Bracon (Glabrobracon) praecox Wesmael, 1838
Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest, 2012, A revision of the Bracon Fabricius species in Wesmael’s collection deposited in Brussels (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 21, pp. 1-154: 88-91
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|Bracon (Glabrobracon) praecox Wesmael, 1838|
Figs 42 View Fig A-J, 43A-H
Braco praecox Wesmael, 1838: 52 ♀ (type material: 1 ♀), type locality: “...la cour d’athené,” (in Brussels, Belgium), ♀ holotype (“Je ne possède qu’une femelle de cette espéce;” Wesmael l.c., present designation) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels; examined.
Bracon semiluteus Walker, 1874: 307 ♀, type locality: “ Japan ”, ♀ holotype (“Type”) in The Natural History Museum, London; examined.
Bracon praecox – Szépligeti 1901: as valid species 269 (in key, in Hungarian); 1904 (1901): 190 (in key, in German) ♀ ♁.
Bracon (Glabrobracon) praecox – Fahringer 1927: as valid species 269 (♀), 307 (♁) (in key), 1928: 484 (redescription) ♀ ♁, assigned to “Section Glabrobracon ”. — Telenga 1936: as valid species 152 (♀), 156 (♁) (in key), 222 (redescription) (in Russian) and 354-355 (♀), 358 (♁) (in key, in German). — Tobias 1961: 162 (as synonym of B. variator Nees ). — Papp 1966: 392 (as synonym of B. variator after Tobias l.c.). — Shenefelt 1978: 1586 (as B. variator ab. praecox after Papp l.c., literature up to 1974). — Tobias 1986: 134 (as synonym of B. variator ).
Bracon semiluteus – Morley 1913: 134 (“Quite certainly synonymous with B. piger, Wesm. ...”). — Fahringer 1928: 525 (assigned to sp. inquir.). — Watanabe 1937: 29 (as synonym of B. piger after Morley l.c.). — Shenefelt 1978: 1580 (as synonym of B. piger after Morley l.c.).
Designation of the ♀ holotype of Bracon praecox
(First label, printed) “ Coll. Wesmael ”; (second label, printed) “2067”; (third label) “ Braco ♀ / praecox mihi (handwriting) “dét. C. Wesmael ” (printed); (fourth label, printed red) “Type”; fifth label (printed) is with the (?)inventory number “3.317”; sixth label (printed) is with the locality name Bruxelles after Wesmael ; seventh label is the holotype card (sixth and seventh labels attached by me). Holotype is in fairly poor condition: (1) micropinned, pin thick; (2) head missing; (3) fore pair of legs missing.
Designation of the ♀ holotype of Bracon semiluteus
(First label, handwriting) “242”; (second label, printed) “ Japan / Coll. F. Walker / 1913-71.”; (third round label with red margin, printed) “ Type ”; (fourth label, with?Walker’s handwriting) “ Bracon / semiluteus”; (fifth label) “ Bracon piger Wesm. ♀ XII. 13” (handwriting) “Morley det.” (printed); sixth label is with the actual name B. praecox Wesmael given by me in 2007.
48 ♀♀ + 38 ♁♁ from twenty-one countries: GREAT BRITAIN: 2 ♀♀ from two localities. FRANCE: 3 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from four localities. GERMANY: 1 ♀ + 2 ♁♁ from three localities. DENMARK: 1 ♀. SWITZERLAND: 1 ♀. BOHEMIA: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁ from two localities. HUNGARY: 25 ♀♀ + 13 ♁♁ from 21 localties. SWEDEN: 1 ♀. ITALY: 2 ♀♀ from two localities. SPAIN: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁: from one locality. ALGERIA: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁ from two localities. CROATIA: 1 ♀ + 2 ♁♁ from two localities. ALBANIA: 1 ♁. BULGARIA: 7 ♀♀ + 3 ♁♁ from seven localities. GREECE: 3 ♁♁ from three localities. TURKEY: 3 ♁♁ from three localities. CYPRUS: 1 ♀. ISRAEL: 1 ♁. JORDAN: 4 ♁♁ from four localities. IRAQ: 1 ♁. MONGOLIA: 1 ♁.
LENGTH. Body (without head) 2.8 mm long.
MESOSOMA. In lateral view 1.4 times as long as high, polished. Propleura in lateral view straight ( Fig. 42A View Fig ). Propodeum polished.
WINGS. Forewing one-fourth longer than meso- and metasoma combined. Pterostigma ( Fig. 42D View Fig ) three times as long as wide and issuing r proximally from its middle, r 0.8 times as long as width of pterostigma; second submarginal cell fairly long, 3-SR 1.4 times as long as 2-SR, SR1 straight, nearly 1.8 times longer than 3-SR and reaching tip of wing ( Fig. 42D View Fig ). First discal cell rather high, 1-M less than twice (1.76 times) as long as m-cu; 1-SR-M indistinctly bent and 1.3 times as long as 1-M ( Fig. 42E View Fig ).
TERGITES. First tergite ( Fig. 42F View Fig ) 1.25 times as long as broad behind, beyond pair of spiracles parallelsided, margin of scutum subcrenulate, otherwise together with further tergites polished. Second tergite transverse, 3.6 times as broad behind as long laterally, third tergite slightly longer than second tergite; suture between them bisinuate, deep and smooth. Hypopygium pointed, ovipositor sheath as long as hind tibia + basitarsus combined ( Fig. 42G View Fig ).
COLOUR. Mesosoma and legs black. Metasoma yellow, first tergite black, median macula of tergites 4-5 brown. Wings brown fumous, pterostigma and veins brown.
Description of the head on the basis of a ♀ specimen identical with the holotype ( Fig. 42 View Fig H-J)
Antenna as long as head, mesosoma and half of metasoma combined and with 28 antennomeres (in the original description “31 articles”). First flagellomere nearly 1.8 times and penultimate flagellomere nearly 1.4 times as long as broad. Head in dorsal view ( Fig. 42H View Fig ) less transverse, 1.76 times as broad as long, eye one-third (or 1.4 times) longer than temple, temple strongly rounded, occiput weakly excavated. Eye in lateral view 1.5 times as high as wide and 1.4 times wider than temple ( Fig. 42I View Fig , see arrows). Horizontal diameter of oral opening 1.6 times longer than shortest distance between opening and eye ( Fig. 42J View Fig ). Head polished, black.
Variable features of the ♀ (48 ♀♀) ( Fig. 43 View Fig A-G)
Similar to the ♀ holotype. Body (2.5-) 3-4.5 mm long. Antenna with (23-)26-33 antennomeres. Head in dorsal view 1.7-1.8 times as broad as long ( Fig. 43A View Fig ). Hind femur 3.3 times (4 ♀♀) as long as broad medially ( Fig. 43B View Fig ). Pterostigma 2.6 times (11 ♀♀) as long as wide ( Fig. 43C View Fig ), r issuing from its middle (2 ♀♀, Fig. 43D View Fig ). Fore wing: 3-SR 1.2 times (3 ♀♀) and 1.6 times (7 ♀♀) as long as 2-SR ( Fig. 43 View Fig E-F). First tergite just longer than broad behind (6 ♀♀). Third tergite (3 ♀♀) a bit longer than second tergite ( Fig. 43G View Fig ). Hind femur distally to (almost) entirely yellow or reddish yellow (7 ♀♀). Metasoma entirely yellow (2 ♀♀).
Variable features of the ³ (38 ³³) ( Fig. 43H View Fig )
Similar to the type + ♀. Body 2.5-4(-4.5) mm long. Antenna with 23-37 antennomeres. First tergite 1.5 times as long as broad behind (16 ♀♀, Fig. 43H View Fig ).
COL. Bruchidae :! Bruchidius lividimanus (Gyllenhal) , B. marginalis (Fabricius) , B. villosus (Fabricius) . Apionidae : Protapion apricans Herbst , P. trifolii Linnaeus. Curculionidae : Miarus campanulae Linnaeus ,! Pissodes validirostris (C. R. Sahlberg et J. Sahlberg) . — LEP. Cochylidae : Cochylis epilinana Duponchel. Coleophoridae : Coleophora gallipennella Hübner. Phycitidae :! Dioryctria abietella Denis et Schiffermüller. Tortricidae : Cnephasia longana Haworth ,! Cydia nigricana Fabricius. ! Retinia resinella Linnaeus. Geometridae :! Eupithecia venosata Fabricius (in Silene pod). — DIPT. Tephritidae : Tephritis leontodontis Degener.
Palaearctic Region, a frequent to common species in Europe.
Bracon praecox is also near to the Nearctic species, B. bruchivorus Muesebeck (1963: 162) , considering their subcubic head in dorsal view and parallel-sided first tergite; the two species are distinguished by a few features, see key:
1 (2) Temple in dorsal view strongly rounded ( Fig. 42H View Fig ). First tergite more or less longer than broad behind, second tergite antero-medially without a field and somewhat less transverse ( Figs 42F View Fig ; 43G View Fig ). Hind femur (3.3-)3.6 times as long as broad medially ( Figs 42B View Fig ; 43B View Fig ). Propleura in lateral view straight ( Fig. 42A View Fig ). Claw slightly less downcurved ( Fig. 42C View Fig ). Metasoma yellow with black pattern on first and last two tergites. ♀ ♁: 2.5-4.5 mm ...................... B. (Gl.) praecox Wesmael, 1838
2 (1) Temple in dorsal view weakly rounded ( Fig. 43I View Fig ). First tergite as long as broad behind, second tergite antero-medially with a small field and somewhat more transverse ( Fig. 43J View Fig ). Hind femur 2.8-2.9 times as long as broad medially ( Fig. 43K View Fig ). Propleura in lateral view slightly concave ( Fig. 43M View Fig ). Claw slightly more downcurved ( Fig. 43L View Fig ). Metasoma entirely testaceous. ♀ ♁: 3-3.8 mm ...... ................................................................................................... B. (Gl.) bruchivorus Muesebeck, 1963
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Bracon (Glabrobracon) praecox Wesmael, 1838
|Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest 2012|
|Shenefelt R. D. 1978: 1580|
|Muesebeck C. F. W. 1963: )|
|Walker F. 1874: 307|
|Wesmael C. 1838: 52|
|Bracon semilunatus Dalla Torre, 1898: 288|
|Szépligeti 1901 : as valid species 269|
Bracon (Glabrobracon) praecox
|Fahringer 1927: as valid species 269|
|Tobias 1961: 162|
|Papp 1966: 392|
|Shenefelt 1978: 1586|
|Morley 1913: 134|
|Fahringer 1928: 525|
|Watanabe 1937: 29|
|Shenefelt 1978: 1580|