Stipa pennata subsp. ceynowae Klichowska & M.Nobis, Klichowska & M. Nobis, 2017
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|Stipa pennata subsp. ceynowae Klichowska & M.Nobis|
Stipa pennata subsp. ceynowae Klichowska & M.Nobis subsp. nov. Figures 2 View Figure 2 , 3 View Figure 3 , 4 View Figure 4 , 5 View Figure 5
Stipa pennata subsp. ceynowae is most similar to S. pennata subsp. pennata from which differs mainly in longer ligules of internal leaves of vegetative shoots (3.2-)4.1-5.2(-6.7) mm vs. (1.0-)1.3-2.2(-3.6) mm and lemmas with a somewhat longer awn (305-)328-412(-442) mm vs. (228-)283-340(-408) mm respectively.
POLAND. Folusz koło Szubina, zarośla na wydmie [Folusz near Szubin, scrub on the dune], 5 July 1962, Ceynowa-Giełdon s.n. (holotype TRN!, isotype KRA 0451189!) .
Plant perennial, densely tufted, with a few culms and numerous vegetative shoots. Culms (56-)84-95(-99) cm tall, 3-4-noded, glabrous at nodes and slightly scabrous to more or less densely pubescent below them. Leaves of vegetative shoots: sheaths of external leaves shortly pilose to scabrous, of internal leaves scabrous to almost glabrous; ligules membranous, acute or slightly obtuse, with very short cilia at the apex and shortly setulose on the back, of external leaves (1.0-)1.1-2.1(-2.7) mm long, of internal leaves (3.2-)4.1-5.2(-6.7) mm long; blades convolute, green to pale green, (73-)81-97(-107) cm long, (0.5-)0.7-0.8(-1.0) mm in diameter, abaxial surface from scabrous, covered by short spinules (on external leaves) to slightly scabrous or almost smooth, with spinules almost confined to the margins of leaf blades (on internal leaves), adaxial surface always covered by short prickles less than 0.1 mm long, juvenile leaves usually with an apical tassel of hairs up to 2 mm long. Cauline leaves: sheaths smooth to slightly scabrous (usually in upper part of sheath); ligules of the middle cauline leaves (2.6-)2.8-4.3(-4.4) mm long, slightly acute or obtuse, at the apex with very short cilia, and with short bristles on the back; blades convolute, green or pale green, the uppermost one (1.6-)2.7-3.8(-6.9) cm long, abaxial surface scabrous. Panicle 10-11(-14.5) cm long, contracted, with 8-10 spikelets; branches scabrous or with short hairs 0.2-0.5(-0.8) mm long. Glumes subequal, 56-64 mm long, narrowly lanceolate. Anthecium (17.4-)18.1-20.0 mm long and 1.0-1.25 mm wide; callus (3.1-)3.3-3.8 mm long, with hairs (1.6-)1.7-2.1(-2.4) mm long in ventral part and (1.0-)1.1-1.4 mm long in dorsal; foot of callus curved, peripheral ring flattened 0.9-0.95 × 0.3-0.35 mm; lemma straw-coloured, with 7 lines of hairs, dorsal and subdorsal lines slightly fused at the base, ventral line with (0.5-)0.6-0.8 mm long hairs, terminating at 1/2-2/3 of lemma length about 4.5-5.8(-6.4) mm below the top of lemma; dorsal line with (0.4-)0.5-0.6 mm long hairs, terminating at 1/3 of lemma length, about (9.1-)9.5-11.0(-11.1) mm below the top; awn (305-)328-412(-442) mm long, bigeniculate; column smooth and glabrous, twisted, straw-coloured or slightly green, 0.5-0.6 mm wide near base, 81-91(-94) mm long with the lower segment of column (63-)65-69(-70) mm long and the upper (19-)22-24 mm long; seta (222-)247-318(-354) mm long, pilose, with 5.2-6.0 mm long hairs, gradually decreasing in length towards apex; palea straw-coloured equaling lemma in length. Caryopsis ca.12 mm long.
The name of taxon honors the collector-Prof. Mirosława Ceynowa-Giełdon, who first noted the distinctiveness of Stipa individuals from Folusz.
Distribution and habitat.
Stipa pennata subsp. ceynowae is an endemic taxon, known only from Folusz settlement near Szubin in Kuyavia region (northern Poland). It grows on a dune hill surrounded by wet meadows occurring in the Gąsawka River Valley. The subspecies occurs on small fragment of dry, sandy grassland adjoining oak and pine stands. At the locality, the following species grow together with Stipa : Achillea pannonica Scheele, Asperula tinctoria L., Avenula pratensis (L.) Dumort., Betula pendula Roth, Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth, Carex praecox Schreb., Dianthus carthusianorum L., Euphorbia cyparissias L., Festuca trachyphylla (Hack.) Krajina, Filipendula vulgaris Moench, Galium verum L., Geranium sanguineum L., Peucedanum oreoselinum (L.) Moench, Poa pratensis L., Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik.
Flowering period: May-June.
Stipa pennata is a species protected in Poland (Regulation of the Minister of the environment dated October 9, 2014) as well as it was included in the Polish red data book of plants ( Ceynowa-Giełdon et al. 2014b). The only known locality of S. pennata subsp. ceynowae was partly destroyed by the extraction of sand (up to the mid-1950s) and the subsequent afforestation of pine and birch trees carried out in the 1990s ( Ceynowa-Giełdon 2001, Nienartowicz et al. 2014). Currently, S. pennata subsp. ceynowae should be considered as a critically endangered (CR) species-to date, only several flowering individuals have survived (tufts with 8, 10, 11 and 14 culms), occupying a very small area of dry grassland. Lack of grazing has resulted in increased ground cover by layer of "steppe felt", which hamper seeds germination and seedlings growth. Also, tree seedlings pose a threat by shading the grasslands. Similarly, as in the case of other dry grassland species- survival depends on the preservation of suitable habitat conditions, which can be achieved through active protection. Due to the extremely small size of the population, it seems reasonable to apply the methods of ex situ conservation, including in vitro propagation.
Additional specimens studied (paratypes). POLAND. Folusz, 16 Jun 1959, Michalska and Bohr s.n. (TRN!); Folusz koło Szubina nad Gąsawką, na wydmie, wśród łąk [Folusz near Szubin on the Gąsawka River, on a dune, among meadows], 13 Jun 1972, Ceynowa-Giełdon s.n. (TRN!) × 4; North Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Folusz near Szubin by the Gąsawka River; xerothermic grassland on a sandy dune, 3 Jun 2014, Klichowska s.n. (KRA 0451190!).
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