Oarisma (Oarisma) castanea (O. Mielke, 1969) Zhang & Dolibaina & Cong & Shen & Song & Mielke & Casagrande & Mielke & Grishin, 2023

Zhang, Jing, Dolibaina, Diego R., Cong, Qian, Shen, Jinhui, Song, Leina, Mielke, Carlos G. C., Casagrande, Mirna M., Mielke, Olaf H. H. & Grishin, Nick V., 2023, Taxonomic notes on Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera), Zootaxa 5271 (1), pp. 91-114 : 110

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https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.5271.1.3

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Oarisma (Oarisma) castanea (O. Mielke, 1969)

comb. nov.

Oarisma (Oarisma) castanea (O. Mielke, 1969) , comb. nov. originates in deep radiation of Oarisma Scudder, 1872

Phylogenetic analysis of the holotype and allotype of Copaeodes castanea O. Mielke, 1969 (type locality in Brazil: Paran√°), presently placed in the subgenus Copaeodes Speyer, 1877 of Oarisma Scudder, 1872 (type species Hesperia powesheik [sic!] Parker, 1870), reveals that while its monophyly with Oarisma is strongly supported in all three trees (nuclear, Z chromosome and mitochondrial), its position with the genus is not well defined ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 red). In the tree constructed from protein-coding regions in the Z chromosome (diverges readily in speciation and more resistant to gene exchange between species), O. castanea . is sister to other Oarisma with moderate support: 70% of position partitions yield this topology ( Fig. 9b View FIGURE 9 ). However, in the trees constructed from protein coding regions in the rest of the nuclear genome (excluding the Z chromosome) ( Fig. 9a View FIGURE 9 ) and in mitochondrial genome ( Fig. 9c View FIGURE 9 ), it is sister to Oarisma sensu stricto, weakly supported (38% of partitions) in nuclear genome and strongly supported (99% of partitions) in mitogenome. Because the number of positions included in the analysis is very large, poor statistical support is not a consequence of insufficient data. As usual with genomic data, poor support indicates rapid radiation at some point in the past and suggests incomplete lineage sorting and/or gene exchange near the origins of these species. While evolutionary processes are being investigated, we propose to classify this species according to the tree that received strongest support, i.e., mitogenome-based (99%, highlighted yellow in Fig 9c View FIGURE 9 ), and tentatively place O. castanea in the subgenus Oarisma . Furthermore, the trees reveal that the last common ancestor of Oarisma rapidly diverged into 4 lineages: subgenus Oarisma , O. castanea , O. boeta (Hewitson, 1870) , and the rest of the genus. Topologies of the three trees are inconsistent in placing the root among these four lineages ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 ). This rapid radiation of Oarisma into four lineages with unresolved topology supports the treatment of these species as congeneric, because partitions into clades within this genus are not well defined.













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