Ewartia adusta, Moulds & Marshall, 2022

Moulds, Max & Marshall, David C., 2022, New genera and new species of Western Australian cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), Zootaxa 5174 (5), pp. 451-507 : 479-484

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5174.5.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BDB90B5C-C3DD-464D-AA7F-1635009297A6

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6993622

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/F75887D5-6F47-2233-FF2C-FAEE0226FED2

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Ewartia adusta
status

sp. n.

Ewartia adusta sp. n.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:684EA9C0-1857-482C-AD31-688D55A8914B

( Figs 5 View FIGURES 1–7 , 18 View FIGURES 15–20 , 39–41 View FIGURES 39–40 View FIGURE 41 )

Synonymy. ‘sporty cicada’ Marshall et al. 2016: text-fig. 2.

Etymology. From the Latin adjective adustus meaning burnt colour, browned, tanned, and referring to the orange brown and black colour of this species suggestive of it having survived extreme heat where it occurs through some of the hottest and driest parts of Australia.

Types. Holotype male, AU.WA.MES, 10 km S of Meekatharra on Great Northern Hwy , Western Australia, 26°41.008’S 118°27.202’E, 484 m, 14.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( WAME 113460 ) ( WAM) GoogleMaps . Paratypes as follows: WESTERN AUSTRALIA: 1 male, 2 females, AU. WA. CAP, ~ 3 km S of Capricorn Rdhouse. 17 km S of Marble Bar rd on Great N. Hwy, 23°31.091’S 119°46.216’E, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( AMS). GoogleMaps 2 males, Ophthalmia Dam turnoff, Nullagine   GoogleMaps , Marble Bar Rd   GoogleMaps , Pilbara, iii.2009, P. Hutchinson ; 1 female, Cathedral Gorge, 18 km W Newman, 5.iii.2004, P. Hutchinson ; 1 female, Gaseoyne R., Sth Branch, 146 km N Meekatharra , 14.iii.2015, P. Hutchinson ( DE). 1 male, AU. WA.TNC, 11.5 km N of Cue , 431 m, 27°20.267’S 117°56.566’E, 18.ii.2009, K. Hill & D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 1 female, AU. WA. CAP, ~ 3 km S of Capricorn Rdhouse. 17 km S of Marble Bar rd on Great N. Hwy, 23°31.091’S 119°46.216’E, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male. 7.8 km SSE of Menzies , 29.75448°S 121.05988°E, 22.ii.2016, Hand coll., D. Marshall & L. Popple GoogleMaps ; 1 female, 94.4 km SE of Meekatharra , 27.25761°S 118.95301°E, 24.ii.2016, at light, D. Marshall & L. Popple GoogleMaps ; 4 males, 2 females, 23.5 km SW of Kumarina, 24.8739°S 119.46872°E, 25.ii.2016, D. Marshall & L. Popple, at light GoogleMaps ; 1 female, 94.4 km NNE. Of Newman , 22.66754°S 119.94951°E, 26.ii.2016, D. Marshall & L. Popple, at light ( LP). GoogleMaps 1 male, 10 females, AU. WA. DEH, De Grey R xing, Shay Gap Rd , ~ 85 km NNE of Marble Bar, 20°37.279’S 120°04.226’E, 17.i.2010, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 2 males, AU. WA.GIB, Gibb River Rd, ~ 81 km E of Derby Hwy, 17°26.566’S 124°24.657’E, 19.i.2010, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 female, AU. WA.WWG, Muccan Shay Gap Rd , ~ 60 km NE of Marble Bar, 20°50.906’S, 120°02.635’E, 17.i.2010, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 6 females, AU. WA.HOU, House Ck , ~ 60 km E of Nanutarra roadhouse, 22°27.970’S 116°02.240’E, 13.ii.2009, Hill Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 7 males, 1 female, AU. WA.TNC, 11.5 km N of Cue , 431 m, 27°20.267’S 117°56.566’E, 18.ii.2009, K. Hill & D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 1 male, AU. WA.COC, 12.5 km W of Coolgardie , 30°58.321’S 121°02.55’E, 418 m, 22.ii.2009, K. Hill & D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 1 male, 1 female, AU. WA. NIC, Nickol River crossing, W of Roebourne, 20°46.225’S 116°56.805’E, 16.ii.2009, K. Hill, D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 3 males, 2 females, AU. WA. NSF (includes Simon Lab. vouchers 06AU. WA. NSF.01, 06AU. WA. NSF.02, 06AU. WA. NSF.09, 06AU. WA. NSF.10), 5 km NE of Sandfire Roadhouse , 19º46.262’S 121º08.666’E, 15 m, 9.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male, AU. WA.SFS, 18 km W of Sandfire Roadhouse , 19º49.657’S 120º56.002’E, 30 m, 9.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male, 3 females, AU. WA. SFC, 74 km W of Sandfire Roadhouse on Great Northern Hwy , 19°55.828’S 120°25.082’E, 30 m, 9.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male, AU. WA.WPR, 147 km ENE of Port Headland , 20º04.940’S 119º46.205’E, 14 m, 10.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 3 females, AU. WA.YAN, ~ 110 km S of Port Hedland , 21°14.911’S 118°41.795’E, 177 m, 10.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 3 males, AU. WA.PCS, Pinga Ck South , 300 km N of Newman [on Great Northern Hwy], 21°29.889’S 118°43.935’E, 222 m, 11.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 3 females, AU. WA.MUN, 261 km S of Port Hedland , 22°22.849’S 118°41.484’E, 475 m, 11.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male, 2 females, AU. WA.HAM, 291 km S of Port Hedland , 22°37.771’S 118°42.106’E, 707 m, 11.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male, 1 female, AU. WA.EMM, 45 km E of Mt Magnet , 28°11.328’S 118°17.020’E, 457 m, 16.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 2 males, AU. WA. OPH, 67 km NW of Newman , 23°08.264’S 119°11.021’E, 702 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male, AU. WA.OPS, 19 km NW of Newman on Great Northern Hwy , 23°15.204’S 119°36.350’E, 629 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 5 males, 15 females, AU. WA. CAP, ~ 3 km S of Capricorn Rdhouse. 17 km S of Marble Bar rd on Great N. Hwy, 23°31.091’S 119°46.216’E, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 2 males, AU. WA.KSC, ~ 210 km S of Newman , 25°01.126’S 119°24.560’E, 559 m, 13.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male, AU. WA.MRN, 56 km N of Meekatharra on Great Northern Hwy , 26°07.835’S 118°41.685’E, 489 m, 14.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 2 males (one genitalia prep. EW1 ), 10 females, AU. WA.MES, 10 km S of Meekatharra on Great Northern Hwy , 26°41.008’S 118°27.202’E, 484 m, 14.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male,AU. WA.TUC, 42 km NE of Cue on Great Northern Hwy , 27°06.630’S 118°06.537’E, 494 m, 15.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 5 females, AU. WA.SOC, 45 km S of Cue on Great Northern Hwy , 27°47.610’S 117°55.248’E, 436 m, 15.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male, AU. WA.NWL, 9 km W of Leinster , 27°58.407’S 120°38.230’E, 527m, 17.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male, AU. WA.ALL, 37 km E of Leonora , 28°53.043’S 121°40.895’E, 401 m, 18.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 3 females, AU. WA.LLC, 94 km S of turnoff to Leinster , 36.5 km N of Leonora, 28°34.856’S 121°11.941’E, 427 m, 18.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 3 males, WAU. VIC, Queen Victoria Rock , 31°17’S 120°56’E, 17.i.2003, Moulds, Hill, Marshall & Vanderpool GoogleMaps ; 1 male, 47 km W of Yalgoo, 11.ii.2001, M. Powell & D. Knowles ; 1 male, 1 female, Ashburton Rv , Nanutarra, 7.iii.2004, P. Hutchinson ; 2 males, 10 km N of Kookynie , 10.ii.2006, M. Hanlon & M. Powell ; 1 female, 11 km W of Yellowdine , 20.x.2006, on Eremophila bush, T. M. Hanlon & M. Powell ; 1 male, 5 females, Cathedral Gorge , 18 km W Newman, 5.iii.2004, P. Hutchinson ; 2 males, 4 females, Ashburton Rv. , Nanutarra, 7.iii.2004, P. Hutchinson ; 1 male, 1 female, Milly Soak, 16 km N Cue , 28.i.2000, P. Hutchinson ; 1 female, 30 km E of Yalgoo, 11.ii.2001, M. Powell & D. Knowles ; 1 male, Fortescue , 21.ii.1985, K. & E. Carnaby ; 1 female, Marble Bar, 27.ii.1973, Gordon R. Jones ; 1 male, 1 female, 53 km S Minilya, 17.iii.1994, M. Golding ; 2 males, 2 females, Rocky Pool , 42 km E Carnarvon , 5.iii.2008, P. Hutchinson ; 1 male, 3 females, 17 km ENE of Agnew , 27°59’S 120°41’E, 17.i.1989, M.S. & B.J. Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male, 3 females, 55 km ESE of Mount Magnet , 18.i.1989, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 8 males, 6 females, 110 km S of Mount Magnet, 19.i.1989, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 2 females, Lake Douglas , 12 km SW of Kalgoorlie, 13.i.1989 ; M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 6 females, Leonora , 15.i.1989, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 1 male, W. Peawah River, 90 km SW of Port Hedland, K. & E. Carnaby ; 1 female, N. Sandfire Flat, 24.ii.1985, K. & E. Carnaby ; 1 female, Sherlock River, 22.ii.1985, K. & E. Carnaby ( MSM). 2 males, 1 female, Milly Soak, 16 km N Cue ; 28,29. i.2006, P. Hutchinson, to light, PMH Coll #CIC 2374, 2355, 2403 ; 8 males, 11 females, Rocky Pool , 42 km E Carnarvon, 5.iii.2008, P. Hutchinson, on Acacia, PMH Coll # Cic 2379, 2378, 2382, 2383, 2386, 2387, 2370, 2369, 2375, 2388, 2372, 2371, 2389, 2391, 2392, 2393, 2400, 2401, 2405, 2399, 2402 ; 2 females, Rocky Pool , 42 km E Carnarvon , 5.iii.2008, P. Hutchinson, to light, PMH Coll #CIC 2399, 2402. 1 female, Gascoyne Rv. Sth Br., 146 km N Meekatharra, 12.iii.2011, P. Hutchinson, on Acacia, PMH Coll #CIC 2376. 7 females, Cathedral Gorge , 18 km W Newman, 5.iii.2004, P. Hutchinson, to light, PMH Coll #CIC 2377, 2380, 2384, 2385, 2390, 2397, 2398. 3 females, Ashburton Rv., Nanutarra , 7.iii.2004, P. Hutchinson, to light, PMH Coll #CIC 2381, 2394, 2404 ; 2 females, 23 km S of Menzies , 6.ii.2006, P. Hutchinson, on Acacia, PMH Coll #CIC 2361, 2395 ; 2 males, 3 females, 10 km W of Menzies , 5.ii.2006, P. Hutchinson, to light, PMH Coll #CIC 2363, 2354, 2396, 2365, 2357 ; 2 males, 2 females, 25 km E of Pindar , 3.i.2011, M. Hanlon & M. Powell, in Acacia scrub, PMH Coll #CIC 2364, 2365, 2366, 2368 ; 1 female, 26 km E of Pindar, 23.i.2011, M. Hanlon & M. Powell, on Acacia leaves, PMH Coll #CIC 2367. 1 male, 1 female, Camel Soak , Perenjori –Rothsay Rd, 16.ii.2021, P. Kay, to mv light, PMH Coll #CIC 2362, 2373. 3 females, 10 km N of Mt Magnet , 5,7. iii.2006, P. Hutchinson, to light, PMH Coll #CIC 2358, 2359, 2360 ( PH). 1 male, 1 female, 23.5 km SW of Kumarina , 24.8739°S 119.46872°E, 25.ii.2016, D. Marshall & L. Popple, at light ( QM). GoogleMaps 1 male, AU. WA. OPH, 67 km NW of Newman , 23°08.264’S 119°11.021’E, 702 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 male, WAU. VIC, Queen Victoria Rock , 31°17’S 120°56’E, 17.i.2003, Moulds, Hill, Marshall & Vanderpool ( UCONN). GoogleMaps 2 females, Wurarga, ii.67, A. Douglas, WAM Entomology Reg. nos 73205, 73206, 73207, 73208 ; 1 female, 37-336, Canegrass, A.M. Douglas , WAM Entomology Reg.   GoogleMaps no. 73209 ; 1 male, 7.5 km SE Banjiwarn HS, 27°42’S 121°37’E, 22–28.ii.1980, T.F. Houston et al., 316-2, ex aggregation in Acacia tree, WAM, Dept. of Biological Survey site BW Camp, WAM Collection 88/1413, WAM Entomology Reg. no. 73210 GoogleMaps ; 1 female, 7.5 km SE Banjiwarn HS, 27°42’S 121°37’E, 22–28.ii.1980, T.F. Houston et al., 316-2, ex aggregation in Acacia tree, WAM, Dept. of Biological Survey site BW Camp, WAM Entomology Reg. no. 73211, Barcode of Life DNA voucher specimen Sample CCD-27057-E12 Bold Proc. ID WAM A630-15 View Materials GoogleMaps ; 1 male, 1 female, 7.5 km SE Banjiwarn HS, 27°42’S 121°37’E, 22–28.ii.1980 T.F. Houston et al., 316-2, ex aggregation in Acacia tree, WAM, Dept. of Biological Survey site BW Camp, WAM Collection 88/1412 & 88/1411, WAM Entomology Reg. nos 73212 & 73215 GoogleMaps ; 1 male, 1 female, 7.5 km SE Banjiwarn HS, 27°42’S 121°37’E, 22–28.ii.1980 T. F. Houston et al., 316-2, ex Aggregation in Acacia tree, WAM, Dept. of Biological Survey site BW Camp, WAM Entomology Reg. nos 73213, 73214 GoogleMaps ; 1 female, 7.5 km SE Banjiwarn HS, 27°42’S 121°37’E, 22–28.ii.1980, T.F. Houston et al., 316-2, ex aggregation in Acacia tree, WAM, Dept. of Biological Survey site BW Camp, WAM Collection 88/1410, WAM Entomology Reg. no. 73215, Barcode of Life DNA voucher specimen Sample CCD-27057-E11 Bold Proc. ID WAM A629- 15 View Materials GoogleMaps ; 1 female, 3.75 km NE of Comet Vale siding, 29°57’S 121°07’E, 7–15.iii.1979, T.F. Houston et al., 256-8, at light at night, WAM Entomology Reg. no. 73217 GoogleMaps ; 1 male, 13.8 km ENE of Comet Vale siding, 29°57’S 121°07’E, 7– 15.iii.1979, T. F. Houston et al., 256-8 GoogleMaps ; 1 female, Cathedral Gorge , 18 km W Newman, 5.iii.2004, to light, P. Hutchinson ( WAM). NORTHERN TERRITORY: 2 males, 1 female, Mt Ebenezer Rdhse , 250 km W Alice Springs, 25°10.774’S 132°40.632’E, 10.xii.2005, D. Freier ( DE). GoogleMaps 1 male, 1 female, Mt Ebenezer Rdhse , 250 km W Alice Springs , 25°10.774’S 132°40.632’E, 10.xii.2005, D. Freier, flew to lights ( LP). GoogleMaps 1 female, AU. NT. LJB, Luritja Road , 19 km N of Lasseter Hwy, 25°02.849’S 132°15.634’E, 1.ii.2010, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 2 males, AU. NT.ERL, ~ 5 km S of Erldunda Roadhouse, 69.5 km N of Kulgera on Stuart Hwy , 25º14.026’S 133º12.231’E, 403 m, 29.i.2007, D. Marshall, K. Hill GoogleMaps ; 1 male, 1 female, AU. NT.MKG, 84.4 km S of Stuart Well on Stuart Hwy , 24º58.744’S 133º11.743’E, 410 m, 1.ii.2007, K. Hill, D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 2 males, (1 Simon Lab. voucher 07.AU. NT. SAB.04), just N of the SA / NT border, on Stuart Hwy, 25º59.835’S 133º11.811’E, 527 m, 29.i.2007, K. Hill & D. Marshall, 1 female, Ayers Rock, 3.ii.1984, M.S. & B.J. Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1 female, Henbury Meteorite Craters, 140 km SW of Alice Springs , 30.i.1984, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( MSM). SOUTH AUSTRALIA: 1 male, AU. SA.SUN, 27 km [S] of NT border on Stuart Hwy, 461 m, 26°13.963’S 133°11.228’E, 28.i.2015, D. Marshall GoogleMaps ; 2 males, 1 female, 17 km S of Chandler railway siding, 5.ii.1984, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 1 male, 1 female, 6 km S of Wintinna Hsd , 5.ii.1984, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ( MSM). QUEENSLAND: 1 male, 1 female, 3 km E of Charleville , 26°24’S 146°16’E, 15.iii.1990, Edwards & Fisk ( ANIC). GoogleMaps 1 male, AU.QL.MVN, ~ 13 km NNW of Morven , 26º20.611’S 147º00.535’E, 400 m, 9. ii.2008, K. Hill, D. Marshall, M. Moulds, C. Owen, M. Humphrey, Simon Lab. voucher 08.AU.QL.MVN.06 ( MSM). GoogleMaps

Aural and audio records (without vouchers). WESTERN AUSTRALIA: 09.AU.WA.PBB, 148.7 km E of Northwest Coastal Hwy on road to Tom Price, 22º50.976’S 116º43.837’E, 253 m, 14.ii.2009, K. Hill, D. Marshall, audio only; 06.AU.WA.GOL, 1 km NE of the Pardoo River, 40.8 km SW of Pardoo Roadhouse on Great Northern Hwy. NE of Goldsworthy (abandoned town), 20º16.770’S 119º31.278’E, 38 m, 10.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, aural only; 06.AU.WA.PHJ, Port Hedland, N of town centre on side of main road in unused, junky weedy land, 20º19.033’S 118º37.334’E, 9 m, 10.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, aural only; 06.AU.WA.PHT, ~ 20 km S of Port Hedland, 13 km N of the Turner River on Great Northern Hwy, 20º26.008’S 118º33.317’E, 16 m, 10.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, aural only; 06.AU.WA.MJN, ~ 221 km N of Newman, 31 km N of Munjina Roadhouse on Great Northern Hwy, 22º08.097’S 118º47.270’E, 464 m, 11.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, aural only; 06.AU.WA.ROB, Rest area at Mt Robinson on Great Northern Hwy, 108 km NW of Newman, 23º02.691’S 118º51.004’E, 752 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, aural only; 06.AU.WA.MRS, Near Mt Robinson on Great Northern Hwy, 112 km NW of Newman, 23º03.386’S 118º51.977’E, 744 m, 12.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, aural only; 06.AU. WA.LAV, 1.7 km W of Laverton on road to Leonora, 28º36.644’S 122º23.890’E, 454 m, 18.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, aural only; 09.AU.WA.NTE, 3.4 km E of Northwest Coastal Hwy on road to Tom Price, 22º30.038’S 115º32.792’E, 91 m, 13.ii.2009, K. Hill, D. Marshall, aural only; 09.AU.WA.NEN, 34 km N of Newman, 23º13.758’S 119º29.423’E, 708 m, 17.ii.2009, K. Hill, D. Marshall, aural only; 10.AU.WA.SHY, Shay Gap, jct with railway line, ~ 43 km N of Warrawagine Rd on Shay Gap Rd. ~ 103 km NNE of Marble Bar, 20º32.123’S 120º10.367’E, 147 m, 18.i.2010, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, aural only. NORTHERN TERRITORY: 10.AU.NT.MLE, Gintys Lookout, 27 km NE of Kings Canyon Resort on Mereenie Loop Road, 24º03.658’S 131º24.505’E, 772 m, 31.i.2010, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, audio only; 10.AU.NT.ULH, NW side of Uluru/Ayers Rock, 25º20.454’S, 131º01.393’E, 518 m, 1.ii.2010, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, audio only. SOUTH AUSTRALIA: 07.AU.SA.MRA, Marryat Rest Area at Agnes Ck, Stuart Hwy. ~ 75 km S of SA/NT border, 26º38.308’S 133º16.713’E, 400 m, 1.ii.2007, D. Marshall & K. Hill, aural only. QUEENSLAND: 08.AU.QL.SAB, 9.7 km S of Barcaldine on the Landsborough Hwy, 23º38.958’S 145º16.915’E, 265 m, 7.ii.2008, K. Hill, D. Marshall, C. Owen, M. Moulds, M. Humphrey, aural only.

Distribution and habitat ( Figs 18b View FIGURES 15–20 , 39 View FIGURES 39–40 ). Throughout much of the western half of Western Australia south from near Derby to the Perth and Coolgardie districts, in the Northern Territory south of the Western McDonnell Ranges to just over the border into South Australia, and in Queensland from near Barcaldine, Charleville and Morven. There are many records from Western Australia south from Sandfire, the most southern records being Queen Victoria Rock some 45 km south-west of Coolgardie, while the most inland records are Agnew and Laverton. Records from the Northern Territory are clustered together in the south-western corner of the state including Uluru (Ayers Rock) and Gintys Lookout near Kings Canyon and Henbury Meteorite Crater. From South Australia there are records from along the Stuart Highway south to Wintinna. The distribution of the species is probably continuous across inland central Australia but lacks records from the Gibson and Great Victoria Deserts. Adults are mostly found in Acacia trees and have been recorded from late October to mid March but their appearance largely follows good rainfall.

Adult description. Male ( Figs 18a View FIGURES 15–20 , 40 View FIGURES 39–40 ). Head black, usually with supra-antennal plates partly or entirely yellowish or orange brown and often a spot of similar colour on posterior midline; eyes red in life. Postclypeus black with yellowish or orange brown margin ventrally; sometimes with an anterior spot of similar colour that occasionally extends to dorsal surface. Anteclypeus black. Rostrum black sometimes with brown basally; reaching apices of mid coxae. Thorax with pronotum orange brown, rarely tending black, with a black fascia either side of an orange brown dorsal midline expanded laterally at anterior end and at posterior end tending circular with an angular projection either side; pronotal collar orange brown with a black anterior margin dorsally. Mesonotum yellowish or orange brown but dominated by black submedian and lateral sigilla and a black dorsal midline outwardly angled to incorporate scutal depressions; cruciform elevation dark brown to black except for yellowish or orange brown arms. Metanotum yellowish or orange brown. Wings hyaline. Forewing venation black; a bold zigzag subapical infuscation overlying crossveins r and r-m and that part of vein RP joining them; lesser infuscation along vein RA 2 and along ambient vein and distal ends of veins forming apical cells 1–7; basal cell hyaline; basal membrane orange. Hindwing venation pale brown; without infuscations; plaga white, inconspicuous. Legs orange brown; fore coxae black on outer face; fore and mid femora blackish on inner lateral surface; meracantha pale yellow, long, reaching to mid length of opercula. Opercula pale yellow with blackish base; reaching distal margin of tympanal cavity but far from meeting each other; raised along outer lateral margin leaving a wide opening between operculum and tympanal cavity on outer half. Abdomen with tergites black with orange or yellowish markings; tergite 2 with a broad orange posterior margin confined to dorsal and subdorsal region and usually interrupted at dorsal midline; tergites 3–7 with narrow orange posterior margins usually extending to sternite but usually interrupted at dorsal midline; tergite 8 similarly marked but the orange variable in width from narrow to very broad. Sternites orange or yellowish with a broad black midline usually reaching to sternite VII where it contracts distally and fails to reach the distal margin; sternite VIII orange or yellowish usually with a diffused black parch on basal midline. Timbal cavity rounded along posterior margin. Timbals with four long ribs spanning the the timbal membrane, the posterior three fused dorsally; spaced with short intermediate ribs; anterior of timbal membrane mostly occupied by ribs.

Male genitalia ( Figs 40a–b View FIGURES 39–40 ). Pygofer black to dark brown with dull orange or brownish on basal and upper lobes and a diffused patch of similar colour against margin between upper lobe and dorsal beak; basal lobes large, in lateral view broadly rounded; upper lobes similar in size to basal lobes but narrower, tapering; claspers with apices bluntly rounded (not bi-lobed). Aedeagus with pseudoparameres barely curved in lateral view, curved inwards subapically in dorsal view.

Female ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 1–7 ). Similar to male.Abdominal segment 9 short, in dorsal view only a little longer than wide; black with a broad orange ventral margin and an orange patch below a black dorsal beak. Ovipositor sheath black, not projecting beyond dorsal beak.

Measurements. Range and mean (in mm) for 10 males, 10 females (includes smallest and largest specimens). Length of body (including head): male 14.4–18.0 (16.0); female (including ovipositor) 15.0–19.4 (17.7). Length of forewing: male 17.0–21.2 (18.9); female 18.8–24.3 (20.8). Width of head (including eyes): male 4.8–6.0 (5.2); female 5.1–6.1 (5.7). Width of pronotum (across lateral angles): male 5.0–6.1 (5.4); female 5.2–6.4 (5.9).

Distinguishing features. Distinguished from all other species by having, in combination, forewing veins M and CuA fused for a length equal to at least the length of the basal cell, the forewings infuscated on crossveins r and r-m, and in having dominating black sigilla on the mesonotum with the black extending to the cruciform elevation. The male genitalia are closely similar to other Ewartia species and not particularly useful for separating closely allied species.

Song ( Figs 41a–f View FIGURE 41 ). Recordings were examined from the WA. LAV, WA. MRS, WA. NSF, WA. PBB, WA. SHY, WA. VIC, NT. LJB, and NT.ULH paratype locations, along with additional sites in Western Australia and Northern Territory.

Ewartia males exhibit two calling song modes, a complex song and a simple song (see Popple 2017b). Each mode can be continued for extended periods. Two song modes are also produced in Ewartia adusta sp. n. Both vary considerably in form within a single male’s song. Most of the recordings obtained here contained only the simple song mode. Based on the limited available sample, the main section of the complex song ( Figs 41a–c View FIGURE 41 ) consists of a phrase lasting approximately 1.5–3 s that contains approximately 2–5 repeated echemes and concludes with a modified echeme that ends with a short isolated syllable that probably serves as a cue for a receptive female to reply (the “accentuated” syllable of Popple 2017b). Each echeme other than the final one consists of a long (0.2– 0.5 s) syllable followed by a series of short syllables that gradually decrease and then increase in repetition rate (from about 25–50 syllables/s). Near the end of these echemes, the short syllables begin to coalesce and may form an intermediate-length syllable. In the final echeme, the short syllables do not increase in rate at the end, and instead the isolated cueing syllable is produced. The final echeme is sometimes considerably shortened, and the whole phrase can be preceded by a series of short syllables that vary in rate. The cueing syllable is 0.04– 0.05 s in duration and is preceded and followed by silent gaps of about 0.15 and 0.1 s, respectively.

The simple song mode ( Figs 41d–f View FIGURE 41 ) consists of long syllables of about 0.15– 0.2 s duration (or, in some cases, macrosyllables formed by coalesced syllables) repeated at about 2.5–3 per s. Often these syllables become broken to varying degrees into composite syllable pairs or threes. The underlying pulse rate of both song modes varies from around 500–1250/s and is difficult to discern apparently due to shifting relationships of the timbal contractions. Both modes have sound energy focused in the range 11.5–18.5 kHz, with a peak of about 14.5 kHz. There is little frequency modulation.

Certain other Ewartia species have songs that are similar to that of E. adusta sp. n., but none exhibit a pattern in which long syllables are normally following by steadily decreasing-rate short syllables in the complex song ( Popple 2017b). Ewartia etesia and E. thamna , for example, have the pattern reversed, with short syllables increasing in rate towards a final long syllable that may precede the song cue.

Discussion and phylogenetic relationships. Of all the Ewartia species Ewartia adusta sp. n. has been the most successful at exploiting an arid environment, inhabiting some of the driest and harshest regions across a very wide area of Central Australia. All other species inhabit high rainfall regions except for E. cuensis that has a very restricted distribution in a semi arid area around Cue in Western Australia and E. lapidosa whose distribution extends into lesser rainfall areas through the eastern half of Queensland and New South Wales. In a molecular study of Cicadettini, Marshall et al. (2016) found Ewartia adusta sp. n. was sister to three other species of Ewartia in their study, E. brevis , E. cuensis and E. oldfieldi (as E. nr. oldfieldi ). As E. oldfieldi represents a complex of closely related species ( Popple 2017b) the molecular tree is a reasonable representation of all species in the genus. This suggests that E. adusta has been the only extant Ewartia species to successfully adapt to an arid environment when Australia dried during the early to mid Miocene.

WAM

Western Australian Museum

WA

University of Warsaw

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

DE

Debrecen University

LP

Laboratory of Palaeontology

SFC

Laboratory of Fishes

WAU

Wau Ecology Institute

VIC

Universidade Federal de Viçosa

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

MSM

Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.

QM

Queensland Museum

UCONN

University of Connecticut Biodiversity Research Collections

NT

Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts

SAB

Society of Amateur Botanists

SA

Museum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Laboratiore de Paleontologie

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

LAV

Dauntsey's School

SHY

Rowley's House Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Cicadidae

Genus

Ewartia