Bracon (Pigeria) piger Wesmael, 1838
Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest, 2012, A revision of the Bracon Fabricius species in Wesmael’s collection deposited in Brussels (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 21, pp. 1-154: 83-88
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|Bracon (Pigeria) piger Wesmael, 1838|
Figs 40 View Fig A-L, 41A-D
Braco piger Wesmael, 1838: 48 ♀ (type material: 2 ♀♀), type locality: “la plaine de Mon-Plaisir, près de Bruxelles ” ( Belgium), ♀ lectotype (and one ♀ paralectotype, present designations) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels; examined.
Bracon explorator Szépligeti, 1904 ( 1901): 189 (in key), 194 (description) (in German) ♀ ♁, type locality: Siófok ( Hungary), one ♀ paralectotype (from Siófok) identical and synonymized with B. piger , further specimens (♀ lectotype, four ♀ and one ♁ paralectotypes from Budapest and Siófok) identical and synonymized with B. otiosus Marshall, 1885 (cf. Papp 2004: 174, 2008: 1791).
Bracon rotundatus Szépligeti, 1901: 270 (as “rotundator” in key), 282 (description) (in Hungarian), 1904 (1901): 190 (in key), 195 (description) (in German), type locality: “ Budapest ” ( Hungary), ♀ lectotype in Magyar Természettudomáyi Múzeum, Budapest; examined.
Bracon rotundulus Szépligeti, 1904 ( 1901): 190 (in key) and 195 (description) ♀ ♁, type locality: Budapest: Svábhegy ( Hungary), ♀ lectotype (and two ♀ paralectotypes from Budapest and Pilismarót, Hungary) in Magyar Ternészettudományi Múzeum, Budapest; examined.
Bracon piger – Szépligeti 1901: 267 (in key, in Hungarian); 1904 (1901): 186 (in key, in German) ♀.
Bracon (Glabrobracon) piger – Fahringer 1927: 284 (in key), 1928: 482 (redescription) ♀, assigned to “Section Glabrobracon ”. — Telenga 1936: 152 (in key), 221 (redescription) (in Russian) and 354 (in key, in German) ♀. — Papp 1966: 376 (in key), 389 (redescription) ♀ ♁. — Shenefelt 1978: 1580 (literature up to 1974). — Van Achterberg 1985 (generic differentation as Pigeria piger , redescription). — Tobias 1986: 134 (in key, in Russian). — Tobias & Belokobylskij 2000: 164 (as Pigeria piger ).
Bracon rotundatus – Fahringer 1928: 484 (as synonym of B. praecox Wesmael ). — Telenga 1936: 153 (in key), 222 (redescription) (in Russian) and 355 (in key, in German) as B. piger var. rotundatus (Szépligeti) . — Tobias 1961: 162 (as synonym of B. variator Nees ). — Papp 1966: 392 (as synonym of B. variator Nees ). — Shenefelt 1978: 1587 (as B. variator var. rotundatus , literature up to 1967). — Papp 2004: 179 and 2008: 1791 (as valid species, type designation and depository).
Bracon rotundulus – Fahringer 1928: 484 (as B. praecox var. rotundulus ). — Telenga 1936: 152 (♀), 156 (♁, in key, in Russian) and 354 (♀), 358 (♁) (in key, in German) as B. praecox var. rotundulus (222). — Tobias 1961: 162 (as synonym of B. variator Nees ). — Papp 1966: 392 (as synonym of B. variator Nees ). — Shenefelt 1978: 1587 (as B. variator var. rotundulus , literature up to 1967). Tobias 1986: not mentioned. — Papp 2004: 180 (as synonym of B. piger , type designations and depository).
The genus Pigeria was described by van Achterberg (1985), who assigned two European species to it: P. piger ( Wesmael, 1838) and P. wolschrijni van Achterberg, 1985 . Quicke & Sharkey (1989: 350) noted that “Although Pigeria is being kept separate from Bracon in the present paper, it is probably best considered as only a derived subgenus of the latter.” In this paper taxon Pigeria is suppressed to subgeneric level and regarded as one of the subgenera of Bracon .
Designation of the ♀ lectotype of Bracon piger
(First label, printed) “ Coll. Wesmael ”; (second label, printed) “2062”; (third label) “ Braco ♀ / piger mihi” (handwriting) / “det. Wesmael ” (printed); (fourth label, printed red) “Type”; fifth label (printed) is with the (?)inventory number “3.317”; sixth label (printed) with the locality Bruxelles after Wesmael ; seventh label is the lectotype card (sixth and seventh labels attached by me). Lectotype is in good conditition: (1) micropinned; (2) right flagellum deficient (with 11 flagellomeres); (3) missing: tarsomeres 2-5 of left fore and left middle legs.
Designation of the ♀ paralectotype of Bracon piger
Labels identical to those of the lectotype except eighth label attached to the polyporus stage with handwriting “20. aout. M.plai: 3”. Paralectotype is in poor condition: (1) micropinned; (2) right flagellum deficient (with 23 flagellomeres); (3) missing: hind pair of legs and right pair of wings; (4) metasoma glued dorsally (to tergites) onto the label with the text (see before); (5) base of left fore wing torned, left hind wing apically deficient.
127 ♀♀ + 51 ♁♁ from twenty countries: ENGLAND: 1 ♀. FRANCE: 3 ♀♀ from three localities. THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ♀. GERMANY: 7 ♀♀ + 5 ♁♁ from eight localities. AUSTRIA: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁ from one locality. BOHEMIA: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁ from two localities. HUNGARY: 95 ♀♀ + 32 ♁♁ from hundred and twenty-one localities. CROATIA: 4 ♀♀ + 3 ♁♁ from five localities. SERBIA: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁ from two localities. MACEDONIA: 1 ♀. BULGARIA: 2 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from three localities. GREECE: 2 ♁♁ from two localities. ITALY: 1 ♀ + 2 ♁♁ from two localities. SPAIN: 1 ♁. TURKEY: 2 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from three localities. ARMENIA: 1 ♀. LEBANON: 1 ♀. TURKMENISTAN: 1 ♀. MONGOLIA 2 ♀♀ from two localities. CHINA: 2 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from two localities.
Redescription of the ♀ lectotype of Bracon piger
LENGTH. Body 4 mm long.
ANTENNAE. Almost as long as body and with 32 antennomeres (left antenna). First flagellomere subcubic, 1.2 times as long as broad, further flagellomeres gradually attenuating so that penultimate flagellomere subcubic, somewhat more than 1.3 times as long as broad ( Fig. 40A View Fig ).
HEAD. In dorsal view ( Fig. 40B View Fig ) less transverse, 1.6 times as broad as long, eye one-fourth longer than temple, temple rounded, occiput weakly excavated. Eye in lateral view nearly 1.5 times as high as wide, temple a bit wider than eye ( Fig. 40C View Fig , see arrows). Horizontal diameter of oral opening somewhat longer than shortest distance between opening and compound eye ( Fig. 40D View Fig ). Head polished and hairy.
MESOSOMA. In lateral view 1.3 times as long as high, polished. Notaulix distinct. Propleura in lateral view concave, ventrally elevated and here weakly carinated ( Fig. 40E View Fig , see arrow). Fore pair of coxae somewhat flattened ( Fig. 40F View Fig ; cf. Figs 10 View Fig and 16 View Fig in Achterberg 1985: 171, 173). These latter two features are subgeneric ones. Propodeum polished.
WINGS. Forewing slightly longer than body. Pterostigma ( Fig. 40I View Fig ) fairly wide, 2.5 times as long as wide and issuing r proximally from its middle, r somewhat shorter than width of pterostigma; second submarginal cell long, 3-SR 1.5 times as long as 2-SR, SR1 faintly bent, nearly 1.6 times longer than 3-SR and reaching tip of wing ( Fig. 40I View Fig ). First discal cell usual in form, 1-M twice longer than m-cu, 1-SR-M just bent and nearly 1.4 times longer than 1-M ( Fig. 40J View Fig ).
TERGITES. First tergite ( Fig. 40K View Fig ) somewhat longer than broad behind, beyond pair of spiracles weakly broadening, margin of scutum finely crenulated, otherwise tergite, together with further ones, polished. Second tergite clearly three times broader behind than long laterally, somewhat shorter than third tergite, suture between them bisinuate and smooth. Hypopygium pointed, ovipositor sheath as long as hind tibia and tarsomeres 1-2 combined (ovipositor invisible) ( Fig. 40L View Fig ).
COLOUR. Antenna, head and mesosoma black. Orbit rusty, palpi blackish. Metasoma yellow, fore half of scutum (of first tergite) black. Legs black, hind pair of tibiae basally brownish. Wings brown fumous, pterostigma and veins brown.
The ♀ paralectotype is quite similar in every respect to the lectotype, hence needless to redescribe.
Variable features of the ♀ (127 ♀♀)
Body 3.5-4.5 mm long. Antenna with 26-33, usually with 29-31, antennomeres. Flagellomeres 1.3-1.4(- 1.5) times as long as broad. Head in dorsal view 1.6-1.68 times, exceptionally 1.7-1.73 times ( Fig. 41A View Fig ), as broad as long, eye one-fifth to one-fourth longer than temple. Propleura in lateral view either blunt
( Fig. 40E View Fig ) or stronger ( Fig. 41B View Fig ). Hind femur 3.2-3.4 times, usually 3.3 times, as long as broad. First tergite as long as broad ( Fig. 41C View Fig ) to somewhat longer than broad behind ( Fig. 40K View Fig ).
Deviating features of the ³ (51 ³³)
Similar to the ♀. Body 3.5-4.2(-4.5) mm long. Antenna with 25-36, usually 27-32, antennomeres. Flagellomeres (1.3-)1.4-1.5 times as long as broad. Head in dorsal view 1.6-1.7 times as broad as long ( Figs 40B View Fig ; 41A View Fig ). Prosternum as in ♀ (cf. Figs 40E View Fig ; 41B View Fig ). First tergite somewhat longer than broad behind ( Fig. 40K View Fig ), usually as long as broad behind ( Fig. 41C View Fig ). Metasoma fairly frequently more or less black.
COL. Bruchidae : Bruchidius villosus (Fabricius) , B. lividimanus Gyllenhal. Curculionidae : Pissodes validirostris C.R. Sahlberg et J. Sahlberg. — LEP. Tortricidae : Cnephasia longana Haworth. Cydia nigricana Fabricius. Cochilidae: Cochylis epilinana Duponchel. Phycitidae : Etiella zinckenella Treitschke. Noctuidae : Heliothis peltigera Denis et Schiffermüller.
Palaearctic Region, in Europe frequent.
Within the subgenera Pigeria and Glabrobracon the species Bracon piger is nearest to B. wolschrijni , B. variator and B. praecox , respectively, the four species are distinguished by the following features in the key:
1 (4) Propleura in lateral view concave, its anterior elevation (weakly) carinated ( Figs 40E View Fig ; 41B, E View Fig , see arrow); fore pair of coxae somewhat flattened ( Fig. 40F View Fig ) (subgeneric features of Pigeria ). Head in dorsal view subcubic ( Fig. 40B View Fig ) to less transverse, temple less rounded ( Figs 41A, F View Fig ).
2 (3) Second submarginal cell of fore wing less narrow, 3-SR twice (1.9-2.1 times) as long as r-m ( Fig. 40I View Fig ). Eye in dorsal view longer than temple ( Figs 40B View Fig ; 41A View Fig ). First tergite at most slightly longer than broad behind ( Fig. 40K View Fig ). Antenna with (26-)29-33 (♀) and (25-)28-36 (♁) antennomeres. Ground colour of metasoma reddish yellow. ♀ ♁: Body robust, 3.5-4.5 mm. - Palaearctic Region ............................................. B. (Pig.) piger Wesmael, 1838
3 (2) Second submarginal cell of fore wing narrow, 3-SR (2.2-)2.4-2.6 times as long as r-m ( Fig. 41G View Fig ). Eye and temple in dorsal view equal in length ( Fig. 41F View Fig ). First tergite 1.2-1.3 times longer than broad behind ( Fig. 41H View Fig ). Antenna with (22-)23-27 antennomeres (♀ ♁). Ground colour of metasoma yellow. ♀ ♁: Body less robust, 2.3-2.8(-3) mm .............................................................. .................................................................................... B. (Pig.) wolschrijni (van Achterberg, 1985)
4 (1) Propleura in lateral view straight, i.e. not concave and not carinated ( Fig. 41I View Fig ); fore pair of coxae not flattened, i.e. globose as usually ( Fig. 41J View Fig ) (subgeneric features of Glabrobracon ). Head in dorsal view transverse, less transverse to subcubic, temple usually strongly rounded ( Fig. 41F, K View Fig ).
5 (6) Head in dorsal view transverse, 1.8-1.9 times as broad as long ( Fig. 41K View Fig ). First tergite 1.3- 1.5(-1.6) times as long as broad behind, suture between tergites 2-3 straight to weakly bisinuate ( Fig. 41L View Fig ). Claw somewhat less pointed, its basal lobe fairly large ( Fig. 67F View Fig ). ♀ ♁: 3-4.5 mm .... ................................................................................................................. B. (Gl.) variator Nees, 1811
6 (5) Head in dorsal view less transverse to subcubic, 1.6-1.7 times as broad as long ( Fig. 42H View Fig ). First tergite 1.2-1.3 times as long as broad behind, suture between tergites 2-3 more or less bisinuate ( Figs 42F View Fig , 43H View Fig ). Claw somewhat more pointed, its basal lobe less large ( Fig. 42C View Fig ). ♀ ♁: (2.5-) 3.5-4.5 mm ............................................................................................................ B. (Gl.) praecox Wesmael, 1838
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Bracon (Pigeria) piger Wesmael, 1838
|Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest 2012|
Bracon explorator Szépligeti, 1904
|Papp J. 2008: 1791|
|Papp J. 2004: 174|
Bracon rotundatus Szépligeti, 1901: 270
|Szepligeti Gy. 1901: 270|
|Szepligeti Gy. 1901: 267|
|Wesmael C. 1838: 48|
Bracon rotundulus Szépligeti, 1904
|Bracon rotundulus Szépligeti, 1904 ( 1901 ): 190|
Bracon (Glabrobracon) piger
|Fahringer 1927: 284|
|Telenga 1936: 152|
|Papp 1966: 376|
|Tobias 1986: 134|
|Tobias & Belokobylskij 2000: 164|
|Fahringer 1928: 484|
|Telenga 1936: 153|
|Tobias 1961: 162|
|Papp 1966: 392|
|Shenefelt 1978: 1587|
|Papp 2004: 179|
|Fahringer 1928: 484|
|Telenga 1936: 152|
|Papp 1966: 392|
|Shenefelt 1978: 1587|
|Papp 2004: 180|