Lúcia 19°58’09”S 40°32’15”W, 20–24.i.2001, Schoereder, J. H. & Ribas, C. R. cols. (1 gyne) [ MZSP]; Goiás: Campo Limpo, Fazenda Conceição, 16°19’51.0”S 49°09’49.2”W, 02–07.vii.2005, Silva R. R. col. (1 worker) [ MZSP]; Mato Grosso do Sul: Bonito, R.P.P.N. Brasil Bonito, 21°06’27”S 56°38’14”W, xi. 2009, Silvestre, R. et al. cols. (2 workers) [MuBio]; Minas Gerais: Conceição do Mato Dentro, Serra da Serpentina, 19.03394°S 43.33678°W, Área 3, 18–28.iii.2008, R. R. Silva col. (2 workers); same data, 18–28.iii.2009, Silva, R. R. col. (1 worker); same locality, 17–27.v.2011, R. R. Silva & E. Z. Albuquerque cols. (9 workers, 4 gynes) [ MZSP]; Lima Duarte, P.E. do Ibitipoca, Mata Grande, 14.x.2011, Pigello Queiroz col. (1 gyne) [ MZSP]; Serra do Brigadeiro ( PESB), 20°39’16”S 42°24’58”W, 1300–1800m, i.2007, R. Solar col. (1 worker) [ UFV]; Viçosa, Mata do Paraíso, 20°48’28.3’’S 42°51’01.4’’W, 750m, 1.v.2013, J. Chaul, R. Jesus, F. Rezende, L. Ribeiro cols., H11-E11 (1 teratological worker) [ JCPC]; 20°48’11.5’’S 42°51’25.9’’W, 725m, i. v.2013, J. Chaul, R. Jesus, T. Vargas, L. Ribeiro e F. Rezende cols., E12-H12 (2 workers) [ JCPC]; Nico, 20°47’42.9’’S 42°50’51’’W, 733m, 08.v.2013, J. Chaul & R. Jesus, H16 (3 workers) [ JCPC]; Paraná: Bocaiúva, 25°08’S 49°04’W, v.1963, F. Plaumann col., WWK 3991 (13 workers, 3 gynes) [ MZSP]; same locality, 1000m, v.1963, F. Plaumann col., n. 4544 (1 worker) [ MZSP]; Guaragi, 25°16’S 50°14’W, 1000m, F. Plaumann col., n. 4582 (1 worker, 1 gyne) [ MZSP]; Iguazú (probably Foz do Iguaçu), iv.1965, Fritz Plaumann col., MCZ 546468 (3 workers) [ MCZ]; Morretes, P. E. do Pau Ôco, 25°34’33.5”S 48°53’19.5”W, 06– 12.v.2002, R. R. Silva & B. H. Dietz cols. (14 workers) [ MZSP]; Rio Azul, 1000m, x.1959, F. Plaumann col, n. 3155 (3 workers) [ MZSP]; same data (2 workers) [ USMN]; Rondon, iv.1965, F. Plaumann col., n. 4545 (1 worker) [ MZSP]; Tibagi, P.E. do Guartelá, Trilho do Rio, 24°33’49.61”S 50°15’32.36”W, 20–25.ix.2015, W.Franco, R.M. Feitosa, A. Machado col. (3 workers) [ DZUP]; Tunas, Parque das Lauráceas, 24°51’16”S 48°43’00.4”W, 21– 29.ii.2001, Silva & Eberhardt cols. (9 workers, 3 gynes) [ MZSP]; Rio de Janeiro: Nova Iguaçú, ReBio Tinguá, 22°34’14”S 43°24’51”W, 2.ii.2002, Mayhé A. & Veiga-Ferreira S. cols. (4 workers) [ MZSP]; Santa Maria Madalena, P.E. do Desengano, 21°58’41”S 41°57’00”W, Mayhé A. & Veiga-Ferreira S. cols. (3 workers) [ MZSP]; Teresópolis, P.N. da Serra dos Órgãos, 23–28.xi.1999, Rocha, Dietz & Rosa cols. (1 worker, 1 gyne) [ MZSP]; Rio Grande do Sul: 5km N de Progresso, Linha Araçá—near Rio Fão, 29°10’S 52°20’W, 300–400m, 06.v.1999, J. Bihn col. (5 workers) [ MZSP]; Barão de Cotegipe, vii.1960 F. Plaumann col., n. 3763 (1 intercaste) [ MZSP]; Barros Cassal, 700m, ix.1960, F. Plaumann col., n. 3597 (1 worker, 1 gyne) [ MZSP]; Bom Jesus, 1000m, xii.1962, F. Plaumann col., n. 3479 (1 worker) [ MZSP]; Morro Reuter, xii.1964, F. Plaumann col., n. 4106 (1 worker) [ MZSP]; Nova Petrópolis, ix.1959, F. Plaumann, n. 3230 (7 workers) [ MZSP]; Sapiranga, 31.iii.2006, F. Schmidt col. (1 worker) [ MZSP]; same locality, 10.iv.2006, same collector (1 worker) [ MZSP]; Sinimbu 29°30’S 52°30’W, 200m, ix.1960, F. Plaumann col., WWK 3282 (23 workers) [ MZSP]; Santa Catarina: BR 470, between Navegantes e Indaial, 02.v.2009, M. A. Ulysséa col. (1 worker) [ MZSP]; Blumenau: no data, Raichansperger (Reichensperger?) col. (1 worker) [ NHMB]; Blumenau, P.E. das Nascentes, 27°06’15”S 49°09’14”W, 20–27.x.2000, Silva R. R. & Eberhardt F. cols. (5 workers) [ MZSP]; same locality, 27°01–06’S 49°01–10”W, 10.ii.2001, Eberhardt F. col. (1 headless worker) [ MZSP]; Campo Alegre, Morro do Serro, xii.1958, F. Plaumann col., n. 3019 (1 worker); same data, WWK 3007 (1 worker) [ MZSP]; Chapecó, v.1957, Fritz Plaumann col., MCZ 546472 (1 worker) [ MCZ]; same locality, 600m, viii.1960, F. Plaumann col. (7 workers, 1 gyne) [ MZSP]; Chapecó, Rio Irani, 04.xii.1998, R. R. Silva col. (2 workers) [ MZSP]; Florianópolis, Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro, i.2013, 27°49’27”S 48°33’50”W, J. Chaul col. (1 worker) [ JCPC]; Nova Teutônia (Seara), 27°11’S 52°23’W, 300–500m, no collector, MCZ 546470 (2 workers, 1 gyne) [ MCZ]; Nova Teutônia, 27°11’S 52° 23’W, 300–500m, several collections from Fritz Plaumann: x.1954 (17 workers) [ MZSP]; vi.1960 (1 worker) [ MHNG], (22 workers, 2 gynes) [ MZSP]; vi.1967 (1 worker), ix.1955, vii.1958 (2 workers), iv.1972 (1 worker), vi.1963 (1 worker), xi.1972 (1 worker), iv.1976 (1 worker), vii.1961 (1 worker), v.1959 (2 workers) [all deposited at MZSP]; Seara, 24°07’S 52°18’W, 05.xii.1998, R. R Silva cols. (2 workers) [ MZSP]; Seara, L. Sta Lúcia, mata ciliar, 9.xi.1998, R. R. Silva (3 workers, 1 gyne) [ MZSP]; Palhoça, P. E. da Serra do Tabuleiro, 27°44’28”S 48°41’50”W, 02–10.vi.2003, Silva R. R., Dietz B. H. & Tavares A. cols. (6 workers) [ MZSP]; São Bento do Sul, APA do Rio Vermelho, 26°21’51”S 49°16’16”W, 30.iii–04.iv.2001, Silva R. R. & Eberhardt F. cols. (21 workers —1 without gaster, 3 gynes) [ MZSP]; São Bonifácio, P.E. Serra do Tabuleiro, 27°49’06”S 48°54’41”W, 08–13.iii.2004, Silva R. R., Dietz B. H. & Albuquerque N. cols. (9 workers) [ MZSP]; São Paulo: Agudos, vii.1959. C. Gilbert (3 workers) [ MZSP]; Cananeia, Ilha do Cardoso, 25°05’48.7”S 47°55’47.3”W, 24–28.xi.2002, Silva R. R. col. (1 worker) [ MZSP]; Cunha, P.E. da Serra do Mar, Núcleo Cunha-Indaiá, 23°15’03”S 45°00’26”W, 21–22.iv.2001, A. A. Tavares & R. R. Silva cols. (10 workers, 1 gyne) [ MZSP]; Itu, Fazenda Serra de Itu, Projeto Serra, 1980, no collector (2 workers); P.E. da Cantareira, Núcleo Engordador, 23°21’–27’S 46°29’– 42’W, 12–22.v.2003, R. Feitosa & A. Oliva cols. (1 gyne) [ MZSP]; Piedade, “Cobrinha”, xii.2018 (probably 2008), Gabriela Bieber col. (2 workers) [ MZSP]; Praia Grande, P.E. da Serra do Mar, Núcleo Pilões-Cubatão, 25°38’31”S 46°32’24”W, 26–27.i.2001, A. Tavares & R. R. Silva cols. (6 workers, 2 gynes) [ MZSP]; Ribeirão Grande. P.E. Intervales, Base Barra Grande, 02.ii. 1999, A. A. Tavares col. (2 workers) [ MZSP], Salesópolis, E. B. B. São Vicente, P.E. Xixová-Japuí, 23°59’S 46°23’W, 15.v.2011, Rodolfo Probst col. (1 worker) [ MZSP]; Tapiraí, 24°01’55”S 47°27’56”W, 08–14.i.2001, Silva & Eberhardt cols. (8 workers, 2 gynes) [ MZSP]; Ubatuba: P.E.S.M. Núcleo Picinguaba, 23°17’54.4” a 23°18’21.6”S 44°47’13.2”S a 44°49’4.8”W, 200m 400m, 600m, 800m e 1000m, several collections from 26.i.2006 to 18–21.ii.2007, E. F. Santos & C. P. Scott-Santos cols. (69 workers, 9 gynes, 17 males) [ MZSP]. COLOMBIA: Meta: Quebrada Susumuco (label as Susamuko), 23 km NW de Villavicencio, 1000m, 5.iii.1972, Stewart B. Peck & Jarmila Peck cols. (1 worker) [ MCZ]; Villavicencio, 4.14516 -73.63239 +- 5km, 1- 4.iii.1972, Stewart B. Peck & Jarmila Kukalova-Peck cols., FMHD 72-146/ FMNH-INS 0000095861 (1 worker) [ FMNH]; same data, 500m, 1–4.iii.1972, Stewart B. Peck & Jarmila Kukalova-Peck cols., FMHD 72-146/FMNH- INS 0000095861 (1 worker), [ FMNH]; Norte de Santander: P.N.N. Tamá Alto de Herrera, Vda. Diamante, 07°07’N 72°13’W, 1000m, 26.xi.1999, E. González col. (2 workers) [ MZSP]. ECUADOR: Napo: 20 km S de Tena, 600m, 11.vii, Stewart B. Peck & Jarmila Peck col., MCZ 5464471 (1 gyne) [ MCZ]; same data, MCZ 546473 (1 worker) [ MCZ]. PARAGUAY: Alto Paraná: Puerto Presidente Stroessner, 6.xi.1974.x– 14.xi.1979, Geneva Museum Paraguay Expedition, Baud, Dlouhy, etc. cols. (1 worker) [ ANIC]; Puerto Bertoni, 11.xi.1982, V. Mahnert (2 workers) [ MHNG]; Canendíyu: ao Sul de Salto d. Guaíra, 1.xi.1976, Geneva Museum Paraguay Expedition, 4.x–14.xi.1979, Baud, Dlouhy, etc. cols., ANIC ant vial 30.226 (1 worker, 1 gyne), label mistake (1976 collection from a 1979 expedition?) [ ANIC]; Junção entre os Rios Carapá & Alto Paraná, 2.xi.1979, Geneva Museum Paraguay Expedition, 4.x–14.xi.1979 Baud, Dlouhy, etc. col. (1 worker) [ ANIC]; Itapuá: San Benito, 29.x.1982, V. Mahnert col. (2 workers, 1 gyne) [ MHNG]; San Rafael, 6.xi.1982, C. Dlouhy col., CASENT 0173734 (1 intercaste); same data, CASENT 0173735 (1 gyne) [ AWPC]. PERU: Huánuco: Leoncio Prado, P.N. Tingo María, vic. Cueva de las Lechuzas Lat. -9.31666 Long. -76.03333, 660m, 08–13.i.1983, A. F. Newton & M. K. Thayer cols., FMNH 83-924/ FMNH 0000095854 (1 worker) [ FMNH]; Departamento Pasco: Chontilla, 22 km a SE do Vale de Iscozazin (Iscocacín), 26.vii.1961, Fred S. Truxal col., MCZ 546464 (1 worker) [ MCZ]; Tambopata, 3.v.2001, TRC-S14-104- R 2C04 (2 dealate gynes) [ DZUP]; VENEZUELA: Portuguesa: Vía Biscucuy, Concepción, 1000m, 18.viii.1983, J. E. Lattke col., MIZA 437 (2 workers) [ MZSP]; same data, MIZA 437/ MCZ. 546469 (2 workers) [ MCZ].
Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien
American Museum of Natural History
California Academy of Sciences
Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile
Museum of Comparative Zoology
R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology
Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo
Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics
Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure
Embrapa Agrobiology Diazothrophic Microbial Culture Collection
Natural History Museum Bucharest
Museum d'Histoire Naturelle
Field Museum of Natural History
Australian National Insect Collection
Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium
Museo del Instituto de Zoologia Agricola Francisco Fernandez Yepez
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.