Sinopyrophorus Bi & Li

Bi, Wen-Xuan, He *, Jin-Wu, Chen, Chang-Chin, Kundrata, Robin & Li, Xue-Yan, 2019, Sinopyrophorinae, a new subfamily of Elateridae (Coleoptera, Elateroidea) with the first record of a luminous click beetle in Asia and evidence for multiple origins of bioluminescence in Elateridae, ZooKeys 864, pp. 79-97 : 82

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Sinopyrophorus Bi & Li

gen. nov.

Sinopyrophorus Bi & Li gen. nov. Figs 2-3, 4-16, 17-23

= Sinopyrophorus He et al., 2019: 565 [nomen nudum; published without description, unavailable name according to the ICZN (1999, Art. 13)].

Type species.

Sinopyrophorus schimmeli Bi & Li, sp. nov., here designated.


Head with frontoclypeal region (Fig. 4) strongly protruding, longitudinally strongly carinate medially; antennomeres II and III short, subequal in length; clicking mechanism (i.e., prosternal process fitting into mesoventral cavity) fully developed; prosternal process straight in lateral view, pretarsal claw (Fig. 13) lacking setae at base; hind wing (Fig. 14) with well-defined wedge cell; abdomen with seven (male) or six (female) ventrites; large transverse luminous organ present on abdominal sternite II (Fig. 16); aedeagus (Fig. 20) with parameres arcuate and median lobe much shorter than parameres.


Male. Body elongate, ~ 4.6 times as long as wide, weakly convex in lateral view. Vestiture of fine, suberect setae.

Head with frontoclypeal region strongly protruding, inflexed at apex, medially longitudinally carinate; carina setose and apparently not joined to supra-antennal carinae, basally half as wide as frons, then narrowed and subparallel-sided, with cuticle between edges flat (Fig. 4). Antennal insertions concealed from above. Labrum free, transverse, anterior margin convex in dorsal view. Maxilla (Fig. 7) with galea scoop-like, anterior part covered with setae, denser on inner edge; lacinia elongate, densely pilose; palp with apical palpomere slightly expanded anteriorly. Labium (Fig. 6) with prementum elongate, trilobed anteriorly. Mandibles (Fig. 5) bidentate, apical tooth narrowly acute, subapical mesal tooth small. Antenna with 11 antennomeres, filiform; antennomeres II and III subequal in length (together 1/3 as long as antennomere IV), globular; remaining antennomeres at least five times longer than wide.

Prothorax with chin piece of prosternum short, bisinuate, not concealing labium; prosternal process slightly constricted between coxae in ventral view, almost straight in lateral view. Pronotosternal suture almost straight. Procoxae narrowly separated, externally broadly open. Scutellar shield (Fig. 9) trapezoidal, moderately elevated, narrowed posteriorly, posterior apex slightly emarginate. Mesocoxal cavities narrowly separated, open laterally to both mesepimeron and mesepisternum; mesotrochantin visible. Mesoventrite (Figs 10, 11) with posterior area lower than metaventrite. Meso-metaventral suture distinct. Metacoxae extending laterally to meet metepimeron, metacoxal plates not covering trochanters when legs withdrawn. Hind wing (Fig. 14) 2.35 times as long as wide; apical field ~ 0.25 times as long as total wing length, apical field with three sclerites forming an epsilon figure; radial cell longer than wide, with inner posterobasal angle acute; cross-vein r3 horizontal; MP3+4 with basal cross-vein and basal spur; CuA2 meeting MP4; wedge cell present, ~ 3.5 times as long as wide, with obliquely truncate apex. Leg with trochanter-femur joint oblique; tibial spurs double, tarsal formula 5-5-5; pretarsal claws (Fig. 13) simple, lacking setae at base; empodium weakly developed, bisetose.

Abdomen with seven ventrites (sternites III–IX, Figs 2b, 15). Sternite II with transverse, semicircular luminescent organ occupying more than half of its width (Fig. 16). Intercoxal process of ventrite I (i.e., sternite III) narrowly rounded. First five ventrites subequal in length; ventrite V with posterior margin emarginate. Tergite VIII (Fig. 18); sternite VIII (Fig. 17) ~ 0.7 times as long as ventrite V (i.e., sternite VII), posteromedially emarginate, with each lobe slightly emarginate posteriorly; sternite IX (Fig. 19b) acute at base, more sclerotized at anterior half, connected to tergite IX by membrane; tergites IX and X partly fused (Fig. 19a), narrowly pointed anteriorly. Aedeagus (Fig. 20) with median lobe very short, only approximately half as long as aedeagus, with short basal struts; basal half wider, apical half narrow, slightly concave to subparallel-sided, with rounded apex.

Female. Slightly larger than male. Abdomen with six ventrites. Sternite VIII (Fig. 21) with spiculum ventrale 0.8 times total length of sternite. Ovipositor (Fig. 22) long, with paraprocts 3.5 times longer than gonocoxites; gonocoxites partially sclerotized; styli attached subapically. Internal genital tract (Fig. 23) simple; vagina long, membranous, slightly enlarged near entry of common oviduct; bursa copulatrix elongate, slightly widened anteriorly, sclerotized near base, with single spermathecal gland duct and fine spinules internally; colleterial gland absent.


The generic name is derived from the Latin prefix sino -, which means Chinese, and Pyrophorus , a bioluminescent click-beetle genus from Central and South America. Gender masculine.


China: Western Yunnan.