Pontodrilus litoralis ( Grube, 1855 )

Seesamut, Teerapong, Sutcharit, Chirasak, Jirapatrasilp, Parin, Chanabun, Ratmanee & Panha, Somsak, 2018, Morphological and molecular evidence reveal a new species of the earthworm genus Pontodrilus Perrier, 1874 (Clitellata, Megascolecidae) from Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia, Zootaxa 4496 (1), pp. 218-237: 222-224

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4496.1.18

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:44FD2217-E2B2-4F73-B813-96FB78E46771

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CD87C7-E405-DB77-4CC7-FF20ABF569C8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pontodrilus litoralis ( Grube, 1855 )
status

 

Pontodrilus litoralis ( Grube, 1855) 

( Figures 2View FIGURE 2, 3View FIGURE 3, 7BView FIGURE 7; Tables 2, 3)

Lumbricus litoralis Grube, 1855: 127  –129, pl. 5, figs 5–10.

Pontoscolex arenicola Schmarda, 1861: 11  –12, pl. 18, fig. 157.

Pontodrilus marionis Perrier, 1874: 1582  –1586. Perrier 1881: 176 –179, pls 13–17, pl. 18; figs 40–43.

Pontodrilus bermudensis Beddard, 1891: 96  . Michaelsen 1894: 183 –184. Beddard 1895: 469 –471. Michaelsen 1910: 84 –89. Michaelsen 1913: 417. Michaelsen 1921: 12. Stephenson 1923: 180 –182. Gates 1926: 150. Stephenson 1931: 51. Gates 1942: 90. Gates 1943: 99 –100. Gates 1954: 240 –241. Gates 1972: 47 –48. Jamieson & Wampler 1979: 665 –666. Sathianarayanan & Khan 2006: 139 –144.

Cryptodrilus insularis Rosa, 1891: 387  –388, pl. 14, fig. 11.

Pontodrilus arenae Michaelsen, 1892: 222  –223, pl. 13, fig. 9. Michaelsen 1900: 181. Michaelsen 1903: 87.

Pontodrilus hesperidum Beddard, 1894: 37  –40. Beddard 1895: 471. Michaelsen 1900: 182. Michaelsen 1903: 87.

Pontodrilus litoralis (Grube)  . Beddard 1895: 469. Michaelsen 1900: 180. Cognetti 1901: 16. Michaelsen 1903: 87. Michaelsen 1910: 89 –91. Easton 1984: 114 –116. Jamieson 2001: 1002 –1007, figs 34.1–34.2. Gobi et al. 2004: 1712, fig. 1. James et al. 2005: 1022 –1023. Shen et al. 2005: 12 –13, fig. 1. Blakemore 2007: S3–S8, figs 1–3. Csuzdi & Pavlicek 2009: 12. Satheeshkumar et al. 2011: 406 –409, fig. 1. Blakemore et al. 2012: 302. Narayanan et al. 2014: 473 –476, table 1. Oba et al. 2015: 1 –10, figs 1–2, table 1. Hara et al. 2016: 5 –7, fig. 1. Nguyen et al. 2016: 10 –11.

Pontodrilus insularis (Rosa)  . Beddard 1895: 471 –472. Michaelsen 1897: 173 –174. Michaelsen 1900: 181 –182. Michaelsen 1903: 87.

Pontodrilus michaelseni Eisen, 1895: 73  –84, pl. 33, figs 24–28; pls 34–39; pl. 40, figs 74–76. Michaelsen 1900: 182. Michaelsen 1903: 87.

Pontodrilus ephippiger Rosa, 1898: 281  –283, pl. 9, figs 4–5. Michaelsen 1900: 180 –181. Michaelsen 1903: 87. Michaelsen 1907a: 187. Michaelsen 1907b: 43. Cognetti 1908: 81 –82. Stephenson 1914: 256 –259.

Pontodrilus matsushimensis Iizuka, 1898: 21  –26, pl. 2, figs 1–6. Beddard 1899: 192 –193. Michaelsen 1900: 179 –180. Michaelsen 1903: 87. Michaelsen 1910: 91 –92. Easton 1981: 45 –46.

Pontodrilus ephippiger laysanianus Michaelsen, 1899a: 217  –220. Michaelsen 1899b: 28 –29, fig. 2. Michaelsen 1900: 181.

Pontodrilus matsushimensis chathamianus Michaelsen, 1899a: 220  –221. Michaelsen 1900: 180. Michaelsen 1910: 91 –92.

Pontodrilus michaelseni hortensis Eisen, 1900: 241  –243.

Pontodrilus chathamensis  (sic! pro chatamianus) Michaelsen. Benham 1901: 136 –140. Lee 1952: 25.

Pontodrilus chathamianus Michaelsen. Michaelsen 1903: 87  .

Pontodrilus laccadivensis Beddard, 1903: 374  –375.

Pontodrilus crosslandi Beddard, 1906: 561  , fig. 78.

Pontodrilus albanyensis Michaelsen, 1907a: 185  –187, fig. 12, pl. 2, fig. 26. Jackson 1931: 93.

Pontodrilus bermudensis ephippiger Rosa. Stephenson 1915a: 145  . Stephenson 1915b: 61. Stephenson 1916: 311. Stephenson 1917: 375. Stephenson 1920: 202. Jackson 1931: 95 –96, pl. 14, fig. 6.

Pontodrilus albanyensis var. cygni Jackson, 1931: 94  –95, pl. 14, figs 2, 3, 4, 9.

Plutellus (Pontodrilus) matsushimensis indica Michaelsen, 1935: 106  –107.

Pontodrilus gracilis Gates, 1943: 100  –102. Gates 1954: 241.

Pontodrilus hesperidium  (sic! pro hesperidum  ) Beddard. Easton 1984: 114. Jamieson 2001: 1003.

Type locality. Villa Franca on the French Riviera ( Grube 1855).

Materials examined. Thailand. 112 adults and 51 juveniles, CUMZ 3462View Materials, Ao Talkoo, Laem Ngob, Trat (12° 12' 14.4" N, 102° 16' 47.1" E) on 7 August 2015GoogleMaps  . 21 adults and 56 juveniles, CUMZ 3463View Materials, Hat Laem Sing, Laem Sing, Chanthaburi (12° 28' 48.5" N, 102° 03' 46.7" E) on 7 August 2015GoogleMaps  . 8 adults and 14 juveniles, CUMZ 3464View Materials, Hat Chao Lao, Thamai, Chanthaburi (12° 33' 52.8" N, 101° 54' 25.1" E) on 8 August 2015GoogleMaps  . 38 adults and 48 juveniles, CUMZ 3465View Materials, Hat Mae Rumphueng, Ban Phe, Rayong (12° 36' 12.6" N, 101° 23' 52.2" E) on 8 August 2015GoogleMaps  . 38 adults and 8 juveniles, CUMZ 3466View Materials, Hat Nam Rin, Ban Chang, Rayong (12° 40' 31.1" N, 101° 05' 03.4" E) on 9 August 2015GoogleMaps  . 26 adults and 49 juveniles, CUMZ 3467View Materials, Ao Noi, Mueang, Prachuap Khiri Khan (11° 49' 10.7" N, 99° 47' 58.1" E) on 29 August 2015GoogleMaps  . 53 adults and 34 juveniles, CUMZ 3468View Materials, Maejo University at Chumphon, Lamae, Chumphon (9° 46' 48.8" N, 99° 08' 27.2" E) on 29 August 2015GoogleMaps  . 1 adult and 7 juveniles, CUMZ 3469View Materials, Hat Pak Meng, Sikao, Trang (7° 30' 14.3" N, 99° 19' 6.8" E) on 30 August 2015GoogleMaps  . 89 adults and 30 juveniles, CUMZ 3470View Materials, Ao Noon, La Ngu, Satun (6° 50' 16.0 "N, 99° 45' 37.2" E) on 30 August 2015GoogleMaps  . 131 juveniles, CUMZ 3471View Materials, Khrua Suan Son Restaurant, Pak Phanang, Nakhon Si Thammarat (8° 10' 51.8" N, 100° 17' 30.4" E) on 1 September 2015GoogleMaps  . 1 adult and 18 juveniles, CUMZ 3472View Materials, Ban Koh Kaew Naruemit, Pak Phanang, Nakhon Si Thammarat (8° 14' 28.1" N, 100° 16' 41.2" E) on 3 September 2015GoogleMaps  . 1 adult and 29 juveniles, CUMZ 3473View Materials, Laem Talumphuk, Pak Phanang, Nakhon Si Thammarat (8° 19' 19.7" N, 100° 15' 19.9" E) on 3 September 2015GoogleMaps  . 7 adults and 60 juveniles, CUMZ 3474View Materials, Pak Mae Nam Tepa, Sichon, Nakhon Si Thammarat (8° 55' 51.2" N, 99° 54' 47.5" E) on 3 September 2015GoogleMaps  . 45 juveniles, CUMZ 3475View Materials, Klong Bang Siap, Patiew, Chumphon (10° 39' 29.9" N, 99° 18' 39.1" E) on 4 September 2015GoogleMaps  . 16 adults and 23 juveniles, CUMZ 3476View Materials, Hat Nang Kam, Don Sak, Surat Thani (9° 18' 53.7" N, 99° 45' 37.9" E) on 2 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 170 adults and 32 juveniles, CUMZ 3477View Materials, Hat Lamai, Koh Samui, Surat Thani (9° 28' 16.3" N, 100° 03' 10.3" E) on 3 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 42 adults and 16 juveniles, CUMZ 3478View Materials, Koh Samui Hospital, Koh Samui, Surat Thani (9° 31' 17.3" N, 99° 56' 08.5" E) on 3 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 24 adults and 9 juveniles, CUMZ 3479View Materials, Hat Sai Ngoen, Klong Yai, Trat (12° 02' 43.5" N, 102° 45' 01.8" E) on 15 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 16 adults and 36 juveniles, CUMZ 3480View Materials, Hat Ban Chuen, Klong Yai, Trat (11° 52' 56.9" N, 102° 47' 58.7" E) on 15 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 41 adults and 1 juvenile, CUMZ 3481View Materials, Wat Huang Som, Klong Yai, Trat (11° 50' 47.4" N, 102° 49' 31.9" E) on 15 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 86 adults and 29 juveniles, CUMZ 3482View Materials, Lung Chalerm Bungalow Koh Chang, Koh Chang, Trat (12° 05' 52.4" N, 102° 21' 27.9" E) on 16 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 81 adults and 39 juveniles, CUMZ 3483View Materials, Laem Sing, Laem Sing, Chanthaburi (12° 30' 59.0" N, 102° 01' 37.7" E) on 17 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 25 adults and 13 juveniles, CUMZ 3484View Materials, Laem Mae Nok Kaew, Na Yai Arm, Chanthaburi (12° 40' 46.7" N, 101° 48' 41.2" E) on 17 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 38 adults and 5 juveniles, CUMZ 3485View Materials, Wat Tanon Kaprao, Klaeng, Rayong (12° 41' 06.1" N, 101° 40' 27.2" E) on 17 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 6 adults and 6 juveniles, CUMZ 3486View Materials, Laem Mae Pim, Klaeng, Rayong (12° 38' 37.6" N, 101° 38' 05.1" E) on 17 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 23 adults and 4 juveniles, CUMZ 3487View Materials, Ao Dong Tai, Sattahip, Chonburi (12° 38' 46.6" N, 100° 55' 47.4" E) on 18 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 80 adults and 19 juveniles, CUMZ 3488View Materials, Hat Jomtien, Pattaya, Chonburi (12° 50' 25.1" N, 100° 54' 18.3" E) on 18 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 42 adults and 6 juveniles, CUMZ 3489View Materials, Hat Na Klua , Pattaya, Chonburi (12° 58' 08.0" N, 100° 54' 04.4" E) on 18 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 53 adults and 5 juveniles, CUMZ 3490View Materials, Hat Bang Saen, Mueang, Chonburi (13° 15' 10.9" N, 100° 55' 45.4" E) on 18 December 2015GoogleMaps  . 28 adults and 21 juveniles, CUMZ 3491View Materials, Bo Nok, Kui Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan (11° 59' 47.8" N, 99° 51' 50.2" E) on 9 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 22 adults and 7 juveniles, CUMZ 3492View Materials, Hat Sang Arun, Tub Sakae, Prachuap Khiri Khan (11° 34' 10.9" N, 99° 39' 48.7" E) on 9 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 34 adults and 28 juveniles, CUMZ 3493View Materials, Ban Ma Phaw Resort, Bang Saphan Noi, Prachuap Khiri Khan (11° 08' 08.1" N, 99° 29' 11.9" E) on 9 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 10 adults and 5 juveniles, CUMZ 3494View Materials, Hat Koey, Kaper, Ranong (9° 37' 26.7" N, 98° 28' 08.6" E) on 10 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 16 adults, CUMZ 3495View Materials, Hat Manee Naka, Kaper, Ranong (9° 28' 40.4" N, 98° 26' 02.8" E) on 10 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 2 adults, CUMZ 3496View Materials, Wat Tet Tum Nava, Thai Muang, Phangnga (8° 21' 21.9" N, 98° 15' 29.9" E) on 10 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 36 adults and 4 juveniles, CUMZ 3623View Materials, Ao Thalen, Mueang, Krabi (8° 09' 58.0" N, 98° 44' 53.0" E) on 11 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 8 juveniles, CUMZ 3624View Materials, Hat Yao, Nuea Klong, Krabi (7° 58' 49.4" N, 98° 56' 46.6" E) on 11 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 10 juveniles, CUMZ 3625View Materials, Hat Samran, Hat Samran, Trang (7° 14' 02.9" N, 99° 32' 19.4" E) on 12 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 52 adults and 30 juveniles, CUMZ 3626View Materials, Hat Bo Chet Look, La Ngu, Satun (6° 53' 32.6" N, 99° 41' 12.5" E) on 12 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 20 adults and 10 juveniles, CUMZ 3627View Materials, Hat Kao Seng, Mueang, Songkhla (7° 10' 58.9" N, 100° 36' 59.5" E) on 12 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 17 adults and 3 juveniles, CUMZ 3628View Materials, Hat Tumbon Kao Roob Chang, Mueang, Songkhla (7° 09' 06.5" N, 100° 38' 25.0" E) on 12 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 1 adult and 61 juveniles, CUMZ 3629View Materials, Hat Na Tub , Jana, Songkhla (7° 04' 26.3" N, 100° 41' 34.6" E) on 12 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 19 adults and 51 juveniles, CUMZ 3630View Materials, Hat Sai Kaew, Singha Nakhon, Songkhla (7° 15' 13.1" N, 100° 32' 53.1" E) on 13 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 2 adults and 1 juvenile, CUMZ 3631View Materials, Hat Ma Ha Rat, Satingpra, Songkhla (7° 28' 10.1" N, 100° 26' 50.1" E) on 13 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 40 adults and 12 juveniles, CUMZ 3632View Materials, Wat Hua Rawa, Ranod, Songkhla (7° 43' 30.3" N, 100° 22' 55.4" E) on 13 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 1 adult, CUMZ 3633View Materials, Klong Loe, Tha Sala, Nakhon Si Thammarat (8° 45' 02.0" N, 99° 56' 13.4" E) on 14 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 119 adults and 81 juveniles, CUMZ 3634View Materials, Klong Klai, Tha Sala, Nakhon Si Thammarat (8° 46' 36.1" N, 99° 56' 06.4" E) on 14 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 67 adults and 11 juveniles, CUMZ 3635View Materials, Laem Sai, Chaiya, Surat Thani (9° 25' 26.2" N, 99° 17' 05.5" E) on 14 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 49 adults and 26 juveniles, CUMZ 3636View Materials, Klong Pak Nam Thamueng, Tha Chana, Surat Thani (9° 33' 15.9" N, 99° 12' 39.2" E) on 14 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 63 adults and 22 juveniles, CUMZ 3637View Materials, Hat Sam Roi Yot, Sam Roi Yot, Prachuap Khiri Khan (12° 16' 50.6" N, 99° 58' 23.8" E) on 15 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 50 adults and 93 juveniles, CUMZ 3638View Materials, Hat Cha-am, Cha-am, Phetchaburi (12° 49' 36.2" N, 99° 59' 40.3" E) on 15 January 2016GoogleMaps  .

Malaysia. 5 adults and 54 juveniles, CUMZ 3639View Materials, Tanjung Rhu, Sepang , Selangor (2° 38' 07.2" N, 101° 37' 26.8" E) on 21 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 154 adults and 62 juveniles, CUMZ 3640View Materials, Jalan Klebang, Besar Dataran1, Melaka (2° 13' 13.7" N, 102° 11' 09.3" E) on 22 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 71 adults and 85 juveniles, CUMZ 3641View Materials, Tanjung Kling, Pantai Kundur , Melaka (2° 14' 54.9" N, 102° 08' 15.3" E) on 22 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 64 adults and 148 juveniles, CUMZ 3642View Materials, Kampung Pasir Putih, Pasir Gudang , Johor (1° 26' 16.8" N, 103° 55' 32.9" E) on 23 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 149 adults and 65 juveniles, CUMZ 3643View Materials, Highway Senai Desaru, Sungai Johor , Johor (1° 32' 02.6" N, 104° 01' 47.8" E) on 23 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 102 adults and 57 juveniles, CUMZ 3644View Materials, Tanjung Balau, Desaru , Johor (1° 36' 55.8" N, 104° 15' 26.1" E) on 23 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 59 adults and 22 juveniles, CUMZ 3645View Materials, Sungai Jemaluang, Mersing , Johor (2° 23' 03.5" N, 103° 52' 40.8" E) on 23 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 95 adults and 96 juveniles, CUMZ 3646View Materials, Kampung Air Puteri, Mersing , Johor (2° 24' 56.0" N, 103° 51' 32.5" E) on 24 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 33 adults and 42 juveniles, CUMZ 3647View Materials, Kampung Janglau, Pantai Kuala Rompin , Pahang (2° 43' 17.2" N, 103° 34' 24.9" E) on 24 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 20 juveniles, CUMZ 3648View Materials, Kampung Pandon, Pekan , Pahang (3° 05' 40.8" N, 103° 26' 26.2" E) on 24 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 83 adults and 10 juveniles, CUMZ 3649View Materials, Kampung Tanjung Lumpur, Kuantan , Pahang (3° 48' 25.0" N, 103° 20' 29.4" E) on 25 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 38 adults and 46 juveniles, CUMZ 3650View Materials, Pantai Chendor, Cukai , Terengganu (4° 10' 36.7" N, 103° 25' 15.6" E) on 25 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 16 adults and 7 juveniles, CUMZ 3651View Materials, Teluk Bidara, Sungai Dungun, Dungun , Terengganu (4° 47' 03.9" N, 103° 25' 39.0" E) on 25 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 79 adults and 22 juveniles, CUMZ 3652View Materials, Kampung Batin Seberang Takir, Kuala Terengganu , Terengganu (5° 20' 42.7" N, 103° 07' 40.7" E) on 26 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 52 adults and 4 juveniles, CUMZ 3653View Materials, Sungai Besut Kampung Nail, Besut , Terengganu (5° 49' 25.5" N, 102° 33' 24.7" E) on 26 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 82 adults and 26 juveniles, CUMZ 3654View Materials, Pantai Melawi, Sungai Ger Bachok , Kelantan (5° 59' 35.7" N, 102° 25' 54.2" E) on 26 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 49 adults and 27 juveniles, CUMZ 3655View Materials, Tanjung Dawai, Merbok , Kedah (5° 40' 47.4" N, 100° 22' 12.8" E) on 28 January 2016GoogleMaps  . 107 adults and 46 juveniles, CUMZ 3656View Materials, Tanjung Bungah , Pulau Pinang (5° 28' 06.7" N, 100° 16' 41.0" E) on 28 January 2016GoogleMaps  .

Description of new material. Length 28–136 mm, diameter 1–5 mm, body cylindrical, 76–128 segments. Body colour red to pink, pale brown around clitellum (newly collected specimens after placement in 30% (v/v) ethanol for narcotization). Prostomium epilobous. Clitellum saddle in XIII –XVII or XVIII, setae present. Setae lumbricine, ab absent on XVIII, aa> bc, ab <cd, aa> cd, dd> aa. Female pores paired in setal line b on XIV. Male pores minute and superficial on XVIII, close to sites of b setae, penial setae absent (or not found). Spermathecal pores minute, intersegmental, two pairs in 7/8 and 8/9, ventrolateral, in line with setae b. Dorsal pores totally absent. Genital markings large, medio-ventral, transversely oval across 19/20 (some in 20/21), center depressed.

Septa 5/6–12/13 thickened. Gizzard and calciferous glands absent. Intestine beginning in XVI or XVII. Intestinal typhlosole absent. Esophageal hearts seen in VI –XIII. Nephridia absent in the anterior segments and begin in XIII or XV with a pair of coiled tubules, smaller after clitellum. Spermathecae two pairs in VIII and IX, spermathecal diverticula slender, narrower at the junction with ampulla. Tubular prostate single pair, muscular duct curved and narrowed at each end, coil in XVIII. Ovaries present in XIII. Testes funnels in X and XI, seminal vesicles paired and large in XI –XII. Accessory glands absent.

Distribution. Worldwide, sub-tropical and tropical coastal areas. Easton (1984) and Blakemore (2002) provide distribution records; Figure 1View FIGURE 1 shows the locations of our finds of the species in Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia.

Habitat. Sandy beaches at the intertidal zone, mangrove swamps, coastal salt marsh of estuaries and brackish water. Found in the top soil to 20 cm depth where the salinity ranges from 1–33 ppt.

Remarks. Pontodrilus litoralis  shows some variations in body dimensions, patterns of the genital markings, and shape of the spermathecal diverticula, especially if the descriptions of the many junior synonyms and redescriptions of the nominal species are taken into account. Characters from synonyms of P. litoralis  in the Old World territory, including Australia, are presented in Table 2. Variations in body dimensions were reported by Jamieson (2001), Satheeshkumar et al. (2011), Shen et al. (2005) and Narayanan et al. (2014); the values are as follows: Jamieson (2001): length 32–120 mm, width 2–4 mm, segments 78–120; Satheeshkumar et al. (2011) and Narayanan et al. (2014): length 50–130 mm, clitellum width 2–4 mm, segments 81–115; Shen et al. (2005): length 50–130 mm, diameter 1–2 mm, segments 81–115. Considering genital markings, Jamieson (2001) notes the following variations, based on specimens from Peel Island, and including data of Jackson (1931), Gates (1972) and Easton (1984): genital markings in several furrows of 11/12–20/21. Specimens described by Jamieson (2001) from Nornalup, Western Australia, have markings at 17/18, at the anterior midventral margin of XVIII, at 18/19, or midventral at 18/19 and 19/20. Satheeshkumar et al. 2011; Narayanan et al. 2014 observed large genital markings medio-ventral at 19/ 20 in specimens from India; specimens of P. litoralis  from coasts of the Penghu Island and the southwestern Taiwan have one large genital marking, transversely oval across 19/20, center depressed ( Shen et al. 2005). Considering the diverticulum, Jamieson (2001) described it as digitiform to club-shaped, whereas in specimens from India and Taiwan it is slender. The specimens of P. litoralis  investigated in this study are within the variation range as reported in the literature: body length 28–136 mm, diameter 1–5 mm, segments 76–128; genital markings large, medio-ventral, transversely oval across 19/20 (some in 20/21). We include drawings ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2) and colour plates ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3) of selected specimens.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Annelida

Class

Clitellata

Order

Haplotaxida

Family

Megascolecidae

Genus

Pontodrilus

Loc

Pontodrilus litoralis ( Grube, 1855 )

Seesamut, Teerapong, Sutcharit, Chirasak, Jirapatrasilp, Parin, Chanabun, Ratmanee & Panha, Somsak 2018
2018
Loc

Lumbricus litoralis

Grube, 1855 : 127
Loc

Pontoscolex arenicola

Schmarda, 1861 : 11
Loc

Pontodrilus marionis

Perrier, 1874 : 1582
Perrier 1881 : 176
Loc

Pontodrilus bermudensis

Beddard, 1891 : 96
Michaelsen 1894 : 183
Beddard 1895 : 469
Michaelsen 1910 : 84
Michaelsen 1913 : 417
Michaelsen 1921 : 12
Stephenson 1923 : 180
Gates 1926 : 150
Stephenson 1931 : 51
Gates 1942 : 90
Gates 1943 : 99
Gates 1954 : 240
Gates 1972 : 47
Jamieson & Wampler 1979 : 665
Sathianarayanan & Khan 2006 : 139
Loc

Cryptodrilus insularis

Rosa, 1891 : 387
Loc

Pontodrilus arenae

Michaelsen, 1892 : 222
Michaelsen 1900 : 181
Michaelsen 1903 : 87
Loc

Pontodrilus hesperidum

Beddard, 1894 : 37
Beddard 1895 : 471
Michaelsen 1900 : 182
Michaelsen 1903 : 87
Loc

Pontodrilus litoralis

Beddard 1895 : 469
Michaelsen 1900 : 180
Cognetti 1901 : 16
Michaelsen 1903 : 87
Michaelsen 1910 : 89
Easton 1984 : 114
Jamieson 2001 : 1002
Gobi et al. 2004 : 1712
James et al. 2005 : 1022
Shen et al. 2005 : 12
Csuzdi & Pavlicek 2009 : 12
Satheeshkumar et al. 2011 : 406
Blakemore et al. 2012 : 302
Narayanan et al. 2014 : 473
Oba et al. 2015 : 1
Hara et al. 2016 : 5
Nguyen et al. 2016 : 10
Loc

Pontodrilus insularis

Beddard 1895 : 471
Michaelsen 1897 : 173
Michaelsen 1900 : 181
Michaelsen 1903 : 87
Loc

Pontodrilus michaelseni

Eisen, 1895 : 73
Michaelsen 1900 : 182
Michaelsen 1903 : 87
Loc

Pontodrilus ephippiger

Rosa, 1898 : 281
Michaelsen 1900 : 180
Michaelsen 1903 : 87
Michaelsen 1907a : 187
Michaelsen 1907b : 43
Cognetti 1908 : 81
Stephenson 1914 : 256
Loc

Pontodrilus matsushimensis

Iizuka, 1898 : 21
Beddard 1899 : 192
Michaelsen 1900 : 179
Michaelsen 1903 : 87
Michaelsen 1910 : 91
Easton 1981 : 45
Loc

Pontodrilus ephippiger laysanianus

Michaelsen, 1899a : 217
Michaelsen 1899b : 28
Michaelsen 1900 : 181
Loc

Pontodrilus matsushimensis chathamianus

Michaelsen, 1899a : 220
Michaelsen 1900 : 180
Michaelsen 1910 : 91
Loc

Pontodrilus michaelseni hortensis

Eisen, 1900 : 241
Loc

Pontodrilus chathamensis

Benham 1901 : 136
Lee 1952 : 25
Loc

Pontodrilus chathamianus

Michaelsen. Michaelsen 1903 : 87
Loc

Pontodrilus laccadivensis

Beddard, 1903 : 374
Loc

Pontodrilus crosslandi

Beddard, 1906 : 561
Loc

Pontodrilus albanyensis

Michaelsen, 1907a : 185
Jackson 1931 : 93
Loc

Pontodrilus bermudensis ephippiger Rosa. Stephenson 1915a : 145

Stephenson 1915a : 145
Stephenson 1915b : 61
Stephenson 1916 : 311
Stephenson 1917 : 375
Stephenson 1920 : 202
Jackson 1931 : 95
Loc

Pontodrilus albanyensis var. cygni

Jackson, 1931 : 94
Loc

Plutellus (Pontodrilus) matsushimensis indica

Michaelsen, 1935 : 106
Loc

Pontodrilus gracilis

Gates, 1943 : 100
Gates 1954 : 241
Loc

Pontodrilus hesperidium

Easton 1984 : 114
Jamieson 2001 : 1003