Eurypon potiguaris, Cavalcanti & Santos & Pinheiro, 2018

Cavalcanti, Thaynã, Santos, George Garcia & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2018, Description of three species of Eurypon Gray, 1867 (Raspailiidae: Demospongiae: Porifera) from the Western Atlantic and a name to replace the the secondary homonym Eurypon topsenti, Zootaxa 4388 (1), pp. 89-101: 93-95

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Eurypon potiguaris

sp. nov.

Eurypon potiguaris   sp. nov. ( Figures 1 View FIGURE 1 , 4–5 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 , Table 1)

Type locality: Brazil, Rio Grande do Norte State, Potiguar Basin.  

Type specimens: Holotype. UFPEPOR 1949, Bacia Potiguar (04° 36.7198' S – 036° 46.7554' W), Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, depth 157 m, trawl, col. Petrobras, (22/V/2011). GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis. Thinly encrusting sponge with a spicule complement composed by large tylostyles (1000–2315 / 6– 10 µm), acanthostyles I (119–300 / 6–12 µm), acanthostyles II (62–98 / 2–8 µm) and oxeas (207–550 / 2–5 µm).

External morphology ( Fig. 4A –B View FIGURE 4 ). Thinly encrusting sponge, approximately 0.5 mm thick. Hispid surface, consistency fragile and oscula absent. Colour in life is unknown and brown when preserved (80% ethanol).

Skeleton ( Fig. 4B View FIGURE 4 ). No special ectosomal skeleton. Choanosomal skeleton composed of typical microcionid structure. Tylostyles, acanthostyles and oxeas protruded through surface forming projections of single spicules over the sponge.

Spicules ( Fig. 5A –H View FIGURE 5 ). Choanosomal tylostyles, eventually subtylostyles (1000– 1418.5 –2315 / 6– 8.1 –10 µm): elongated, smooth, curved, and with blunt tips and rounded tyla ( Fig. 5A –B View FIGURE 5 ); Acanthostyles I (119– 205.5 –300 / 6– 9.0 –12 µm): long, robust, erect to slightly curved, with few little spines over the shaft, more abundant at the sponge basement ( Fig. 5E –F View FIGURE 5 ); Acanthostyles II (62– 74.3 –98 / 2– 4.1 –8 µm): smaller than acanthostyles I, thin, straight, with big curved spines (hook-shaped) directed to the base projected all over the shaft ( Fig. 5G –H View FIGURE 5 ); Thin oxeas (207– 443.7 –550 / 2– 2.7 –5.5 µm): long, slightly curved, and with blunt tips ( Fig. 5C –D View FIGURE 5 ).

Distribution and ecology ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Known from the type locality Potiguar Basin (Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Region, Brazil), at 157 m. Eurypon potiguaris   sp. nov. was found over a sand aggregate on the bryozoan Cupuladria   sp.

Etymology. The species name refers to the type locality Potiguar Basin, Brazil.

Remarks. Eurypon potiguaris   sp. nov. differ from other Atlantic species of the genus, in spicules complement composed by large tylostyles, two categories of acanthostyles and oxeas, and dimensions (Tab. 1). The most similar species are E. mucronale   and E. urizae   , which have (sub)tylostyles, two size categories of acanthostyles and oxeas. However, the new species has much smaller tylostyles and oxeas are greater than those exhibited by E. urizae   and E. mucronale   (Tab. 1). Eurypon fulvum   and E. major   share with E. potiguaris   sp. nov. the presence of choanosomal tylostyles, acanthostyles and oxeas. Nevertheless, they present only one category of acanthostyles and differ regarding the spicules dimensions (Tab. 1). Eurypon potiguaris   sp. nov. differs from E. clavilectuarium   , E.

miniaceum   and E. suassunai   by the presence of choanosomal subtylostyles and styles. The new species differ from E. hispidulum   , E. incipiens   , E. scabiosum   and E. simplex   for presenting oxeas. Acanthostyles are absent in E. lictor   and E. topsenti   . Eurypon clavatella   , E. clavatum   , E. cinctum   , E. coronula   , E. distyli   , E. longispiculum   , E. pulitzeri   nom. nov., E. radiatum   , E. toureti   and E. viride   present only one category of acanthostyles, while the new species has two acanthostyle categories. Eurypon potiguaris   sp. nov. differs from E. oxychaetum   sp. nov. in spicules complement.