Naineris aurantiaca ( Müller, 1858 ),

Alvarez, Ricardo Castro, Miranda, Vinícius Da Rocha & Brasil, Ana Claudia Dos Santos, 2019, Redescription of Naineris aurantiaca (Müller, 1858) and designation of a neotype from the Brazilian coast (Annelida: Orbiniidae), Zootaxa 4571 (1), pp. 125-136: 128-133

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4571.1.8

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:48567212-A68C-46B8-82BC-347137B29F4F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C38783-FFE6-FFB9-FF2A-FCA3E131F95F

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Naineris aurantiaca ( Müller, 1858 )
status

 

Naineris aurantiaca ( Müller, 1858) 

Theodisca aurantiaca Müller, 1858 

Material examined. Neotype: Naineris aurantiaca  , ( MNRJP 1956), 1 spm., under rocks between oyster banks, intertidal, 27°47'2"S– 48°30'25"W, 05/October/18, Pântano do Sul Beach , Santa Catarina, Brazil.GoogleMaps 

Additional material: Naineris aurantiaca  , MNRJP 1955, 4 spms., under rocks between oyster banks, intertidal, 27°47'2"S– 48°30'25"W, 05/October/2018, Pântano do Sul Beach , Santa Catarina, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , MNRJP 1957, 38 spms (one mounted for SEM)., in algal tufts, intertidal, 23° 3'27.93"S– 43°59'28.30"W, 08/March/2016, Praia Grande , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , MNRJP 1958, 1 spm., in algal tufts, intertidal, 23° 4'59.52"S– 44° 0'27.29"W, 19/August/2016, Praia do Sino , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , MNRJP 1959, 11 spms., in mussel bed, intertidal, 23° 4'59.52"S– 44° 0'27.29"W, 08/April/2016, Praia do Sino , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , MNRJP 1960, 2 spms., in algal tufts, intertidal, 23° 3'27.93"S– 43°59'28.30"W, 29/July/2016, Praia Grande , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , MNRJP 1961, 6 spms., in mussel bed, intertidal, 23° 3'56.68"S– 43°59'30.65"W, 12/September/2016, Praia Grande , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , MNRJP 1962, 2 spms., in algal tuft, intertidal, 23° 3'56.68"S– 43°59'30.65"W, 21/ February/2016, Praia Grande , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , ZUEC-Pol 21327, 7 spms., in algal tufts, intertidal, 23° 5'5.05"S– 44° 0'31.21"W, 16/April/2017, Praia do Sino , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , ZUEC-Pol 21328, 10 spms., in algal tufts, intertidal, 23° 3'57.34"S– 43°59'31.35"W, 08/March/2016, Praia Grande , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , ZUEC-Pol 21329, 7 spms., in algal tufts, intertidal, 23° 3'57.34"S– 43°59'31.35"W, 08/March/2016, Praia Grande , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , ZUEC-Pol 21330, 10 spms., in algal tufts, intertidal, 23° 3'57.34"S– 43°59'31.35"W, 08/March/2016, Praia Grande , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , ZUEC-Pol 21331, 9 spms., in algal tufts, intertidal, 23° 3'57.34"S– 43°59'31.35"W, 08/March/2016, Praia Grande , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , ZUEC-Pol 21332, 10 spms., in algal tufts, intertidal, 23° 3'57.34"S– 43°59'31.35"W, 08/March/2016, Praia Grande , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , ZUEC-Pol 21333, 9 spms., in algal tufts, intertidal, 23° 3'57.34"S– 43°59'31.35"W, 08/March/2016, Praia Grande , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  ; Naineris aurantiaca  , ZUEC-Pol 21334, 1 spms., in algal tufts, intertidal, 23° 3'57.34"S– 43°59'31.35"W, 08/March/2016, Praia Grande , Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogleMaps  .

Comparative material examined: Naineris setosa  , ZUEC-Pol 3791, 5 spms., 23°37'49.03"S– 45°24'55.47"W, 08/September/2006, Cidade Beach in Caraguatatuba, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris setosa  , ZUEC-Pol 3792, 6 spms., 23°37'49.03"S– 45°24'55.47"W, 08/August/2006, Cidade Beach in Caraguatatuba, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris  sp., ZUEC-Pol 2194, 13 spms., 23°48'47.03"S– 45°24'31.20"W, 14/September/1974, Praia do Araçá, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris cf. laevigata  ZUEC-Pol 8358, 7 spms., 23°37'38.95"S– 45°23'52.22"W, 15/March/2001, rocky shore in Caraguatatuba, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris cf. laevigata  ZUEC-Pol 8309, 18 spms., 23°46'50.09"S– 45°39'52.21"W, 08/April/2001, rocky shore in Baleia, São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brazil. Naineris  sp., MUZUSP 355, 5 spms., 23°47'22.55"S– 45°21'48.61"W, 19/February/1997, Praia Engenho d'Água, Ilhabela, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris  sp. MUZUSP 376, 1 spm., 23°47'22.55"S– 45°21'48.61"W, 23/August/1990, Praia Engenho d'Água, Ilhabela, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris  sp., MUZUSP 567, 3 spms., 23°47'22.55"S– 45°21'48.61"W, 12/ March/1997, Praia Engenho d'Água, Ilhabela, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris  sp., MUZUSP 622, 1 spm., 23°45'49.04"S– 45°20'57.23"W, 25/November/1992, Praia de Barreiros, Ilhabela, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris  sp., MUZUSP 655, 4 spms., 23°47'22.55"S– 45°21'48.61"W, 09/December/1996, Praia Engenho d'Água, Ilhabela, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris  sp., MUZUSP 714, 2 spms., 23°45'49.04"S– 45°20'57.23"W, 19/September/1990, Praia de Barreiros, Ilhabela, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris  sp., MUZUSP 725, 3 spms., 23°47'22.55"S– 45°21'48.61"W, 25/ June/1997, Praia Engenho d'Água, Ilhabela, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris  sp., MUZUSP 781, 1 spm., 23°45'25.57"S– 45°24'39.22"W, 20/January/1997, Praia de São Francisco, São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris  sp., MUZUSP 786, 1 spm., 23°48'47.24"S– 45°24'31.35"W, 27/June/1987, Praia do Araçá, São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brazil; Naineris  sp., MUZUSP 803, 2 spms., 23°47'22.55"S– 45°21'48.61"W, 18/September/1990, Praia Engenho d'Água, Ilhabela, São Paulo, Brazil., Naineris grubei australis Hartman, 1957  , holotype LACM—AHF Poly 676, 1 spm., 35°9'0"S– 138°28'0"E, Port Noarlunga, Adelaide, Australia; Naineris uncinata Hartman, 1957  ., holotype LACM – AHF Poly 675, 1 spm., 43°10'26"N– 124°19'02"W, Loss bay, Oregon, USA, 02/August/1942; Naineris bicornis Hartman, 1951  , holotype LACM—AHF Poly 674, 1 spm., 29°54'36"N– 84°23'43"W, Aligator Harbour, Florida, USA, 04/February /1950.

Measurements. NEOTYPE: length 4.84 mm (83 chaetigers), width 0.3 mm.

Additional material measured: 60 spms. from Praia Grande in Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro): mean length 14.45 mm (SD ± 5.87 mm), ranging from 6.36 mm (60 chaetigers) to 34.74 mm (153 chaetigers); mean width: 0.75 mm (SD ± 0.27mm), ranging from 0.21 mm to 1.42 mm; number of chaetigers (range = 50 to 153).

Diagnosis. Pre- and post-branchial papillae and interramal papillae occur only on abdominal segments. Dorsal organs occur posteriorly from thoracic chaetiger 12 onwards. Thoracic neuropodia with crenulated capillary chaetae arranged in oblique ventral rows, an oblique dorsal row of blunt-tipped uncini with lateral notches or grooves, subuluncini arranged anteriorly in 2-3 transverse rows, and a posterior transverse row of heavily-ridged uncini.

Description (Based on neotype). Prostomium rounded anteriorly, eyes absent, nuchal organ present ( Figs. 3AView FIGURE 3, 4AView FIGURE 4). Peristomium a single achaetous annulus ( Figs. 3AView FIGURE 3, 4AView FIGURE 4). Mouth opening antero-ventrally, labial lips striated ( Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3). Proboscis formed by finger-shaped lobes, without ciliated epithelium. Branchiae beginning on chaetiger 9; morphologically simple, conical, with ciliated epithelium ( Fig. 3GView FIGURE 3). First branchiae short (a sixth of the longest branchiae), becoming longer in abdominal region; equal to or smaller than notopodial lobe on anteriormost segments, becoming longer towards abdominal region where equal the body width, but decreasing in length over last segments ( Figs. 2AView FIGURE 2, 3BView FIGURE 3). Papillae at the anterior and posterior base of the branchiae occurring only on abdominal segments; posterior papillae arranged almost laterally to branchiae ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 A-C, 3G-H). Dorsal organs occurring from chaetiger 12 onwards ( Fig. 3GView FIGURE 3).

Thoracic segments depressed dorso-ventrally. Thorax comprising 13 chaetigers ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2). Parapodia biramous. Interramal papilla absent ( Fig. 3FView FIGURE 3). Parapodia pre-chaetal lobe not evident; post-chaetal lobes pyriform. Notopodial lobes longer than those of neuropodium ( Fig. 3FView FIGURE 3). Notochaetae crenulate capillaries, arranged in transverse rows and forming an open semicircle; number of chaetae ranging from seven (on anterior segments) to 17 (on posteriormost thoracic segments). Neurochaetae comprising four types: subuluncini arranged anteriorly in 2-3 transverse rows (on up to 23 chaetae per fascicle); an oblique dorsal blunt-tipped uncini with lateral notch or groove on each side of uncinial apex (on up to four chaetae) ( Fig. 4CView FIGURE 4); posterior transverse row of up to five heavily-ridged uncini; and row of up to six crenulated capillaries arranged obliquely and ventral to other types of neurochaetae ( Figs. 2DView FIGURE 2, 3FView FIGURE 3, 4DView FIGURE 4).

Abdominal segments cylindrical. Abdomen with 70 chaetigers. Parapodia dorsally projected and biramous. As observed in thoracic region, only post-chaetal pyriform lobes evident. Notopodial lobe twice length of neuropodial lobe ( Fig. 3EView FIGURE 3). Interramal papillae present between notopodia and neuropodia ( Figs. 2BView FIGURE 2, 3EView FIGURE 3). Notochaetae crenulate capillaries, arranged in two transverse rows of up to 12 chaetae. A single lower furcate notochaeta, hosting variably-sized tines interspersed with thin needles (longest needles as long as half length of longest tine); shaft with transverse rows of small barbs ( Fig. 4FView FIGURE 4). Neurochaetae crenulate capillaries (up to 10 chaetae) mingled with spines (up to four chaetae per parapodia) ( Fig. 4EView FIGURE 4).

Pygidium not observed.

Variation in non type material examined: The numbers of thoracic chaetigers and the position of the first pair of branchiae were not fixed among the specimens we examined. There were 13 chaetigers in the thoracic region of the neotype, but this character varied from 9 to 17 chaetigers across all specimens observed from Rio de Janeiro State (60 spms.) and from 10 to 21 chaetigers in specimens from São Paulo State (38 spms.).

Proboscis of larger specimens (>100 chaetigers) with three thick branches at the base, forming two dorsal and one ventral lobe with numerous rami whereas smaller specimens (50–100 chaetigers) only have two lobes (one emerging on right and a larger one emerging ventrolaterally on left, both less branching than larger specimens, as reported by Eisig (1914)) ( Figs. 3CView FIGURE 3, 4BView FIGURE 4).

Pygidia were observed in specimens from Marambaia Island, bearing a dorsal and a ventral pair of cirri, ventral pair being longer than dorsal pair ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3). Anus dorsal, located between dorsal pair of cirri.

Habitat. Intertidal. This species occurred on sediment and in deposited sediments among algae rhizoids and in between the shells of mussel beds ( Perna perna  ) and oyster banks.

Distribution. Type locality: Santa Catarina Island (Florianópolis), as Desterro in the original description.

Additional occurrence. São Paulo: São Sebastião, Caraguatatuba, Ubatuba, Ilhabela. Rio de Janeiro: Marambaia Island, Jaguanum Island.

Remarks. Müller (1858) did not specify a detailed location from where his specimens were sampled but assumed to be intertidal. Since the information in the original description of N. aurantiaca  was minimal, we had to rely on Müller’s drawings for comparative analysis with our specimens. In so doing, we noted the presence of a dendritical proboscis and the number of proboscidial branches, the four anal cirri located around the anus, the abdominal chaetae predominantly being capillaries, the pyriform shape of abdominal post-chaetal lobes, and the abdominal branchiae being very similar to specimens we sampled from the type locality. We are therefore confident that we have obtained specimens that match the species described by Müller in 1858. The island of Santa Catarina is considered to be a well preserved location with no records of drastic changes on the island foreshore.

Morphologically, the species most closely related to N. aurantiaca  is N. dendritica ( Kinberg, 1866)  . Both species share the small size of the first branchiae compared to those of abdominal segments, the presence of prechaetal lamellae, and chaetal morphology. Naineris dendritica  differs from N. aurantiaca  in lacking pre- and postbranchial interramal papillae, the absence of a nuchal organ, and the number of basal lobes of the proboscis. The number of proboscis lobes in N. dendritica  was not described by Blake (1996), but Moore (1909) described four lobes in N. robustus  (an accepted synonym of N. dendritica (Hartman, 1948))  , whereas N. aurantiaca  has three proboscis lobes.

Naineris aurantiaca  differs from all other species of the genus occurring on the Brazilian coast, from intertidal to deeper waters species. In relation to N. laevigata  both are similar in having interramal papillae, but differ in their chaetal arrangements in thoracic neuropodia. Naineris laevigata  has subuluncini and a posterior row of unstriated uncini with or without hoods, whereas N. aurantiaca  uncini lack hoods and has two easily differentiated types of uncini.

Naineris setosa ( Verrill, 1900)  , also recorded from Brazil, differs from N. aurantiaca  in thoracic neuropodia chaetal types. Naineris setosa  only possesses capillaries, whereas N. aurantiaca  has two types of uncini and subuluncini as well as capillaries. The shape of the furcate chaetae also differs between both these species: the tips of both tines are robust in N. aurantiaca  , whereas in N. setosa  they are longer and thinner. Another difference is that N. setosa  does not possess branchial and interramal papillae, but N. aurantiaca  does. Lastly, the proboscis in these two species differ; it is large and saclike in N. setosa  but dendritic in N. aurantiaca  . Naineris bicornis Hartman, 1951  was recorded in sediments from Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro ( Nonato 1981). This species differs from N. aurantiaca  in that it lacks interramal papillae ( Amaral et al. 2013). There is only one record for N. bicornis  from Brazil from Ilha Grande. Tellingly, the distinct shape of the prostomium in N. bicornis  can also arise through the fixation methodology, as noted by Eisig (1914) in other species, so that sometimes the prostomium looks rounded and sometimes it looks spatulate. We requested material identified as N. bicornis  from ZUEC-Pol, but the material listed in Amaral et al. (2013) is no longer available and as we cannot check this record, we suggest a misidentification of the specimen.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Annelida

Class

Polychaeta

Order

Orbiniida

Family

Orbiniidae

Genus

Naineris

Loc

Naineris aurantiaca ( Müller, 1858 )

Alvarez, Ricardo Castro, Miranda, Vinícius Da Rocha & Brasil, Ana Claudia Dos Santos 2019
2019
Loc

Naineris bicornis

Hartman 1951
1951
Loc

N. bicornis

Hartman 1951
1951
Loc

N. bicornis

Hartman 1951
1951
Loc

N. bicornis

Hartman 1951
1951
Loc

Naineris setosa (

Verrill 1900
1900
Loc

Theodisca aurantiaca Müller, 1858

Muller 1858
1858