Levinsenia gracilis (Tauber, 1879),

Lovell, Lawrence L. & Fitzhugh, Kirk, 2020, Taking a closer look: an SEM review of Levinsenia species (Polychaeta: Paraonidae) reported from California, Zootaxa 4751 (2), pp. 257-275: 259-262

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4751.2.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D0ADB14D-1A73-4325-859F-570EA2042F23

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3718173

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03878787-B644-241B-FF66-5FB393C0FD56

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Levinsenia gracilis (Tauber, 1879)
status

 

Levinsenia gracilis (Tauber, 1879) 

Figures 1View FIGURE 1 A–D; 2A–D, 7A, B

Aonides gracilis Tauber, 1879: 115  .

Levinsenia gracilis  .–Mesnil & Caullery, 1898: 136–138, Pl. 6, Fig. 10.— Blake 1996: 33–44, Fig. 2.1.

Paraonis (Paraonis) gracilis  . Cerruti, 1909: 468, 498, 504.—Pettibone, 1963: 301–302, Fig. 79a–d.

Paraonis gracilis  . —Eliason, 1920: 55–56, Fig. 16a-e. Wesenberg-Lund, 1950: 32, Pl. 7, Fig. 34.—Uschakov, 1955: 286, Fig. 103a–b. Hartman, 1957: 330–331, Pl. 22, Figs 4–5View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5 (synonymy); 1969: 75–76, Figs 1–3View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3.

Paraonis gracilis gracilis  . —Day, 1967: 566, Fig. 24.4a–b.

Paraonis gracilis minuta  . Hartmann-Schröder, 1965: 197–198, Figs 181–182. Fide Strelzov, 1973.

Paraonis (Paraonides) gracilis  .—Monro, 1930: 150–152, Fig. 58.

Paraonis filiformis  —Hartman, 1953: 39–40, Fig. 12B–C. Fide Hartman, 1957.

Paraonis (Paraonis) ivanovi  .—Banse & Hobson, 1968: 23, Fig. 5fView FIGURE 5. Fide Strelzov, 1973.

Tauberia gracilis  .— Strelzov, 1973: 127–133, Figs 14, 54–57 (synonymy).

Material examined. Denmark, Samsø, Kattegat, coll. Winther, syntype ( NHMD 108749 (prev. ZMUC CRU- 966)), as Aonides gracilis Tauber  ; Kattegat, Frederikshavn, Hirsholmene, July 23, 1949, coll. P.L. Kramp  , det. E. Wesenberg-Lund, 1 specimen ( LACM-AHF 12549)  .— Sweden, Kattegat, Värö, Ringhals Sund, 19 m depth, Sta. L7, 57°16.1’N, 12° 4.8’E, 0.1 m ² Smith-McIntyre grab, 11 March 1975, coll. KMSGoogleMaps  Kristineberg, sample 2, det. M.E. Petersen, 1 specimen on SEM stub ( LACM-AHF 12548), 9 specimens in ethanol ( NHMD 644302)  .— Iceland, Danish Ingolf Expedition, Sta. 138, 63°26’N, 7°56’W, 887 m depth, 10 August 1896GoogleMaps  , det. E. Wesenberg-Lund, 2 specimens (1 in ethanol, 1 mounted on SEM stub) ( LACM-AHF 12550); NE of Iceland, 65°45’N, 12°10’W, 107 m depth, 13 June 1925, coll. Fisheries Board of Scotland GoogleMaps  , det. E. Wesenberg-Lund, 1 specimen ( NHMD 644303)  .— Greenland, SW Greenland, Bankeundersøgelserne, Sta. 37 B, April 1975, 1 specimen ( NHMD 644314); SW Greenland, Bankeundersøgelserne, Sta. 31-B, April 1975, 1 specimen ( NHMD 644315); SW Greenland, Bankeundersøgelserne, Sta. 3C, April 1975, 5 specimens ( NHMD 644316); SW Greenland, Bankeundersøgelserne , Sta. 81A, April 1975, 1 specimen ( NHMD 644318)  .— USA, California, Santa Barbara County, Santa Barbara Channel, 12.7 miles bearing 86.6° True from Pt. Conception Light, 34°27’25’’N, 120°12’55’’W, 17.4 m depth, Hayward orange peel grab, R / VGoogleMaps  Velero IV, Sta. 4938-57, coll. Allan Hancock Foundation, 09 April 1957, 25+ specimens (1 specimen on SEM stub, other specimens in ethanol ( LACM-AHF 12551); Northern Channel Islands, north of Santa Cruz Island, Bight 2008, Sta. 7556, 92 m depth, 34.08°N, 119.71°W, 0.1 m ² Van Veen , 1.0 mm sieve, 09 September 2008, 2 specimens ( LACM-AHF 12560).— San Diego County, Carlsbad , Encina , National Pollution Discharge Elimination System ( NPDES) 9232, Sta. G 1, replicate 4, 45 m depth, 33°06.42’N, 117°20.75’W, 0.1 m ² Van Veen grab, February 1992, 3 specimens (1 specimen on SEM stub, 2 in ethanol) ( LACM-AHF 12552); San Onofre , San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station ( SONGS) D6700-60GoogleMaps  , Sta. XXXI, replicate 1, 33.32°N, 117.51°W, 18.3 m deep, 0.008 m ² diver core, 0.5 mm sieve, 16 September 1981, 1 specimen ( LACM-AHF 12553)— Orange County, Huntington Beach, Orange County Sanitation District ( OCSD) Survey 8501, Sta. 13, rep. 3, 33°35.31’N, 118°2.94’W, 60 m depth, 0.1 m ² Van Veen grab, 18 August 1985, 1.0 mm sieve, 1 specimen ( LACM-AHF 12554); Huntington Beach , OCSDGoogleMaps  Survey 8501, Sta. 30, rep. 1, 33°35.49’N, 118°2.89’W, 30 m depth, 0.1 m ² Van Veen grab, 20 August 1985, 1.0 mm sieve, 1 specimen ( LACM-AHF 12555); Huntington Beach , OCSDGoogleMaps  Survey 9276, Sta. Control, rep. 5, 33°36.04’N, 118°5.39’W, 60 m depth, 0.1 m ² box core, 1 specimen ( LACM-AHF 12556); Huntington Beach , OCSDGoogleMaps  Survey 9382, Sta. LA3, rep. 1, 33°31.72’N, 117°54.73’’W, 436 m depth, 0.3mm sieve, 25 January 1993, 0.1m ² Van Veen grab, 4 specimens ( LACM-AHF 12557); Dana Point , SCWD NPDES  Sta. A, rep. 3, ~ 33.45°N, 117.68°W, 39.6 m depth, 0.1m ² Van Veen grab, 1.0 mm sieve, 16 December 1981, 1 specimen ( LACM-AHF12558). — Los Angeles County, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project ( SCCWRP) Los Angeles County Stormwater, survey 1914, Sta. MBD25, rep. 1, Van Veen grab, 1 specimen ( LACM-AHF 12559)— Monterey County, Monterey Canyon , MBARIGoogleMaps  sample V3147  C17, 1004 m depth, 7 January 2008, 36.74°N, 122.28°W, ROV Ventana  , 1 specimen ( LACM-AHF 12561); MBARIGoogleMaps  sample V3124  C24, 1004 m depth, 7 January 2008, 36.74°N, 122.28°W, ROV Ventana  , 1 specimen ( LACM-AHF 12562); MBARIGoogleMaps  sample V3147  C27, 1004 m depth, 7 January 2008, 36.74°N, 122.28°W, ROV Ventana  , 1 specimen ( LACM-AHF 12563).— Washington, Puget Sound, Seattle Metro, Publically Owned Treatment Works ( POTW), West Point , METRO / TPPSGoogleMaps  Sta. XIII-100, 47.66°N, 122.46°W, 30.5 m depth, 28 September 1981, 0.1 m ² Van Veen grab, 1.0 mm sieve, 7 specimens ( LACM-AHF 12564)GoogleMaps  .

Description. Specimens up to 30 mm long, 0.2–0.3 mm wide. Body thin, dorsally flattened in prebranchial region, thereafter round in cross section, uniformly wide. Body tan, gut visible in posterior chaetigers. Prostomium triangular, slightly longer than wide; terminal sensory organ present; eyes absent; nuchal organs ciliated slits; median antenna absent ( Fig. 1AView FIGURE 1). Prebranchial region 5–7 segments, followed by 7–16 branchial pairs (size dependent) ( Figs 1BView FIGURE 1, 2AView FIGURE 2); branchiae distally tapered, blunt tipped, ciliated laterally, with dorsal transverse ciliary bands between branchiae ( Figs 1CView FIGURE 1, 2BView FIGURE 2). Notopodial post-chaetal lobes as low mounds in prebranchial chaetigers, digitate in branchial region, shorter in post-branchial region; neuropodial post-chaetal lobes absent. Notopodial sensory pores present along entire body ( Figs 1DView FIGURE 1, 2CView FIGURE 2), may have projecting filament (mucous strand?). Notochaetae capillary throughout; neurochaetae capillary only for anterior segments, post-branchially an anterior capillary row and posterior row of slightly curved, tapering acicular chaetae with fringe of fibrils along distal convex side, usually 3–7 acicular chaetae per fascicle ( Figs 1DView FIGURE 1, 2DView FIGURE 2). Pygidium with pair of anal cirri.

Methyl green stain. Ventral banding in branchial region, no MG spots in post-branchial region ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 A–B). Specimens from Sweden and California with similar staining patterns.

Remarks. Several species of Paraonidae  are reported with broad geographic and depth ranges. SEM images of Levinsenia gracilis  from near the type locality (Baltic Sea) and Southern California Bight were compared and found to be indistinguishable morphologically. Ciliary bands dorsally connecting the branchiae are newly described for the species and consistent in material from both locations. Methyl green staining has not been previously published with paraonid specimens, but the same pattern is present in all L. gracilis  specimens stained. For information on diagnostic character differences, see the dichotomous key below and table of character distributions ( Table 2).

Levinsenia gracilis  has a reported cosmopolitan distribution with a broad bathymetric range ( Strelzov 1973, Blake 1996). Material examined from Denmark, Sweden, Iceland, Greenland, Washington, USA, and California, USA, were all collected within the reported (very wide) depth range, are morphologically similar, and represent occurrences indicating a broad geographic distribution. The specimen from the Zoological Museum, Natural History Museum of Denmark, is noted as the only surviving syntype and is in four pieces, but the characters match the published description of L. gracilis  .

It cannot be assumed that all literature reports of Levinsenia gracilis  from other locations are correctly identified. Nine species of Levinsenia  ( Table 1) have been described since Strelzov (1973) reviewed the family. Several of these new species were originally identified as L. gracilis  , but later re-examined and determined to be new (see WoRMS).

Type locality. Denmark  .

Distribution. Cosmopolitan, subtidal to 3000+ m.

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

KMS

Kelowna Museum

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Annelida

Class

Polychaeta

Family

Paraonidae

Genus

Levinsenia

Loc

Levinsenia gracilis (Tauber, 1879)

Lovell, Lawrence L. & Fitzhugh, Kirk 2020
2020
Loc

Levinsenia gracilis

Blake, J. A. 1996: 33
Loc

Tauberia gracilis

Strelzov, V. E. 1973: 127