Nops MacLeay, 1839

Sánchez-Ruiz, Alexander & Brescovit, Antonio D., 2018, A revision of the Neotropical spider genus Nops MacLeay (Araneae: Caponiidae) with the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Nopinae genera, Zootaxa 4427 (1), pp. 1-121: 19-20

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Nops MacLeay, 1839


Genus Nops MacLeay, 1839 

Type species: Nops guanabacoae MacLeay, 1839  by monotypy.

Diagnosis. Members of Nops  can be distinguished from non‒nopine genera by having tarsi subsegmented ( Figs 9A View Figure ; 32L); and from other nopine genera by having a small arolium with a pencil eraser shape on the legs I‒II ( Figs 5A View Figure ; 22A; 35I ‒J; 71K), absent from the legs III‒IV ( Figs 5B‒C View Figure ; 35K‒L; 54B‒C); an angulated ectal median margin of endites ( Figs 21B View Figure ; 29F; 38E; 60E) and a finger‒shaped labium ( Figs 21B View Figure ; 38E; 60E).

Description. Medium‒sized caponiids with two eyes. Carapace uniformly orange or yellow, elongate oval, widest at rear of coxae II, only gradually narrowed anterior of eyes ( Fig. 6A‒H View Figure ); pars cephalica not elevated; pars thoracica slightly sloping posteriorly, with slight submarginal depressions opposite intercoxal spaces ( Figs 37A View Figure ; 60C); few dorsally directed strong bristles on clypeus ( Fig. 60B View Figure ); thoracic groove almost obsolete or absent. AME dark, situated on slightly elevated black ocular tubercle, separated by about a half of their diameter ( Fig. 60B View Figure ), set back from anterior margin of clypeus by about twice their diameter ( Fig. 38C View Figure ). Females with clypeus bloated ( Fig. 6E‒H View Figure ). Chelicerae orange, with median lamina; most of distance between lamina and fang base occupied by white membranous lobe ( Figs 21F View Figure ; 38G; 60J); cheliceral paturon with scattered, long, weak bristles ( Fig. 60L View Figure ); ectal side with stridulatory ridges ( Figs 21G View Figure ; 38H; 60K). Endites orange, except anterior tips with white membranous projection ( Figs 11F View Figure , 29F View Figure , 58F View Figure ), wide, convergent along midline (but not touching), with middle part wider than the distal and proximal and forming an obtuse angle of about 120 degrees on the ectal margin ( Figs 21B View Figure ; 38E; 60E), covered with scattered long setae, and with strong distal serrula consisting of single tooth row ( Figs 21C View Figure ; 38F; 60F). Labium orange, broad, rounded, fused to sternum along posterior groove, reborded in apical part ( Figs 21B View Figure ; 38E; 60E, H). Sternum orange, oval, surface with fine reticular lines with numerous long, stiff setae ( Figs 21A View Figure ; 38D; 60D); pleural membrane with three sclerotized intercoxal extensions between coxae I and II, II and III, and III and IV, long precoxal triangles on coxae II, III and IV. Legs orange, formula 4 123, without spines; anterior femora usually enlarged ( Fig. 21I View Figure ); metatarsi entire, with metatarsal dorsal stopper (MtS) ( Figs 38K View Figure ; 39H), anterior legs with crista occupying almost all ventral part ( Figs 21K View Figure ; 38K; 61G); gladius with the most common shape among nopine ( Figs 21L View Figure ; 38J‒L); all tarsi bi‒segmented ( Figs 21J View Figure ; 38J; 39H; 61H, 62E); pretarsus with three claws; paired claws usually with 6‒10 teeth, most distal of which are largest ( Figs 22B View Figure , 43K View Figure ); unpaired claw elongated and dorsally reflexed on legs I‒II ( Figs 22A View Figure , 35I View Figure ), some species with unpaired claw elongated and reflexed on legs III‒IV ( Figs 35K View Figure , 43L View Figure ), but others with the posterior unpaired claw small, as in other three‒clawed spiders ( Figs 62B View Figure , 68A View Figure ), some few species with small teeth on posterior unpaired claw ( Figs 68C View Figure , 71F View Figure ); ventral frictional setae on tarsi ( Fig. 22D, K, L View Figure ) and several other setae around pretarsal claws ( Fig. 22G‒J View Figure ); unpaired claws associated with a small arolium on anterior legs ( Figs 5A View Figure ; 22A; 35I ‒J;, 71K), which is absent from posterior legs ( Figs 5B‒C View Figure ; 35K‒L; 54B‒C). Tibiae, metatarsi, and tarsi with trichobothria in a single row ( Figs 22C View Figure ; 47J), bases with semicircular rim bearing slight longitudinal ridges ( Figs 22F View Figure ; 39J), tarsal organ exposed, roundish, with marginal ring slightly pronounced ( Figs 22E View Figure ; 39K; 61L), slit sensillae on tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi ( Fig. 39F, L View Figure ). Male and female palpal tarsus elongated, without claw, retrolateral and ventral surfaces densely covered with strong setae; with an oval pad of fine chemoreceptor setae on dorsal, distal part ( Fig. 23F View Figure ), with a prolateral tibial brush (ptb) near distal end ( Figs 23B View Figure ; 43E; 45H); with a pick on prolateral side of palpal femur, situated near proximal end of podomere, in most of species with a slender shape ( Figs 27G View Figure ; 43F; 45I). Abdomen gray dorsally, lighter ventrally, with only slightly sclerotized epigastric and postepigastric scutum; three abdominal patterns among species ( Fig. 6I ‒K View Figure ), a few species without pattern ( Fig. 6L View Figure ); with two pairs of respiratory spiracles clustered around epigastric groove ( Fig. 7E View Figure ); anterior spiracles leading to wide, short tracheal trunk ending in numerous long tracheoles; posterior spiracles leading to two large tracheal trunks extending anteriorly into cephalothorax (inner trunks connected), plus one or two much narrower trunks extending posteriorly for most of abdominal length and several short, small tracheoles extending posteriorly ( Fig. 7F View Figure ). Six spinnerets in typical caponiid arrangement ( Fig. 7A‒D View Figure ), ALS with only one major ampullate gland spigot in males ( Figs 23H View Figure ; 61C), plus two or three piriform gland spigots in females ( Fig. 23L View Figure ). PMSAbout PMS with one minor ampullate gland spigot (major gland in females), plus six‒eleven aciniform gland spigots ( Figs 23G View Figure ; 61C), and PLS with multiple aciniform gland spigots ( Figs 23I ‒K View Figure ; 61A) of variable number among species; a group of species with PLS two times longer than the PMSAbout PMS ( Fig. 7A‒B View Figure ) and another group with PLS of equal size as PMSAbout PMS ( Fig. 7C‒D View Figure ). Male palpal patella and tibia short, tibia excavated ventrally ( Fig. 54H View Figure ); cymbium elongated, not swollen, ventral surface densely covered with strong setae ( Figs 23C View Figure ; 57A); pear‒shape bulb, globose, originating near base of cymbium; embolus with small extensions on tip ( Fig. 4A‒B View Figure ), a few species with differentiate texture on median part ( Figs 18B View Figure ; 27E‒F; 30B) and/or a sclerotized margin on embolar tip ( Fig. 18B View Figure ). External female genitalia with a weakly sclerotized anterior plate in most species, sclerotization around spiracles and on outer ends of posterior receptaculum (noticeable by transparency); posterior plate with two lateral extension (lep) between spiracles ( Fig. 3A View Figure ); external sclerotization around spiracles (ess), pointed anteriorly on anterior spiracles and tear‒shaped under posterior spiracles ( Fig. 3A View Figure ). Internal female genitalia consisting of transverse, wide, anteriorly directed, weakly sclerotized receptaculum (r), and a membranous uterus externus which usually extends anteriorly over the distal margin of receptaculum ( Figs 2A‒I View Figure ; 3A‒B).

Distribution. Neotropics

Other species included. N. agnarssoni Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, Brescovit & Alayόn, N. alexenriquei  n. sp., N. amazonas  n. sp., N. bahia  n. sp., N. blandus (Bryant)  , N. campeche  n. sp., N. coccineus Simon  , N. enae Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, N. ernestoi Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, N. farhati Prosen  , N. finisfurvus Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, Brescovit & Alayόn, N. flutillus Chickering  , N. jaragua  n. sp., N. gertschi Chickering  , N. hispaniola Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, Brescovit & Alayόn, N. ipojuca  n. sp., N. itapetinga  n. sp., N. largus Chickering  , N. maculatus Simon  , N. mathani Simon  , N. meridionalis Keyserling  , N. minas  n. sp., N. navassa  n. sp., N. nitidus Simon  , N. pallidus  n. sp., N. pocone  n. sp., N. quito Dupérré  , N. siboney Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, N. sublaevis Simon  , N. tico  n. sp., N. toballus Chickering  ; N. ursumus Chickering  , N. variabilis Keyserling. 

Species inquerenda. N. anisitsi Strand  , N. bellulus Chamberlin  , N. branicki (Taczanowski)  , N. glaucus Hasselt. 


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