Bracon (Glabrobracon) immutator Nees, 1834

Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest, 2012, A revision of the Bracon Fabricius species in Wesmael’s collection deposited in Brussels (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 21, pp. 1-154: 127-133

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2012.21

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:993FCC8B-F8B1-42DD-B776-CA8435E08112

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3858865

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/F8008D0E-FFFB-FF75-052C-4BCDFA95FDDB

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scientific name

Bracon (Glabrobracon) immutator Nees, 1834
status

 

Bracon (Glabrobracon) immutator Nees, 1834  

Figs 63 View Fig A-I, 64A-F

Bracon immutator Nees, 1834: 76   ♀♁ (type material: several ♀♀ and ♁♁, destroyed), type locality: “prope Sickershausen” ( Germany).

Braco breviusculus Wesmael, 1838: 21   ♀ (type material: “deux femelles”), type locality: “dans le bois de la Cambre près de Bruxelles ” ( Belgique), ♀ lectotype (+ one ♀ paralectotype, present designations) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels; examined, syn. nov.

Bracon efoveolatus Thomson, 1894: 1819   ♀ ♁ (type material: one ♀ and one ♁), type locality: “Yddingen” ( Sweden), ♁ lectotype (and one ♀ paralectotype, designated by Papp l.c.) in Zoological Museum, Lund; examined.

Bracon hemirugosus Szépligeti, 1901: 261   (in key), 275 (description) (in Hungarian) and 1904 (1901): 160 (in key), 168 (description) (in German), type locality: “ Budapest ” ( Hungary), ♀ lectotype (and two ♀ + one ♁ paralectotypes) in Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum, Budapest; examined.

Braco immutator   – Wesmael 1838: 16 (first reviser, redescription), 9 ♀♀ and 9 ♁♁: one ♀ the neotype, neotype locality: “environs de Bruxelles ” ( Belgium), ♀ neotype (present designation) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels; examined.

Bracon immutator   – Szépligeti 1901: 265 (in key, in Hungarian); 1904 (1901): 177 (in key, in German). — Shenefelt 1978: 1636 (in subgenus Orthobracon   , literature up to 1974).

Bracon (Lucobracon) immutator   –Fahringer 1927: 256,263 (♀), 258 (♁) (in key) and 358 (redescription), assigned to “Section Lucobracon   ”. — Telenga 1936: 174 (♀), 179 (♁) (in key), 289 (redescripion) (in Russian) and 377 (♀), 382 (♁) (in key, in German).

Bracon (Bracon) immutator   – Tobias 1986: 129 (in key, in Russian). — Tobias & Belokobylskij 2000: 136 (in key, in Russian).

Bracon breviusculus   – Shenefelt 1978: 1628 (as valid species, literature up to 1971).

Bracon efoveolatus   – Telenga 1936: as valid species 175 (in key), 290 (redescription) (in Russian) and 377 (in key, in German). — Papp 1969b: 199 (as synonym of B. immutator   , type designations). — Shenefelt 1978: 1636 (as synonym of B. immutator   after Papp l.c., literature up to 1941). Tobias 1986: not included.

Bracon hemirugosus   – Papp 1968: 200 (one ♀ “type-specimen” synonymized with B. intercessor var. fallaciosus (Szépligeti)   , invalid. — Shenefelt 1978: 1491 (as valid species, literature up to 1974). — Tobias 1986: 125 (synonymized with B. intercessor Nees   ). — Papp 2004: 176 (types condition and depository), 2008: 1786 (synonymization).

Designation of the ♀ neotype of B. immutator  

(First label, printed) “ Coll. Wesmael ”; (second label, printed) “2044”; (third label) “ Braco immutator Nees   ♁ ♀ ” (handwritten) “dét. C. Wesmael ” (printed); (fourth label with my handwriting) “ Belgique / Bruxelles V-VI / leg. Wesmael ” (above on label) “teste J. Papp 1987” (reverse on label); fifth label is the neotype card. (Fourth and fifth labels were attached by me). Six ♀ and five ♁ specimens, identified by Wesmael as Braco immutator Nees   with similar label data to that of the neotype, are without type status. Neotype is in good condition: (1) micropinned by mesosoma; (2) hind left leg, except coxa + trochanter, missing; (3) left antenna deficient, i.e. with 21 antennomeres. The designation of the neotype was needed because of (1) the destruction of the Nees Collection in Bonn (at the end of the Second World War) and (2) the clear distinction of the species standing near to B. immutator   .

Designation of the ♀ lectotype of B. breviusculu   s

( First label, handwritten, the question-mark in brackets indicates that the number 7 is hardly ligible) “29. mai Cambre [?]7”; (second label, printed) “ Coll. Wesmael ”; (third label, printed) “2046”; (fourth label) “ Braco breviusculus   mihi ♀ ” (handwritten) “dét. C. Wesmael ” (printed); (fifth label, printed red) “Type”; (sixth label with my handwriting) “ Belgique / Bruxelles / 29 V leg. Wesmael ” (above on label) “teste J. Papp 1987” (reverse on label); seventh label is the lectotype card. -- Lectotype is in fairly good condition: (1) pinned with thick needle hence mesoscutum partly ad scutellum invisible; (2) flagelli deficient: right flagellum with seven and left flagellum with nineteen flagellomeres; (3) left fore leg (except coxa + trochaner) and tarsomeres 2-5 of left hind leg missing.

One ♀ paralectotype of B. breviusculus   with similar label data except first label: “29 M” (handwritten). Paralectotype in poor condition: (1) pinned like the lectotype; (2) head and left fore leg (except coxa + trochanter) missing; (3) righ fore wing medially (proximal from pterostigma) torn.

Designation of the ♀ lectotype of B. efoveolatus  

(First small label, handwritten) “Y” (=Yddingen); (second label, attached by me) “ Sweden ” (printed) “Yddingen” (my handwriting); third label is the paralectotype card and fourth label is with the actual name B. immutator Nees   given by me. -- Lectotype is in fairly good condition: (1) glued on a small card by left side of metasomal sternites (tarsus of left leg invisible owing to the mounting); (2) both flagelli deficient: right one with 18 and left one with 22 flagellomeres; (3) fifth tarsomere of right middle leg and tarsus of right hind leg missing; (4) pair of ovipositor sheaths missing (stub of left one present).

Designation of the ³ paralectotype of B. efoveolatus  

(First small label, printed) “Ö.” (=Öland); (second label attached by me) “ Sweden ” (printed) “Öland / Skåne ” (my handwriting); third label is the paralectotype card and fourth label is with the actual name B. immutator var. efoveolatus (Thomson)   given by me. Paralectotype is in fairly good condition: (1) glued on a small card by the lower part of right meso- and metapleuron; (2) left flagellum missing, right flagellum deficient: with 17 flagellomeres; (3) right fore wing distally torn; (4) tarsomeres 4-5 of left middle leg missing.

A slip of pen in type designations

In my paper ( Papp 1969b: 199-200) the designations of the lectotype and paralectotype of B. efoveolatus   were made by me in reverse sense concerning their localities: the lectotype’s locality was assigned as “Öland” and the paralectotype’s locality was assigned as “Yddingen, Skåne ”; herewith is presented my emendation.

Taxonomic remark

The ♁ paralectotype of B. efoveolatus   represents the light (or albanic) and less sculptured form of B. immutator   : lateral part of tergites 1-3 and legs + tegula are pale yellow, rugulosity of the second tergite restricting antero-medially, otherwise together with the third tergite polished ( Fig. 64B View Fig ); this light and weakly sculptured form received the name B. immutator var. efoveolatus (Thomson)   . The ♀ lectotype of B. efoveolatus   is representing the nominate form of B. immutator   . Further varieties of B. immutator   see below.

Designation of the ♀ lectotype of B. hemirugosus  

( First label, printed) “ Budapest / Hűvösvölgy”; (second label) [1]“900. VI. 14” (Szépligeti’s handwriting) / “Szépligeti” (printed); third label is the lectotype card, fourth label is with the inventory number “371”; fifth label is with the valid name B. immutator   given by me. Lectotype is in good condition: micropinned by mesosoma.

Designation of the three ♀ paralectotypes of B. hemirugosus  

(First label, printed) 1 ♀ (no. 372): “ Budapest / Hűvösvölgy”; 1 ♀ (no. 373): “ Budapest ” / [leg.] “Kertész”, (reverse on label:) [19]”98. VIII. 14.”; 1 ♀ (no. 374): “ Budapest / Zugliget”; (second label) 1 ♀ (no. 372): [1]”897. V. 30” (handwritten) / “Szépligeti” (printed); 1 ♀ (no. 373): the second label is the paralectotype card; third label of the ♀♀ (nos 372 and 374) is the paralectotype card; third (no. 373) and fourth labels (nos 372 and 374, respectively) are with the inventory numbers 372-374; last labels are with the actual name B. immutator Nees   given by me. Paralectotypes are in good condition: (1) micropinned by mesosoma; (2) flagelli partly deficient.

Remark

The three paralectotypes are all ♀♀ (and not two ♀♀ and one ♁, cf. Papp 2004: 176), present emendation.

Material examined

153 ♀♀ + 19 ♁♁ from 17 countries: SCOTLAND: 1 ♀. ENGLAND: 5 ♀♀ from five localities. DENMARK: 3 ♀♀ from three localities. SWEDEN: 5 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from five localities. FINLAND: 1 ♀. THE NETHERLANDS: 26 ♀♀ from eleven localities. FRANCE: 3 ♀♀ from three localities. GERMANY: 19 ♀♀ from eight localities. SLOVAKIA: 1 ♀. HUNGARY: 61 ♀♀ + 15 ♁♁ from 69 localities. SERBIA: 1 ♁, BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA: 1 ♀. MACEDONIA: 2 ♀♀ from two localities. BULGARIA: 8 ♀♀ from two localities. ITALY: 6 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from six localities. EUROPEAN RUSSIA: 2 ♀♀ from one locality. KOREA: 7 ♀♀ + 1 ♁ from four localites.

Description of the ♀ neotype of B. immutator   ( Fig.63 View Fig A-I)

LENGTH. Body 2.8 mm long.

ANTGENNAE. Right antenna as long as body and with 28 antennomeres. First flagellomere twice and penultimate flagellomere 1.5 times as long as broad.

HEAD. In dorsal view transverse ( Fig. 63A View Fig ), 1.9 times as broad as long, eye 1.6 times as long as temple, temple receded, occiput faintly excavated. Oral opening: its horizontal diameter almost three times as long as shortest distance between opening and compound eye ( Fig. 63B View Fig ). Head polished; face granulose, medially polished.

MESOSOMA. In lateral view 1.4 times as long as high, polished. Propodeum polished, above lunule with a short keel and along it rugose-rugulose ( Fig. 63C View Fig ).

LEGS. Hind femur 3.6 times as long as broad distally ( Fig. 63D View Fig ). Hind claw downcurved and with fairly large basal lobe ( Fig. 63E View Fig ).

WINGS. Forewing as long as body. Pterostigma ( Fig. 63F View Fig ) 2.6 times as long as wide and issuing somewhat proximally from its middle; r 0.8 times as long as width of pterostigma; second submarginal cell of usual length, 3-SR one-fifth longer than 2-SR, SR1 almost twice as long as 3-SR, straight and reaching tip of wing. First discal cell of usual height, 1-M 1.6 times as long as m-cu, 1- SR-M just bent and 1.4 times length of 1-M ( Fig. 63G View Fig ).

TERGITES. First tergite ( Fig. 63H View Fig ) somewhat longer than broad behind, beyond pair of spiracles subparallel-sided, scutum behind rugose with rugulose elements, margin of scutum crenulate. Second tergite transverse, 2.8 times as broad behind as long and as long as third tergite, suture between tergites 2-3 faintly bisinuate and crenulate. Second tergite rugo-rugulose, third tergite medio-anteriorly ruguloseuneven to smooth, shiny. Further tergites polished. Hypopygium pointed, ovipositor sheath long, as long as hind tibia + tarsus combined ( Fig. 63I View Fig ).

COLOUR. Ground colour of body brown to dark brown. Antenna brown. Oral part yellow, palpi pale yellow. Tegula yellow. Second and third tergites laterally yellow. Sternites pale yellow. Legs yellow, coxae 2-3 almost entirely brown to blackish. Wings subhyaline, pterostigma opaque brown, veins light brownish.

Taxonomic remarks ( Fig. 64 View Fig D-F, I) 1) Originally the species B. immutator   was based by Wesmael on a series of nine ♀ and nine ♁

specimens. Out of this series I could study eight ♀ (the first ♀ was selected as the neotype) and five ♁ specimens, all these were named by Wesmael. Furthermore, there are three specimens named by Wesmael also as B. immutator   ; however, they do not represent this species: one ♁ is without head hence unidentifiable, one ♁ seems to be a light coloured form of B.? obscurator Nees   (and labelled accordingly) and one specimen (sex?) labelled by Wesmael as “ Braco immutator Nees   ♁ ♀ ” is in very poor condition: right pair of wings and metasoma entirely and legs partly missing, hence also unidentifiable. The seven ♀ and five ♁ specimens are identical with the neotype of B. immutator   , although they show some deviations: (1) head in dorsal view 1.85-1.9 times as broad as long; (2) first tergite somewhat (1.25-1.1 times) longer than broad to as long as broad behind; (3) pterostigma 2.5-2.6(-2.8) times as long as wide and issuing r (rarely) proximally from its middle; (4) femora 2-3 variably brownish to brown.

2) The type-series of B. breviusculus Wesmael   (♀ lectotype + one ♀ paralectotype) contains specimens, that are identical with the neotype of B. immutator Nees   considering their corporal size, measurements, sculpture of tergites and colour pattern. The two names refer to the same species hence the name B. breviusculus   is the junior synonym name.

3) Deviating features of the nominate form of ♀♀: Body 2.7-3.5 mm long. Antenna with 26-32 antennomeres. Temple variably receded ( Fig. 64 View Fig D-E). Hind femur 3.3-3.6 times as long as broad distally ( Figs 63D View Fig ; 64F View Fig ). Posterior two-thirds of scutum of first tergite rugose. Deviating features of the nominate form of ♁♁: Similar to the ♀. Body 2.6-3.3 mm long.Antenna with 25-34 antennomeres. Hind femur usually 3.3 times as long as broad distally ( Fig. 64I View Fig ).

Varieties

Studying the named series (153 ♀♀ + 19 ♁♁) of B. immutator   the species proved to be highly variable

viewing the sculpture of the tergites 2-4.

(1) Var. hemirugosus (Szépligeti)   : an extremity is the sculptured tergites 2-3 with posteriorly weakening strength ( Fig. 64A View Fig ).

(2) Nominate form: the usual form ( Fig. 63H View Fig ) is the evenly sculptured second tergite and the weakening sculpture of the third tergite, otherwise tergites polished.

(3) Var. efoveolatus (Thomson)   : the other extremity is the polished tergites 2-4, at most second tergite with (very) weak sculpture anteriorly or antero-medially ( Fig. 64B View Fig ).

(4) Var. nitens var. nov.: the fourth variety is a colour one: middle and hind legs with blackish to black pattern, tergites almost entirely black, tergites beyond first tergite polished, at most second tergite antero-medially (sub-)rugulose ( Fig. 64C View Fig ).

Hosts

HOM. Kermidae   : Kermes quercus (Linnaeus)   , Coccidae   : Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché)   . — COL. Curculionidae   :! Anthonomus rubi Herbst   , Ceutorhynchus pleurostigma (Marsham)   , C. sulcicollis (Paykull)   ,! Cryptorhynchus lapathi Linnaeus   ,! Curculio crux Fabricius   , C. villosus Fabricius   ,! Miarus campanulae Linnaeus   ,! Nanophyes   sp., Pissodes notatus Fabricius   ,! Tychius squamulatus Gyllenhal.   — LEP. Tortricidae   : Cydia aurana Fabricius.   — DIPT. Trypetidae   : Phagocarpus permundus Harris.   — HYM. Tenthredinidae   :! Euura nigritarsis Cameron   ,! Pontania bella (Zaddach)   ,! P. bridgmanni (Cameron)   ,! P. gallarum (Hartig)   ,! P. proxima (Serville)   .

Distribution

Palaearctic Region, in Europe frequent to common.

Taxonomic position

Within the subgenus Glabrobracon   the species B. immutator   is nearest to B. pulcher Bengtsson   considering their yellow legs, sculptured second tergite and delicate body; the distinction between the two species is presented subsequently: 1 (2) Temple in dorsal view receded ( Figs 63A View Fig ; 64 View Fig E-F). Scutum of first tergite less wide, its margin crenulate, tergites 2-3 equal in length, sculpture of second tergite relatively rough, rugose ( Figs 63H View Fig ; 64A View Fig ). Hind femur 3.6-3.3 times as long as broad distally, less parallel-sided ( Figs 63D View Fig ; 64F View Fig ). Ovipositor sheath as long as hind tibia + tarsus combined. ♀ ♁: 2.6-3.5 mm ................................................................................... B. (Gl.) immutator Nees, 1834  

2 (1) Temple in dorsal view rounded ( Fig. 64G View Fig ). Scutum of first tergite wide, its margin strongly crenulated, second tergite a bit longer than third tergite, sculpture of second tergite relatively fine, striate ( Fig. 64H View Fig ). Hind femur 3.8-4 times as long as broad medially, parallelsided ( Fig. 64I View Fig ). Ovipositor sheath long, as long as hind femur + tibia + tarsus combined. ♀ ♁: 2.5-3.5 mm ..................................................................... B. (Gl.) pulcher Bengtsson, 1924  

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Braconidae

Genus

Bracon

Loc

Bracon (Glabrobracon) immutator Nees, 1834

Papp, Jenő & Xviii, Budapest 2012
2012
Loc

Bracon (Bracon) immutator

Tobias V. I. & Belokobylskij S. A. 2000: 136
Tobias V. I. 1986: 129
1986
Loc

Bracon breviusculus

Shenefelt R. D. 1978: 1628
1978
Loc

Bracon efoveolatus

Shenefelt R. D. 1978: 1636
Papp J. 1969: 199
1969
Loc

Bracon hemirugosus

Papp J. 2004: 176
Tobias V. I. 1986: 125
Shenefelt R. D. 1978: 1491
Papp J. 1968: 200
1968
Loc

Bracon (Lucobracon) immutator

Telenga N. A. 1936: 174
1936
Loc

Bracon hemirugosus Szépligeti, 1901: 261

Szepligeti Gy. 1901: 261
1901
Loc

Bracon immutator

Shenefelt R. D. 1978: 1636
Szepligeti Gy. 1901: 265
1901
Loc

Bracon efoveolatus

Thomson C. G. 1894: 1819
1894
Loc

Braco breviusculus

Wesmael C. 1838: 21
1838
Loc

Braco immutator

Wesmael C. 1838: 16
1838
Loc

Bracon immutator

Bracon immutator Nees, 1834: 76