Paraleucopis mexicana Steyskal,

Wheeler, Terry A. & Sinclair, Bradley J., 2019, Systematics of Paraleucopis Malloch with proposal of Paraleucopidae, a new family of acalyptrate Diptera, Zootaxa 4668 (3), pp. 301-328: 316-319

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4668.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:804E2985-0444-4C04-B5F9-02D7B196E990

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/FD3487D1-A551-C751-FF47-FBD2FEB0FF14

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Paraleucopis mexicana Steyskal
status

 

Paraleucopis mexicana Steyskal 

( Figs 26View FIGURES 23–26, 40–42View FIGURES 37–42, 49View FIGURES 49–50)

Paraleucopis mexicana Steyskal, 1981: 403  . Type locality: Kino Bay, Sonora, Mexico.

P. mexicana: Smith, 1981: 411  [biology].

Type material examined. The following specimens are most probably from the type series based on details provided by Steyskal (1981), but no specimens were found in collections with attached holotype, lectotype, paratype or determination labels (see Remarks section below): TYPE SERIES labelled: “ MEXICO. Sonora:/ Bahia Kino/ 8 April 1978 / R. L. Smith” (5 Ƌ, 11 ♀, USNM). PARATYPES: Mexico: Baja California Norte, Isla San Lorenzo , northern island, 16.iii.1971, V.F. Lee (12 Ƌ, 9 ♀, CAS)  ; Baja California Norte, Gulf of California, N. Isla San Loren- zo, 21–22.v.1962, R.E. Ryckman & C.P. Christianson (22 Ƌ, 25 ♀, USNM)  ; Baja California Norte, Gulf of Califor- nia, N. Isla San Lorenzo , 23.v.1962, R.E. & A.E. Ryckman & C.P. Christianson (10 Ƌ, USNM)  ; Baja California Sur, Isla Ildefonso , west side, 22-23.iii.1971, V.F. Lee (1 Ƌ, 3 ♀, CAS)  ; Gulf of California, Isla Ildefonso , 30.iii.1953, P.H. Arnaud (17 Ƌ, 4 ♀, CAS)  ; Gulf of California, Isla Partida , 25.v.1962, R.E. Ryckman & C.P. Christianson (14 Ƌ, 5 ♀, USNM)  ; Gulf of California, Isla Partida , 2.vii.1921, J.C. Chamberlin (1 ♀, CAS)  ; Baja California Sur, Isla Partida , 12–13.iv.1974, Malaise tp, J.T. Doyen (1 ♀, CAS)  ; Gulf of California, Isla Pond , 26.v.1962, R.E. Ryckman & C.P. Christianson (1 Ƌ, 2 ♀, USNM)  ; Gulf of California, Isla Raza , 20.v.1962, R.E. & A.E. Ryckman & C.P. Christianson (6 ♀, USNM)  ; Gulf of California, Isla Salsipuedes , 21.v.1962, R.E. Ryckman & C.P. Christianson (11 Ƌ, 8 ♀, USNM)  ; Sonora, Bahia Kino , 24.iv.1978, G. Lanzaro (11 Ƌ, 20 ♀, UAIC)  ; Muestreo: BalneaRio , 6.iii.1978 (13 Ƌ, 16 ♀, UAIC)  .

Additional material examined. USA. Arizona: Nogales , 4.iv.1957, Kaiser (1 Ƌ, 1 ♀, CNC, 2 ♀, USNM)  ; Organ Pipe Nat. Mon. mi 66 on Hwy 85, 23.iv.1979, K.N. Barber (2 ♀, CNC)  . MEXICO: Baja California Norte , 1 mi N Punta Prieta, 19–20.iii.1984, W.J. Pulawski (1 ♀, CAS)  ; Baja California Norte , Sierra San Pedro Martir Nat. Pk Rd, 1 km W Melang Ranch, 14.vi.1976, R. Kawin (1 ♀, CAS)  ; Baja California Sur, Bahia Conception , beach north of Bahia Coyote, 7.iv.1974, V.F. Lee (1 ♀, CAS)  ; Baja California Sur, Isla Cayo , 11.iv.1974, J.T. Doyen, L. Cheng & R.A. Lewin (4 Ƌ, 4 ♀, CAS)  ; Baja California Sur, 26 mi S El Arco , 800 ft, 17.iii.1969, S.C. Williams (1 ♀, CAS)  ; Baja California Sur, south end of Isla San Francisco , sand dunes, 10.iv.1974, J.T. Doyen (2 ♀, CAS)  ; Baja California Sur, Isla San Jose , 1 mi S Punta Colorado, 8–9.iv.1974, Malaise tp, J.T. Doyen (5 Ƌ, 14 ♀, CAS)  ; Baja California Sur, Isla San Jose , Bahia Amortajada, 9.iv.1974, Malaise tp, J.T. Doyen (1 ♀, CAS)  ; Baja California Sur, Isla San Jose , mangrove thicket, 5pm-8 am, 7–8.iv.1974, J.T. Doyen (1 Ƌ, CAS)  ; Gulf of California , Georges Island, 23.iv.1921, E.P. Van Duzee (1 Ƌ, 2 ♀, CAS)  ; Gulf of California , Isla Carmen, Bellandra Bay, 28.iii.1953, Sefton Orca Exped., P.H. Arnaud (1 ♀, CAS)  ; Gulf of California , Isla Ceralb [v]o, Ruffo Ranch, 22.iii.1953, Sefton Orca Exped., P.H. Arnaud (3 Ƌ, 7 ♀, CAS)  ; Gulf of California , Isla Angel de la Guarda, 2.v.1921, E.P. Van Duzee (1 Ƌ, 5 ♀, CAS)  ; Gulf of California , Isla Raza, 28.iv.1969, R.P. Papp (2 Ƌ, 1 ♀, CNC; 5 Ƌ, 1 ♀, CAS; 4 Ƌ, 1 ♀, UAIC)  ; Gulf of California , Isla San Luis, 27.iv.1921, E.P. Van Duzee (1 Ƌ, CAS)  ; Gulf of California , Isla San Pedro Martir, 18.iv.1921, E.P. Van Duzee (4 ♀, CAS)  ; Gulf of California , Isla San Pedro Martir, 3.iv.1953, Sefton Orca Exped., P.H. Arnaud (2 Ƌ, 4 ♀, CAS)  ; Gulf of California , Sonora, Isla San Pedro Martir, 4.v.1987, breeding in guano, D. Hews (6 Ƌ, 13 ♀, AMNH)  ; Gulf of California , Isla San Pedro Nolasco, 17.iv.1921, E.P. Van Duzee (1 Ƌ, 7 ♀, CAS)  ; Gulf of California , Isla Santa Catalina, 27.iii.1953, Sefton Orca Exped., P.H. Arnaud (4 Ƌ, 30 ♀, CAS)  ; Gulf of Cali- fornia, Isla Turner, 24.v.1962, R.E. & A.E. Ryckman & C.P. Christianson (8 Ƌ, 2 ♀, USNM)  ; Kino Bay , 3.v.1976, R. Fritz (1 ♀, LACM)  ; Sonora , Tepoca Bay, 25.iv.1921, E.P. Van Duzee (1 Ƌ, 5 ♀, CAS)  .

Recognition. This species is characterized by fronto-orbital setae distinct; antenna yellow to apical half of postpedicel darkened; face with pruinescence on upper half; parafacial with pruinescence; clypeus shiny; gena mostly shiny, pruinosity not extended posteroventrally below eye; scutum shiny to densely pruinose; fore coxa and all femora yellow; hind femur without anteroventral preapical setae; surstylus triangular-shaped, with broad base and narrower and slightly tapered apical half.

Description. Frons dark to orange-brown; anterodorsal portion of gena and parafacial yellowish. Face with pruinescence on upper half; parafacial pruinose. Fronto-orbital setae distinct. Antenna mostly yellow, sometimes apical half of postpedicel darkened; antennal bases widely separated by more than length of postpedicel. Clypeus shiny.

Katepisternum with several stiff, dark ventral setae, anterior to mid coxa; short setulae on anterior half. Scutum shiny to densely pruinose. Fore coxa and femora yellow ( Fig. 26View FIGURES 23–26), posterodorsal half of fore femur darkened; tibiae darkened in middle, pale basally and apically; fore tibia sometimes completely pale; tarsomeres 1 and 2 on all legs pale, tarsomeres 3–5 darkened dorsally; mid tibia with dark ventroapical spur-like seta, one-third length of tarsomere 1.

Male postabdomen ( Fig. 40View FIGURES 37–42): epandrium rounded, evenly sclerotized, setose on posterior half. Hypandrium broad, with pair of short anterior setae; with triangular postgonite apically. Surstylus subtriangular, with broad triangular base bearing stiff marginal setae; apical half narrower, slightly curved medially with rounded apex. Distiphallus tapered to narrow apex. Cercus narrow, more than twice longer than wide, longer than dorsal length of epandrium.

Female postabdomen: tergite 6 ( Fig. 42View FIGURES 37–42) with narrowly bilobed anteriorly margin, expanded laterally around lateral setulae, slightly narrowed medially with sinuous posterior margin; posterior corners slightly prolonged with pair of long setae, more than half length of tergite; spermatheca ( Fig. 41View FIGURES 37–42) with short pigmented denticles or papillae; numerous slender filaments with circular tips or end apparatus of gland cells.

Distribution. This species is widespread along the Gulf of California in Mexico and the southern border of Arizona ( Fig. 49View FIGURES 49–50). Adults of this species are flying from mid-March to mid-June and are most active during the hottest hours of the day ( Smith 1981).

Remarks. Steyskal (1981) designated a holotype, allotype and 10 paratypes from Kino Bay (8.iv.1978), all housed in USNM, plus an unspecified number of paratypes also from Kino Bay housed in UAIC. In addition, an unspecified series of paratypes were designated from the following Gulf islands deposited in CAS, USNM and Loma Linda University: Cabo San Lucas, Datil, Ildefonso, La Partida, Pond, Salsipuedes, San Lorenzo and Raza. Unfortunately all specimens found (see Type material examined) with the above locality details were without type and/ or determination labels. Sixteen specimens from the type locality and date were found in USNM, including a dissected male specimen. Although Steyskal (1981) reported only 12 specimens in the topotypical series and date, it is assumed this series includes the unlabelled holotype. Two slides labelled Kino Bay (8.iv.1978) with three female postabdomens were found in USNM, but none of the available pinned females lacked abdomens. A total of 31 unlabelled topotypical specimens dated 24 April 1978 were found in UAIC and all are assumed to be paratypes.

There are two female specimens from Utah [Washington Co., Paradise Canyon, 17–23.vi.1983, Malaise, D. Beck (LACM)] that are possibly conspecific. Male specimens are needed to confirm this identification.

Sternite 6 ( Fig. 42View FIGURES 37–42) illustrated in this study differs from that presented in Steyskal (1981, fig. 3), where the posterior extension of the sternite was not observed.

At the type locality, the flies were most commonly encountered along the seashore and were apparently absent 5 km inland ( Smith 1981). This species is suspected to breed in bird’s nests and in mats of guano of marine birds ( Smith 1981).

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

UAIC

University of Alabama, Ichthyological Collection

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

LACM

Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Chamaemyiidae

Genus

Paraleucopis

Loc

Paraleucopis mexicana Steyskal

Wheeler, Terry A. & Sinclair, Bradley J. 2019
2019
Loc

Paraleucopis mexicana

Steyskal, G. C. 1981: 403
1981
Loc

P. mexicana: Smith, 1981: 411

Smith, R. L. 1981: 411
1981