Bracon (Glabrobracon) praecox Wesmael, 1838

Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest, 2012, A revision of the Bracon Fabricius species in Wesmael’s collection deposited in Brussels (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 21, pp. 1-154: 88-91

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2012.21

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:993FCC8B-F8B1-42DD-B776-CA8435E08112

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3858908

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/F8008D0E-FFD2-FFAB-06D4-49DEFA9CFA7C

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Bracon (Glabrobracon) praecox Wesmael, 1838
status

 

Bracon (Glabrobracon) praecox Wesmael, 1838  

Figs 42 View Fig A-J, 43A-H

Braco praecox Wesmael, 1838: 52   ♀ (type material: 1 ♀), type locality: “...la cour d’athené,” (in Brussels, Belgium), ♀ holotype (“Je ne possède qu’une femelle de cette espéce;” Wesmael l.c., present designation) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels; examined.

Bracon semilunatus Dalla Torre, 1898: 288   (erroneous citation of B. semiluteus Walker   ).

Bracon semiluteus Walker, 1874: 307   ♀, type locality: “ Japan ”, ♀ holotype (“Type”) in The Natural History Museum, London; examined.

Bracon praecox   – Szépligeti 1901: as valid species 269 (in key, in Hungarian); 1904 (1901): 190 (in key, in German) ♀ ♁.

Bracon (Glabrobracon) praecox   – Fahringer 1927: as valid species 269 (♀), 307 (♁) (in key), 1928: 484 (redescription) ♀ ♁, assigned to “Section Glabrobracon   ”. — Telenga 1936: as valid species 152 (♀), 156 (♁) (in key), 222 (redescription) (in Russian) and 354-355 (♀), 358 (♁) (in key, in German). — Tobias 1961: 162 (as synonym of B. variator Nees   ). — Papp 1966: 392 (as synonym of B. variator   after Tobias l.c.). — Shenefelt 1978: 1586 (as B. variator   ab. praecox   after Papp l.c., literature up to 1974). — Tobias 1986: 134 (as synonym of B. variator   ).

Bracon semilunatus   – Shenefelt 1978: 1580 (as synonym of B. piger   ).

Bracon semiluteus   – Morley 1913: 134 (“Quite certainly synonymous with B. piger, Wesm.   ...”). — Fahringer 1928: 525 (assigned to sp. inquir.). — Watanabe 1937: 29 (as synonym of B. piger   after Morley l.c.). — Shenefelt 1978: 1580 (as synonym of B. piger   after Morley l.c.).

Designation of the ♀ holotype of Bracon praecox  

(First label, printed) “ Coll. Wesmael ”; (second label, printed) “2067”; (third label) “ Braco   ♀ / praecox mihi (handwriting) “dét. C. Wesmael ” (printed); (fourth label, printed red) “Type”; fifth label (printed) is with the (?)inventory number “3.317”; sixth label (printed) is with the locality name Bruxelles after Wesmael ; seventh label is the holotype card (sixth and seventh labels attached by me). Holotype is in fairly poor condition: (1) micropinned, pin thick; (2) head missing; (3) fore pair of legs missing.

Designation of the ♀ holotype of Bracon semiluteus  

(First label, handwriting) “242”; (second label, printed) “ Japan / Coll. F. Walker / 1913-71.”; (third round label with red margin, printed) “ Type ”; (fourth label, with?Walker’s handwriting) “ Bracon   / semiluteus”; (fifth label) “ Bracon piger Wesm.   ♀ XII. 13” (handwriting) “Morley det.” (printed); sixth label is with the actual name B. praecox Wesmael   given by me in 2007.

Material examined

48 ♀♀ + 38 ♁♁ from twenty-one countries: GREAT BRITAIN: 2 ♀♀ from two localities. FRANCE: 3 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from four localities. GERMANY: 1 ♀ + 2 ♁♁ from three localities. DENMARK: 1 ♀. SWITZERLAND: 1 ♀. BOHEMIA: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁ from two localities. HUNGARY: 25 ♀♀ + 13 ♁♁ from 21 localties. SWEDEN: 1 ♀. ITALY: 2 ♀♀ from two localities. SPAIN: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁: from one locality. ALGERIA: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁ from two localities. CROATIA: 1 ♀ + 2 ♁♁ from two localities. ALBANIA: 1 ♁. BULGARIA: 7 ♀♀ + 3 ♁♁ from seven localities. GREECE: 3 ♁♁ from three localities. TURKEY: 3 ♁♁ from three localities. CYPRUS: 1 ♀. ISRAEL: 1 ♁. JORDAN: 4 ♁♁ from four localities. IRAQ: 1 ♁. MONGOLIA: 1 ♁.

Redescription of the ♀ holotype of Bracon praecox   ( Fig. 42 View Fig A-G)

LENGTH. Body (without head) 2.8 mm long.

HEAD. Missing.

MESOSOMA. In lateral view 1.4 times as long as high, polished. Propleura in lateral view straight ( Fig. 42A View Fig ). Propodeum polished.

LEGS. Hind femur nearly 3.6 times as long as broad medially ( Fig. 42B View Fig ). Claw downcurved and pointed, its basal lobe less large ( Fig. 42C View Fig ).

WINGS. Forewing one-fourth longer than meso- and metasoma combined. Pterostigma ( Fig. 42D View Fig ) three times as long as wide and issuing r proximally   from its middle, r 0.8 times as long as width of pterostigma; second submarginal cell fairly long, 3-SR 1.4 times as long as 2-SR, SR1 straight, nearly 1.8 times longer than 3-SR and reaching tip of wing ( Fig. 42D View Fig ). First discal cell rather high, 1-M less than twice (1.76 times) as long as m-cu; 1-SR-M indistinctly bent and 1.3 times as long as 1-M ( Fig. 42E View Fig ).

TERGITES. First tergite ( Fig. 42F View Fig ) 1.25 times as long as broad behind, beyond pair of spiracles parallelsided, margin of scutum subcrenulate, otherwise together with further tergites polished. Second tergite transverse, 3.6 times as broad behind as long laterally, third tergite slightly longer than second tergite; suture between them bisinuate, deep and smooth. Hypopygium pointed, ovipositor sheath as long as hind tibia + basitarsus combined ( Fig. 42G View Fig ).

COLOUR. Mesosoma and legs black. Metasoma yellow, first tergite black, median macula of tergites 4-5 brown. Wings brown fumous, pterostigma and veins brown.

Description of the head on the basis of a ♀ specimen identical with the holotype ( Fig. 42 View Fig H-J)

Antenna as long as head, mesosoma and half of metasoma combined and with 28 antennomeres (in the original description “31 articles”). First flagellomere nearly 1.8 times and penultimate flagellomere nearly 1.4 times as long as broad. Head in dorsal view ( Fig. 42H View Fig ) less transverse, 1.76 times as broad as long, eye one-third (or 1.4 times) longer than temple, temple strongly rounded, occiput weakly excavated. Eye in lateral view 1.5 times as high as wide and 1.4 times wider than temple ( Fig. 42I View Fig , see arrows). Horizontal diameter of oral opening 1.6 times longer than shortest distance between opening and eye ( Fig. 42J View Fig ). Head polished, black.

Variable features of the ♀ (48 ♀♀) ( Fig. 43 View Fig A-G)

Similar to the ♀ holotype. Body (2.5-) 3-4.5 mm long. Antenna with (23-)26-33 antennomeres. Head in dorsal view 1.7-1.8 times as broad as long ( Fig. 43A View Fig ). Hind femur 3.3 times (4 ♀♀) as long as broad medially ( Fig. 43B View Fig ). Pterostigma 2.6 times (11 ♀♀) as long as wide ( Fig. 43C View Fig ), r issuing   from its middle (2 ♀♀, Fig. 43D View Fig ). Fore wing: 3-SR 1.2 times (3 ♀♀) and 1.6 times (7 ♀♀) as long as 2-SR ( Fig. 43 View Fig E-F). First tergite just longer than broad behind (6 ♀♀). Third tergite (3 ♀♀) a bit longer than second tergite ( Fig. 43G View Fig ). Hind femur distally to (almost) entirely yellow or reddish yellow (7 ♀♀). Metasoma entirely yellow (2 ♀♀).

Variable features of the ³ (38 ³³) ( Fig. 43H View Fig )

Similar to the type + ♀. Body 2.5-4(-4.5) mm long. Antenna with 23-37 antennomeres. First tergite 1.5 times as long as broad behind (16 ♀♀, Fig. 43H View Fig ).

Hosts

COL. Bruchidae   :! Bruchidius lividimanus (Gyllenhal)   , B. marginalis (Fabricius)   , B. villosus (Fabricius)   . Apionidae   : Protapion apricans Herbst   , P. trifolii Linnaeus.   Curculionidae   : Miarus campanulae Linnaeus   ,! Pissodes validirostris (C. R. Sahlberg et J. Sahlberg)   . — LEP. Cochylidae   : Cochylis epilinana Duponchel.   Coleophoridae   : Coleophora gallipennella Hübner.   Phycitidae   :! Dioryctria abietella Denis et Schiffermüller.   Tortricidae   : Cnephasia longana Haworth   ,! Cydia nigricana Fabricius.   ! Retinia resinella Linnaeus.   Geometridae   :! Eupithecia venosata Fabricius   (in Silene   pod). — DIPT. Tephritidae   : Tephritis leontodontis Degener.  

Hyperperparasitoids

HYM. Eupelmidae   : Eupelmus annulatus Nees.   Eurytomidae   : Eurytoma appendigaster Swederus.   Ichneumonidae   : Scambus elegans Woldstedt.  

Distribution

Palaearctic Region, a frequent to common species in Europe.

Taxonomic position

Within the subgenus Glabrobracon   the species Bracon praecox   is nearest to B. piger   considering their more or less subcubic head, their distinction is presented at the latter species.

Bracon praecox   is also near to the Nearctic species, B. bruchivorus Muesebeck (1963: 162)   , considering their subcubic head in dorsal view and parallel-sided first tergite; the two species are distinguished by a few features, see key:

1 (2) Temple in dorsal view strongly rounded ( Fig. 42H View Fig ). First tergite more or less longer than broad behind, second tergite antero-medially without a field and somewhat less transverse ( Figs 42F View Fig ; 43G View Fig ). Hind femur (3.3-)3.6 times as long as broad medially ( Figs 42B View Fig ; 43B View Fig ). Propleura in lateral view straight ( Fig. 42A View Fig ). Claw slightly less downcurved ( Fig. 42C View Fig ). Metasoma yellow with black pattern on first and last two tergites. ♀ ♁: 2.5-4.5 mm ...................... B. (Gl.) praecox Wesmael, 1838  

2 (1) Temple in dorsal view weakly rounded ( Fig. 43I View Fig ). First tergite as long as broad behind, second tergite antero-medially with a small field and somewhat more transverse ( Fig. 43J View Fig ). Hind femur 2.8-2.9 times as long as broad medially ( Fig. 43K View Fig ). Propleura in lateral view slightly concave ( Fig. 43M View Fig ). Claw slightly more downcurved ( Fig. 43L View Fig ). Metasoma entirely testaceous. ♀ ♁: 3-3.8 mm ...... ................................................................................................... B. (Gl.) bruchivorus Muesebeck, 1963  

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Braconidae

Genus

Bracon

Loc

Bracon (Glabrobracon) praecox Wesmael, 1838

Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest 2012
2012
Loc

Bracon semilunatus

Shenefelt R. D. 1978: 1580
1978
Loc

Bracon praecox

Muesebeck C. F. W. 1963: )
1963
Loc

Bracon semiluteus

Walker F. 1874: 307
1874
Loc

Braco praecox

Wesmael C. 1838: 52
1838
Loc

Bracon semilunatus

Bracon semilunatus Dalla Torre, 1898: 288
Loc

Bracon praecox

Szépligeti 1901 : as valid species 269
Loc

Bracon (Glabrobracon) praecox

Fahringer 1927: as valid species 269
Telenga 1936
Tobias 1961: 162
Papp 1966: 392
Shenefelt 1978: 1586
Loc

Bracon semiluteus

Morley 1913: 134
Fahringer 1928: 525
Watanabe 1937: 29
Shenefelt 1978: 1580