Bracon (Glabrobracon) dichromus Wesmael, 1838

Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest, 2012, A revision of the Bracon Fabricius species in Wesmael’s collection deposited in Brussels (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 21, pp. 1-154: 10-16

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2012.21

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:993FCC8B-F8B1-42DD-B776-CA8435E08112

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3858897

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/F8008D0E-FF8C-FFFE-06C7-4CF8FA9CFDA5

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scientific name

Bracon (Glabrobracon) dichromus Wesmael, 1838
status

 

Bracon (Glabrobracon) dichromus Wesmael, 1838  

Figs 3 View Fig A-J, 4A, 5A

Braco dichromus Wesmael, 1838: 49   ♀ (type material: 1 ♀), type locality: “environs de Liège” ( Belgium), ♀ holotype (“Le seul individu...” Wesmael l.c., present designation) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels; examined.

Bracon breviventris Szépligeti, 1901: 268   (in key); 282 (description) (in Hungarian); 1904 (1901): 188 (in key) and 194 (description) (in German), type locality: Pápa ( Hungary), ♀ lectotype (and two ♀ paralectotypes) in Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum, Budapest; examined.

Bracon carpaticus Niezabitowski, 1910: 9   (53) enumeration and 13 (57) description (type material: one or more ♀♀), type locality: ”Rytro” ( Poland) and 13 description, (supposed) depository of the type material in Zakład Ekologii i Ochrony Srobowska WSP, Kielce ( Poland); not examined, syn. nov. Bracon collaris Telenga, 1936: 149   (♀, in key), 209 (description), assigned to ”Section Glabrobracon   ”) (in Russian) and 351 (♀, in key), 390 (description) (in German), type locality: ”Turkmenien: Merv”. Bracon (Glabrobracon) discretus Szépligeti, 1901: 268   (in key) and 281 (desription) (in Hungarian); 1904 (1901): 188 (in key) and 193 (description) (in German) ♀, type locality: Fonyód ( Hungary), ♀ lectotype in Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum, Budapest; examined.

Braco maculiger Wesmael, 1838: 50   ♀ (type material: 1 ♀), type locality: ”environs de Bruxelles ” ( Belgique), ♀ holotype (present designation) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels; examined.

Bracon ornatulus Telenga, 1936: 150   (♀), 155 (♁) (in key), 210 (description), assigned to ”Section Glabrobracon   ”) (in Russian) and 352 (♀), 357 (♁) (in key), 391 (description) (in German), type locality: ”Mongolien, Gashun-Gobi, Tsatshau”.

Bracon velbingeri Fahringer, 1951: 67   ♀♁, type locality: ” Pasardschik, Südbulgarien”.

Bracon (Glabrobracon) dichromus   – Szépligeti 1901: 268 (in key, in Hungarian); 1904 (1901): 188, 190 (in key, in German) ♀ ♁. — Fahringer 1927: 291 (♀ in key) and 1928: 453 (redescription), assigned to ”Section Glabrobracon   ”. — Telenga 1936: 149 (♀) and 154 (♁) (in key), 208 (redescription) (in Russian) and 351 (♀), 357 (♁) (in key, in German). — Shenefelt 1978: 1565 (literature up to 1974). — Tobias 1986: 134 (as synonym of B. variator Nees   with a question mark).

Bracon (Glabrobracon) breviventris   – Fahringer 1927: 292 (♀ in key) and 1928: 440 (redescription), as valid species and assigned to ”Section Glabrobracon   ”. — Telenga 1936: as valid species 150 (♀, in key), 211 (redescription) (in Russian) and 352 (in key, in German). — Tobias 1961: 164 (as synonym of B. maculiger Wesmael   ) and 1986: 134 (as synonym of B. variator Nees   ). — Shenefelt 1978: 1572 (as synonym of B. maculiger Wesmael   after Tobias l.c.). — Papp 2004: 172 (♀ lectotype as synonym of B. dichromus   and two ♀ paralectotypes as synonym of B. variator var. maculiger Wesmael   ).

Bracon carpaticus   – Fahringer 1928: as valid species 284 (in key) and 441 (redescription) ♀. — Telenga 1936: as valid species 175 (in key) and redescription (redescription) in Russian) and 378 (in key, in German) ♀. — Shenefelt 1978: 1560 (as valid species, literature up to 1936).

Bracon collaris   – Tobias 1958: 98 (as valid species in key, in Russian). — Shenefelt 1978: 1563 (as valid species, literature up to 1958). — Tobias 1986: 134 (synonymization in key as B. variator var. collinus Telenga   ).

Bracon (Glabrobracon) discretus   – Fahringer 1927: 292 (♀ in key) and 1928: 457 (redescription), as valid species and assigned to ”Section Glabrobracon   ”). — Telenga 1936: as valid species 148 (in key), 203 (redescription) (in Russian) and 350 (in key, in German) ♀. — Shenefelt 1978: 1566 (as synonym of B. dichromus Wesmael   after Papp 1966: 382). — Papp 2004: 174 (type designation, as synonym of B. dichromus   ); 2008: 1785 (synonymy).

Bracon maculiger   - Szépligeti 1901: as valid species 269 (in key, in Hungarian), 1904 (1901): 188 (in key, in German). — Fahringer 1927: as valid species 293 (♀), 306 (♁) (in key) and 469 (redescription), assigned to ”Section Glabrobracon   ”). — Telenga 1936: as valid species 150 (♀), 155 (♁) (in key), 212 (redescription) (in Russian) and 352 (♀), 357 (♁) (in key, in German). — Tobias 1961: 164 (as valid species, redescription). — Papp 1966: as valid species 379 (in key) and 386 (redescription). Shenefelt 1978: 1572 (as valid species, literature up to 1974). — Tobias 1986: 134 (as synonym under the name of B. variator   ”f.” maculiger   ).

Bracon ornatulus   - Tobias 1958: 99 and 1959: 895 (synonymization). — Tobias & Belokobylskij 2000: 143 (synonymization, designation of the ♀ lectotype and one ♀ paralectotype in Zoological Institut, Sankt Petersburg); not examined.

Bracon velbingeri   - Papp 1971: 280 (designation of the ♀ lectotype and one ♀ + one ♁ paralectotypes, types in Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, synonymized with B. dichromus   ). — Shenefelt 1978: 1566 (as synonym of B. dichromus   after Papp l.c., literature up to 1971); examined.

Designation of the ♀ holotype of Bracon dichromus  

(First label, handwritten) ”18”, (second label, printed) ” Coll. Wesmael ”, (third label) ” B. Dichrous mihi” (sic!, lapsus calami) ”dét. C. Wesmael ” (printed), (fourth label, printed) ”R. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belg. I. G. 3.317”, (fifth label, my handwriting) ” Belgique / Liège/ leg. M. Robert ” (the locality label adapted after Wesmael l.c.), sixth label is the holotype card. Holotype is in poor condition: (1) pinned by mesosoma; (2) head together with antennae missing; (3) missing: right pair of wings, right fore leg (except coxa), left fore tarsus, middle pair of legs, tarsomeres 4-5 of left hind leg.

Besides the holotype specimen there is a second ♀ of B. dichromus   in Wesmael’Collection; however, it does not belong to the syntype series (see Wesmael’s indication before). The ♀ is representing a melanic form: head almost entirely brown to dark brown, mesosoma dark to blackish brown, metasoma testaceous except dark brown first tergite, leg testaceous. The specimen is in fairly poor condition: legs deficient, right fore wing apically damaged.

Material examined

140 ♀♀ + 31 ♁♁ from fifteen countries: SLOVAKIA: 6 ♀♀ +1 ♁ from five localities. HUNGARY: 97 ♀♀ + 19 ♁♁ from 87 localities. ROMANIA: 6 ♀♀ from six localities. SERBIA: 2 ♀♀ from two localities. CROATIA: 3 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from four localities. BULGARIA: 7 ♀♀ from four localities. GREECE: 1 ♀. ITALY: 3 ♀♀ from three localities. ALGERIA: 1 ♀. CYPRUS: 1 ♀ + 3 ♁♁ from four localities. SYRIA: 1 ♁. ISRAEL: 3 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from four localities. JORDAN: 1 ♀. TURKEY: 6 ♀♀ from six localities. UKRAINE: 2 ♀♀ from one locality. GEORGIA: 1 ♀.

Redescription of the ♀ holotype of Bracon dichromus   ( Fig. 3 View Fig C-J)

HEAD. Missing.

LENGTH. Body, i.e. meso- and metasoma combined, 4 mm long.

MESOSOMA. In lateral view stout, 1.25 times as long as high, polished. Notaulix hardly distinct. Propodeum polished, close above lunule with short weak rugae ( Fig. 3C View Fig ).

LEGS. Hind femur 3.6 times as long as broad medially ( Fig. 3D View Fig ). Claw weakly curved, its basal lobe fairly large and pointed ( Fig. 3E View Fig ).

WINGS. Forewing slightly longer than meso- and metasoma combined. Pterostigma ( Fig. 3F View Fig ) fairly wide, 2.5 times as long as wide, issuing r proximally   from its middle, r somewhat   shorter than width of pterostigma. Submarginal cell less long, 3-SR a bit longer than 2-SR, SR1 straight, 1.9 times as long as 3-SR and reaching tip of wing ( Fig. 3F View Fig ). First discal cell high, 1-M twice as long as m-cu, 1-SR-M curved and 1.25 times as long as 1-M ( Fig. 3G View Fig ).

TERGITES ( Fig. 3H View Fig ). First tergite somewhat longer than broad behind, pair of spiracles before middle of tergite, beyond spiracles parallel-sided, margin of scutum very finely crenulated, otherwise together with further tergites polished. Second tergite 3.1 times as broad behind as long, suture between tergites 2-3 bisinuate, smooth. Third tergite a bit longer than second tergite ( Fig. 3H View Fig ). Ovipositor sheath long, as long as hind tarsus + tibia + half femur combined. Hypopygium pointed, posterior end of ovipositor sheath as in Fig. 3I. View Fig

COLOUR. Ground colour of body testaceous. Black to blackish: prosternum, mesosternum, propodeum (latero-posteriorly reddish), hind coxae. Blackish to brown: fore coxa, trochanters, hind femur proximally, tibiae apically and tarsi entirely. Wings brownish fumous, pterostigma and veins brownish.

Description of the head ( Fig. 3 View Fig A-B)

The description of the head is based on a ♀ specimen quite identical to the ♀ holotype (taken in Hungary, Budapest: Svábhegy, 2 Aug. 1897, ex coll. Magyar Rovartani Állomás = Hungarian Entomological Service).Antenna somewhat shorter than body and with 27 antennomeres. First flagellomere 1.75 times, further flagellomeres shortening so that penultimate flagellomere 1.4 times as long as broad. Head in dorsal view transverse ( Fig. 3A View Fig ), almost 1.9 times as broad as long, eye almost 1.3 times length of temple, temple strongly rounded, occiput excavated. Oral opening usual in size, its horizontal diameter somewhat longer than shortest distance between opening and compound eye ( Fig. 3B View Fig ). Head polished. Scape blackish brown, flagellum dark brown. Head testaceous, occiput brownish black, palpi and rostrum brown.

Deviating features of the ♀♀ and ³³ ( Figs 1D View Fig ; 3J View Fig ; 4 View Fig A-C; 5A)

Body 3-5 mm long. Antenna of ♀♀ with (25-)27-32(-33) and of ♁♁ with 27-32(-39) antennomeres. Temple in dorsal view somewhat receded (3 ♀♀, cf. Fig. 4C View Fig ). Basal lobe of claw slightly more pointed (5 ♀♀, cf. Fig. 1D View Fig ). First discal cell apparently slightly higher, i.e. 1-M more than twice as long as m-cu (4 ♀♀, Fig. 3J View Fig ). First tergite broad, as long as broad behind, its scutum fairly wide (4 ♀♀, Fig. 4A View Fig ). Second tergite antero-medially finely striate-substriate (2 ♀♀ + 1 ♁, Fig. 5A View Fig ). Ovipositor sheath long, as long as hind leg or metasoma + half mesosoma (1 ♀). Pterostigma yellow (3 ♀♀).

Several varieties and aberrations of B. dichromus   have been described by Fahringer 1928: 453; Telenga 1936: 208; Papp 1966 and Shenefelt 1978: 1565. From these, two varieties are recognized as extreme colour deviations from the nominate form:

1) Bracon (Glabrobracon) dichromus var. maculiger (Wesmael)   (= B. carpaticus Niezabitowski, 1910   , = B. variator   ab. bicolor Papp, 1966)

Material examined

144 ♀♀ + 32 ♁♁ from twenty countries: ENGLAND: 1 ♀. FRANCE: 5 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from six localities. GERMANY: 3 ♀♀ from three localities. BOHEMIA: 2 ♀♀ from two localities. SLOVAKIA: 1 ♀.

HUNGARY: 72 ♀♀ + 15 ♁♁ from 68 localities. ROMANIA: 12 ♀♀ + 2 ♁♁ from twelve localities. CROATIA: 3 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from three localities. MACEDONIA 1 ♀. BULGARIA: 3 ♀♀ +1 ♁ from three localities. GREECE: 2 ♀♀ from two localities. TURKEY: 5 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from five localities. SPAIN: 6 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from six localities. ITALY: 7 ♀♀ + 3 ♁♁ from four localities. CYPRUS: 1 ♀ + 2 ♁♁ from two localities. ISRAEL: 1 ♀. JORDAN: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁ from two localities. TUNISIA: 6 ♀♀ + 3 ♁♁ from four localities. ARMENIA: 3 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from three localities. TURKMENISTAN: 9 ♀♀ from three localities.

The var. maculiger   represents the melanic form of the species. The head and mesosoma are almost entirely dark coloured: head and mesoscutum partly reddish yellow or entirely black and femora 2-3 blackish to black, frequently scutum of first tergite also black(ish), i.e. metasoma usually reddish yellow, testaceous or rusty, dark coloured streak on tergites 2-4(-6) sometimes present. Antenna with (22-)25- 29(-32) antennomeres (♀) and with (23-)27-32 antennomeres (♁).

2) Bracon (Glabrobracon) dichromus var. discretus ( Szépligeti, 1901)  

Material examined

29 ♀♀ + 5 ♁♁ from eight countries: BOHEMIA: 1 ♁. HUNGARY: 21 ♀♀ + 2 ♁♁ from eighteen localities. ROMANIA: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁ from two localities. CROATIA: 2 ♀♀ from two localities. BULGARIA: 2 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from two localities. MACEDONIA: 1 ♀. PORTUGAL: 1 ♀. TURKMENISTAN: 1 ♀.

The var. discretus   represents the albanic form of the species: at most mesosternum, hind femur partly (and hind tergites medially) with blackish to black pattern, frequently body and legs entirely reddish yellow or testaceous.

Hosts

COL. Curculionidae   : Gymnetron asellus Gravenhorst   , Larinus flavescens Germar   , L. turbinatus Gyllenhal.   — LEP. Gelechiidae   : Platyedra subcinerea Haworth.   Tortricidae   : Grapholitha funebrana Treitschke.   Phycitidae   : Myelois cribrella Hübner.   — DIPT. Tephritidae   : Euribia stylata Fabricius   , Tephritis cometa Loew   , Terellia serratulae Linnaeus   , Xiphosia miliaria Schrank.  

Distribution

Western Palaearctic Region, mainly in its steppe and forest-steppe zone; in southern half of Europe fairly frequent)

Taxonomic position

Within the subgenus Glabrobracon   the species B. dichromus   is nearest to B. helleni Telenga   (European Russia, Kazakhstan: Uralsk) and B. popovi Telenga   ( Hungary, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Uzbekhistan) considering their reddish yellow or testaceous corporal colour; the three species are separated by the following key features:

1 (2) Third tergite only a bit longer than second tergite; first tergite broad ( Figs 3H View Fig ; 4A View Fig ). Temple in dorsal view strongly rounded ( Fig. 3A View Fig ). Claw weakly downcurved ( Fig. 3E View Fig ). Ground colour of body testaceous, mesosoma ventrally and propodeum black to blackish (nominate form); varieties: head, mesosoma with much blackish to black pattern ( var. maculiger   ), body almost entirely reddish yellow ( var. discretus   ) ♀ ♁: (2.5-)3-4.5(-5) mm ............................................................................................ ...................................................................................................... B. (Gl.) dichromus Wesmael, 1838  

2 (1) Third tergite clearly longer than second tergite ( Figs.4B, E View Fig ); first tergite less broadening ( Fig. 4B View Fig ) or evenly broadening posteriorly ( Fig. 4E View Fig ). Temple in dorsal view receded ( Fig. 4C View Fig ) or less receded ( Fig. 4E View Fig ). Claw strongly downcurved ( Fig 4G View Fig ).

3 (4) Temple in dorsal view receded ( Fig. 4C View Fig ). Claw less downcurved. Forewing: SR1 reaching tip of wing, pterostigma issuing r proximally   from its middle, SR1 one-third longer than 3-SR ( Fig. 4D View Fig ). First tergite 1.3 times as long as broad behind, suture between 2-3 bisinuate ( Fig. 4B View Fig ). ♀: 2.5-3.5 mm ..................... .......................................................................................... B. (Gl.) helleni Telenga, 1936  

4 (3) Temple in dorsal view less receded ( Fig. 4E View Fig ). Claw less downcurved ( Fig. 4G View Fig ). Forewing: SR1 approaching tip of wing, pterostigma issuing r from   its middle, SR1 clearly twice longer than 3-SR ( Fig. 4H View Fig ). First tergite slightly longer than broad behind, evenly broadening posteriorly, suture between tergites 2-3 straight ( Fig. 4E View Fig ). ♀: 2.5-3.5 mm ........................................ B. (Gl.) popovi Telenga, 1936  

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Braconidae

Genus

Bracon

Loc

Bracon (Glabrobracon) dichromus Wesmael, 1838

Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest 2012
2012
Loc

Bracon collaris

Tobias V. I. 1986: 134
Shenefelt R. D. 1978: 1563
Tobias V. I. 1958: 98
1958
Loc

Bracon ornatulus

Tobias V. I. & Belokobylskij S. A. 2000: 143
Tobias V. I. 1959: 895
Tobias V. I. 1958: 99
1958
Loc

Bracon velbingeri

Fahringer J. 1951: 67
1951
Loc

Bracon ornatulus

Telenga N. A. 1936: 150
1936
Loc

Bracon carpaticus

Telenga N. A. 1936: 149
Niezabitowski E. L. 1910: 9
Szepligeti Gy. 1901: 268
1910
Loc

Bracon breviventris Szépligeti, 1901: 268

Szepligeti Gy. 1901: 268
1901
Loc

Braco dichromus

Wesmael C. 1838: 49
1838
Loc

Braco maculiger

Wesmael C. 1838: 50
1838
Loc

Bracon (Glabrobracon) dichromus

Szépligeti 1901: 268
Fahringer 1927: 291
Telenga 1936: 149
Shenefelt 1978: 1565
Tobias 1986: 134
Loc

Bracon (Glabrobracon) breviventris

Fahringer 1927: 292
1928: 440
Tobias 1961: 164
1986: 134
Shenefelt 1978: 1572
Papp 2004: 172
Loc

Bracon carpaticus

Telenga 1936 : as valid species 175
Shenefelt 1978: 1560
Loc

Bracon (Glabrobracon) discretus

Fahringer 1927: 292
Telenga 1936 : as valid species 148
Shenefelt 1978: 1566
Papp 1966: 382
Papp 2004: 174
Loc

Bracon maculiger

Szépligeti 1901 : as valid species 269
Fahringer 1927: as valid species 293
Telenga 1936 : as valid species 150
Tobias 1961: 164
Papp 1966 : as valid species 379
Shenefelt 1978: 1572
Tobias 1986: 134
Loc

Bracon velbingeri

Papp 1971: 280
Shenefelt 1978: 1566