Bracon (Glabrobracon) exhilarator Nees, 1834

Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest, 2012, A revision of the Bracon Fabricius species in Wesmael’s collection deposited in Brussels (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 21, pp. 1-154: 117-122

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2012.21

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:993FCC8B-F8B1-42DD-B776-CA8435E08112

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3858904

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/F8008D0E-FFF1-FF88-06D0-4BCDFA95FBCD

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Bracon (Glabrobracon) exhilarator Nees, 1834
status

 

Bracon (Glabrobracon) exhilarator Nees, 1834  

Figs 57 View Fig A-L, 58A-J, 59A-C

Bracon exhilarator Nees, 1834: 83   ♀♁ (type material: several ♀♀ and ♁♁, destroyed), type locality: “prope Sickershausen” ( Germany).

Braco satanas Wesmael, 1838: 30   ♀♁ (type series: “15individus”: 8 ♀♀ + 7 ♁♁), type locality:“environs de Bruxelles ” ( Belgium), ♀ lectotype (and nine ♀ + seven ♁ paralectotypes, present designations) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels; examined.

Bracon striolatus Thomson, 1894: 1835   ♀, type locality: “Yddinge i Skåne ” ( Sweden), ♀ lectotype (designated by J. Papp in 1969) in Zoologisk Museet, Lund; examined.

Bracon exhilarator   – Szépligeti 1901: 269 (in key, in Hungary); 1904 (1901): 179 (in key, in German) as “Br. exhilator”.

Bracon (Glabrobracon) exhilarator   – Fahringer 1927: 263 (♀), 275, 306, 310 (♁) (in key) and 383 (redescription), assigned to “Section Orthobracon   ” and “Section Glabrobracon   ”. — Telenga 1936: 170 (♀), 177 (♁) (in key), 271 (redescription) (in Russian) and 373 (♀), 380 (♁) (in key, in German). — Tobias 1986: 129 (in key, in Russian). — Tobias & Belokobylskij 2000: 136 (in key, in Russian).

Bracon satanas   – Thomson 1894: 1834 (as synonym of B. exhilarator   ). — Szépligeti 1901: as valid species 266 (in key, in Hungarian) and 1904 (1901): as valid species 179 (in key, in German). — Fahringer 1927: 383 (as synonym of B. exhilarator   ). — Telenga 1936: 271 (as synonym of B. exhilarator   ). — Papp 1969b: 198 (as synonym of B. exhilarator   ). — Shenefelt 1978: 1632 (as synonym of B. exhilarator   ).

Bracon striolatus   – Marshall 1888: 165 (listed in “Espèces de Bracon   douteuses ou imparfaitement décrites”). — Szépligeti 1901: as valid species 266 (in key, in Hungarian) and 1904 (1901): 179 (as synonym of B. satanas   ). — Fahringer 1927: as valid species 264 (♀, in key), 421 (redescription), assigned to “Section Orthobracon   ”. — Telenga 1936: as valid species 170 (♀), 177 (♁) (in key), 272 (redescription) (in Russian) and 373 (♀), 380 (♁) (in key, in German). — Papp 1969b: 198 (as new synonym of B. exhilarator   ). — Shenefelt 1978:1632 (as synonym of B. exhilarator   after Papp l.c.).

Designation of the ♀ neotype of Bracon exhilarator  

(identical with the ♀ lectotype of Bracon satanas Wesmael   ): (first label, printed) “ Coll. Wesmael ”; (second label, printed) “2036”; (third label) “ Braco   ♀ / satanas mihi” (handwritten) “dét. C. Wesmael ” (fourth label, red) “Type”; fifth label is with the locality Bruxelles after Wesmael , sixth label is the lectotype card and seventh label is the neotype card (the labels 5-7 were attached by me). -- Neotype (or lectotype) is in good condition: (1) micropinned (pin thick); (2) right flagellum deficient, i.e. with 10 flagellomeres; (3) right hind leg (except coxa + trochanter) missing; (4) left hind wing torn and edificient medially.

Designation of the nine ♀ and seven ³ paralectotypes of Bracon satanas  

Labels 1-5 are identical with those of the lectotype except the second label with numbers 2036-2038; sixth labels are the paralectotype cards and seventh labels are with the actual name B. exhilarator   (labels 6-7 are attached by me). One ♀ and one ♁ are representing the nominate form. Varieties by Wesmael (l.c.): var. 1: one ♀ + three ♁♁, var. 2: four ♀♀, var. 3: two ♀♀ (the var. 3. in Wesmael’s labels are “var. 2.”, certainly a slip of pen). One ♀ paralectotype is Habrobracon hebetor (Say, 1836)   (= H. brevicornis Wesmael, 1838   ). One ♁ paralectotype (“var. 1.”) is Bracon (Lucobracon) sphaerocephalus Szépligeti   and two ♁ paralectotypes (“var. 1.”) are B. (Lu)?subhylobii Tobias, they are labelled accordingly. -- The paralectotypes are in good condition: (1) micropinned (pin thick); (2) flagelli partly deficient or missing.

Material examined

147 ♀♀ + 52 ♁♁ from twenty-four countries: SCOTLAND: 9 ♀♀ + 2 ♁♁ from ten localities. ENGLAND: 15 ♀♀ + 2 ♁♁ from thirteen localities. DENMARK: 4 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from three localities. NORWAY: 1 ♁. SWEDEN: 6 ♀♀ + 3 ♁♁ from nine localities. FINLAND: 7 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from eight localities. FRANCE: 1 ♀. BELGIUM: 2 ♀♀ from two localities. THE NETHERLANDS: 4 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from four localities. GERMANY: 9 ♀♀ + 4 ♁♁ from twelve localities. SWITZERLAND: 4 ♀♀ + 2 ♁♁ from five localities. AUSTRIA: 5 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from six localities. BOHEMIA: 3 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from three localities. SLOVAKIA: 9 ♀♀ + 2 ♁♁ from six localities. HUNGARY: 36 ♀♀ + 11 ♁♁ from fortyone localities. ROMANIA (Transsylvania): 7 ♀♀ + 2 ♁♁ from six localities. ITALY: 2 ♁♁ from two localities. BULGARIA: 5 ♀♀ + 2 ♁♁ from six localities. TURKEY: 1 ♀. EUROPEAN RUSSIA: 1 ♀ + 1 ♁ from two localities. GEORGIA: 2 ♁♁ from two localities. ARMENIA: 1 ♁. MONGOLIA: 7 ♀♀ + 4 ♁♁ from eleven localities. KOREA: 12 ♀♀ + 6 ♁♁ from thirteen localities.

Description of the ♀ neotype of Bracon exhilarator Nees   (identical with the ♀ lectotype of B.  

satanas Wesmael) ( Fig. 57 View Fig A-K)

LENGTH. Body 3.6 mm long.

ANTENNAE. As long as body and with 33 antennomeres. First flagellomere 2.2 times, further flagellomeres faintly attenuating so that penultimate flagellomere 1.75 times as long as broad ( Fig. 57A View Fig ).

HEAD. In dorsal view transverse ( Fig. 57B View Fig ) almost 1.9 times as broad as long, eye almost 1.7 times as long as temple, temple rather receded, occiput weakly excavated. Eye in lateral view 1.5 times as high as wide and almost 1.3 times wider than temple ( Fig. 57C View Fig , see arrows). Horizontal diameter of oral opening 1.5 times longer than shortest distance between opening and compound eye; cheek converging ( Fig. 57D View Fig ). Head polished.

MESOSOMA. In lateral view 1.25 times as long as high, polished. Notaulix weakly distinct. Propodeum along medio-longitudinal line with rugae-rugulae, carina indistinct, otherwise polished ( Fig. 57E View Fig ).

LEGS. Hind femur 2.8 times as long as broad distally, almost parallel-sided ( Fig. 57F View Fig ). Claw fairly thick, less curved and its basal lobe small ( Fig. 57G View Fig ).

WINGS. Forewing as long as body. Pterostigma ( Fig. 57H View Fig ) four times as long as wide and issuing r just   proximally from its middle, r a bit longer than width of pterostigma. Second submarginal cell long and narrowing distally, 3-SR one-sixth (or 1.3 times) longer than 2-SR; SR1 straight, almost twice as long as 3-SR and reaching tip of wing. First discal cell fairly wide, 1-M 1.5 times as long as m-cu; 1-SR-M bent and almost 1.5 times as long as 1-M ( Fig. 57I View Fig ).

TERGITES. First tergite ( Fig. 57J View Fig ) 1.2 times as long as broad behind, evenly broadening posteriorly, scutum behind uneven-rugulose, margin of scutum crenulate. Second tergite 2.3 times as broad as long laterally, antero-medially with longitudinal striateform sculpture, otherwise together with further tergites polished. Tergites 2-3 of equal length, suture between them weakly bisinuate, smooth. Hypopygium less pointed, ovipositor sheath somewhat shorter than hind tibia ( Fig. 57K View Fig ).

COLOUR. Ground colour of body dark brown to black. Palpi brown. Antenna dark brown. Tegula brown. Second tergite latero-posteriorly with a pair of brownish yellow maculae. Distal two-thirds of fore femur and tibia yellow. Proximal third of hind tibia brownish yellow. Tarsi yellow with brownish fumous tint. Wings subfumous, pterostigma and veins brown.

Redescription (or variabilities) of the eight ♀ paralectotypes of B. satanas   (junior synonym of B.  

exhilarator) ( Figs 57F, L View Fig ; 58 View Fig A-C)

Similar to the ♀ neotype of B. exhilarator   . Body 3-4.1 mm long (3: 2 ♀♀, 3.2: 1 ♀, 3.6: 3 ♀♀, 4: 1 ♀, 4.1: 1 ♀). Antenna with 26 and 32 antennomeres. Temple rather rounded (2 ♀♀, Fig. 57L View Fig ). Propodeum with a weak medio-longitudinal carina ( Fig. 58A View Fig ). Hind femur 2.8-3.1 times as long as broad medially or distally ( Figs 57F View Fig ; 58B View Fig ). Pterostigma issuing r clearly   proximally from its middle (1 ♀, Fig. 58C View Fig ). First tergite 1.2-1.3 times as long as broad behind. Legs with much light colour (“var. 3” by Wesmael): brownish yellow: fore leg (except coxa), middle and hind tibiae; rusty brown: middle and hind femora.

Redescription (or variabilities) of four ³ paralectotypes of B. satanas   ( Fig. 58A View Fig , E-G)

(further three ♁ paralectotypes representing three other species, see designation of the paralectotypes) Similar to the ♀ types. Body 2.8-3.8 mm long (2.8: 1 ♁, 3: 2 ♁♁, 3.8: 1 ♁). Antenna somewhat longer than to as long as body and with 38 (1 ♁), 31 (1 ♁) and 30 (1 ♁) antennomeres. Propodeum with carina (2 ♀♀, cf. Fig. 58A View Fig ) or only around lunule with short rugae ( Fig. 58E View Fig ). Hind femur 3.3 times as long as broad dorsally (1 ♁, Fig. 58F View Fig ). First tergite parallel-sided (1 ♁) and 1.5 times as long as broad behind; second tergite less transverse, 1.6 times as broad behind as long laterally; third tergite somewhat shorter than second tergite, suture between them almost straight ( Fig. 58G View Fig ). Corporal colour similar to the nominate form.

Variable features of the ♀ (147 ♀♀) ( Figs 8B View Fig ; 12C, F View Fig ; 49A View Fig ; 58 View Fig I-J; 59A-B)

Body 3.4-4 mm long, usually 3.5-3.8 mm, long. Antenna with 23-37, usually with 27-34, antenomeres. Head in dorsal view (1.7-)1.75-1.85 times as broad as long (cf. Fig. 8B View Fig ), temple somewhat receded (6 ♀♀, cf. Fig. 49A View Fig ). Propodeum polished with more or less distinct carina to rugo-rugulosity of variable extent ( Fig. 58H View Fig , cf. Fig. 12C View Fig ). Pterostigma 3.3 times to 4 times as long as wide, issuing r just   from its middle (cf. Fig. 12F View Fig ). Fore wing: second submarginal cell fairly long, 3-SR 1.3-1.5 times as long as 2-SR ( Fig. 58 View Fig I-J). First tergite less narrowing anteriorly, rugosity of second tergite of variable extent and strength ( Figs 57J View Fig ; 59A View Fig ); third tergite rugulose basally (18 ♀♀, Fig. 59B View Fig ). Ovipositor sheath more or less longer than hind tibia. Second (and third) tergite(s) more or less brownish to yellow. Femora and tibiae variably brownish to brownish yellow.

Variable features of the ³ (52 ³³) ( Figs 57H View Fig ; 58G View Fig , I-J; 59C)

Body 3-4 mm long.Antenna longer than body and with 27-39,usually 30-36,antennomeres.Flagellomeres (1.5-)2-2.3 times as long as broad. Head in dorsal view (1.6-)1.7 ( Fig. 59C View Fig ) to 1.8 times as broad as long. Hind femur 2.7-3 times as long as broad distally. Fore wing: second submarginal cell long as in ♀ ( Figs 57H View Fig ; 58 View Fig I-J). First tergite frequently (sub)parallel-sided and 1.3-1.5 times longer than than broad behind and second tergite less broad ( Fig. 58G View Fig ). Either second tergite or second and third tergites brownish yellow. Legs more or less with brownish to yellow pattern.

Hosts

COL. Curculionidae   : Omphalapion hookeri Kirby.   — LEP. Tortricidae   : Acleris rhombana Denis & Schiffermüller.   — DIPT. Scatophagidae   : Nanua (=Amaurosoma) sp., Tephritidae   : Platyptera poeciloptera Schrank. Every   host needs to be confirmed.

Distribution

Palaearctic Region, a frequent to common species in Europe.

Taxonomic position

Within the subgenus Glabrobracon   the species Bracon exhilarator Nees   is nearest to B. curticaudis Szépligeti   and B. terebella Wesmael   viewing their short ovipositor sheath and less sculptured to smooth tergites; the three species are distinguished by the following features:

1 (2) Propodeum medio-longitudinally with a more or less distinct carina, otherwise propodeum rugorugulose to variable extent ( Figs 57E View Fig ; 58A, E, H View Fig ). Claw with weak basal lobe and moderately curved ( Fig. 57G View Fig ). Pterostigma less wide, 3.3-4 times as long as wide, second submarginal cell relatively narrow ( Figs 57H View Fig ; 58 View Fig I-J). Female and ♁ tergites 1-3 as in Figs 57J View Fig ; 58G View Fig ; 59A View Fig . Black, tergites 2-3 laterally with brownish to brownish yellow maculae of variable extent. Legs blackish to brown with much yellowish pattern. ♀ ♁: 3-4 mm ................................................ B. (Gl.) exhilarator Nees, 1834  

2 (1) Propodeum without medio-longitudinal carina, at most above lunule with a short keel ( Figs 48E View Fig ; 59D View Fig ). Claw with basal lobe and clearly curved ( Figs 50A View Fig ; 59E View Fig ). Pterostigma wide, 2.3-2.6 times as long as wide, second submarginal cell relatively wide ( Figs 48G View Fig ; 59B View Fig ). The distinction of B. curticaudis   and B. terebella   see at the latter species ............................................................ ..................................... B. (Gl.) curticaudis Szépligeti, 1901   and B. (Gl.) terebella Wesmael, 1838  

Taxonomic remark

Bracon exhilarator   resembles B. longicollis   ; however, the latter species is assigned to the subgenus Bracon   s. str., i.e. tergites 1-4 to 1-7 with sculpture of variable strength. Sometimes the rugo-rugolosity of the tergites of B. longicollis   extremely weakens so that beyond the (second or) third tergites the metasoma is either chagreened-uneven or smooth; i.e. these specimens are transitional to the subgenus Glabobracon   . These weakly sculptured specimens of B. longicollis   are hard to separate from B. exhilarator   (the ovipositor sheath of both species are short):

1 (2) Claw downcurved and with large basal lobe ( Fig. 18F View Fig ). Second tergite medially rugose, laterally rugo-rugulose, third tergite rugulose to uneven ( Figs 18I View Fig ; 20A, K View Fig ). Hind femur thickening, i.e. its contour somewhat less parallel ( Figs 18E View Fig ; 19B, D View Fig ). Cheek in frontal view weakly converging ( Fig. 18C View Fig ). Black with much light colour on head, meso- and metasoma. ♀ ♁: 3-5 mm ................ ......................................................................................................... B. (B.) longicollis Wesmael, 1838  

2 (1) Claw weakly curved and with small basal lobe ( Fig. 57G View Fig ). Second tergite with longitudinal striateform sculpture, third tergite smooth ( Figs 57J View Fig ; 58G View Fig ; 59A View Fig ). Hind femur less thickening, i.e. its contour nearly parallel ( Figs 57F View Fig ; 58 View Fig B-C, F). Cheek in frontal view converging ( Fig. 57D View Fig ). Black with less light pattern on tergites 2-3. ♀ ♁: 3-4 mm .............................. B. (Gl.) exhilarator Nees, 1834  

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Braconidae

Genus

Bracon

Loc

Bracon (Glabrobracon) exhilarator Nees, 1834

Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest 2012
2012
Loc

Bracon exhilarator

Szepligeti Gy. 1901: 269
1901
Loc

Bracon striolatus

Thomson C. G. 1894: 1835
1894
Loc

Braco satanas

Wesmael C. 1838: 30
1838
Loc

Bracon exhilarator

Bracon exhilarator Nees, 1834: 83
Loc

Bracon (Glabrobracon) exhilarator

Fahringer 1927: 263
Telenga 1936: 170
Tobias 1986: 129
Tobias & Belokobylskij 2000: 136
Loc

Bracon satanas

Thomson 1894: 1834
Szépligeti 1901
Telenga 1936: 271
Papp 1969b: 198
Shenefelt 1978: 1632