Wilcoxia painteri Wilcox

Pollock, Darren A. & Reichert, Lisa A., 2019, Review of the Nearctic genus Wilcoxia James (Diptera: Asilidae: Stenopogoninae) with descriptions of three new species, Zootaxa 4695 (5), pp. 401-437 : 409-410

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Wilcoxia painteri Wilcox


3. Wilcoxia painteri Wilcox

( Figs 5–6 View FIGURES 5–8 , 19 View FIGURES 17–25 , 28 View FIGURES 26–29 , 45 View FIGURES 41–46 , 49–50 View FIGURES 47–58 , 61 View FIGURES 61–62 )

Wilcoxia painteri Wilcox 1972: 45 . Type locality: “New Mexico, Catron Co., Datil, Continental Divide”; Nelson 1987: 73, and Fig. 132 (distribution in Utah); Poole & Gentili 1996: 64.

Types. Holotype, male ( CAS), labeled: “ Datil N. Mex. Cont’l Divide 17-VII-30 // T.F. Winburn R.H. Painter Coll. // [blue label] HOLOTYPE ♂ Wilcoxia painteri J. Wilcox // California Academy of Sciences Type No. 15793 // AL- LOTYPE IS STORED IN THE GENERAL COLLECTION”. The holotype was not examined (images studied at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/entomology/typesDB/default.asp). The allotype was examined.

Derivation of specific epithet. Wilcox (1972) named this species after a former dipterist colleague, Reginald H. Painter, who was the co-collector of the holotype of W. painteri . Painter also collected the entire type series of W. cinerea ( James 1941) .

Diagnosis. This species may be diagnosed from other species in the cinerea group by the following combination of characters: scutellum uniformly pollinose, posterior margin not bare; scutum with 2–3 pairs of small, semicircular non-pollinose patches; abdominal tergites mainly bare, non-pollinose; abdominal segment 2 wider than long.

Description. Male ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 5–8 ). TL 5.1–6.0 mm; wing 4.5–5.3 mm.

Head ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 17–25 ) black, covered in pale grey tomentum, some specimens with golden cast, particularly on frons/ vertex, with face (in profile) very slightly protruding beyond eye; hairs and setae of head white, stoutest setae with amber cast; lower occipital hairs relatively short, sparse; ocellar tubercle with 4 setae (ca. length of postpedicel + style), light yellow in color; mystax ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 17–25 ) relatively sparse, consisting of very long setae (ca. length of antenna), confined to lower 1/3 of face; setae white, bases perpendicular to plane of face; palpi and proboscis brown with white hairs; antennomeres brown, pollinose, scape bare, shining; scape and pedicel with several relatively long ventral setae and several short hairs dorsally; ratio of antennomere lengths (scape: pedicel: postpedicel: style+spine) = 5: 6: 19: 8.

Thorax dark brown to black, covered in light grey tomentum; scutum with divided median stripe, darker grey to brown pollinose; acrostichal setae present, 4–5 per row; scutum surface with three dark brown pollinose spots, decreasing in size anteriorly to posteriorly, located medial to notopleural setae, supraalar seta, and postalar setae; posterior spot vaguely indicated in some specimens; scutum with sparse pile of short, white hairs (shorter than scape), primarily presuturally; most specimens with 2 notopleural setae, 1 supraalar seta and 1 postalar seta; stoutest thoracic setae with amber cast; scutellum uniformly pale grey pollinose; 2 yellowish marginal setae, about length of scutellum, erect and subperpendicular to plane of scutellum, more or less parallel to each other; several marginal hairs present; disc of scutellum with few short hairs; pleura light grey pollinose; katatergite with about 10 long, fine white setae, tips not “crinkly” (e.g., Fig. 44 View FIGURES 41–46 ); wings hyaline, slightly yellow; costa complete around entire wing margin; microtrichiae dense and conspicuous on distal 2/3 of wing; halter with base brown and yellow, stem and knob yellow; legs ( Figs 5–6 View FIGURES 5–8 ) non-pollinose, with tibiae and tarsi yellow, darker distally; trochanters brown/black; femora mostly black, very narrowly yellow at base and with distal ca. 1/4 yellow; leg hairs and setae white, stoutest setae with amber cast; femora dorsally with relatively dense white, appressed hairs (<femur width); ventrally with short, suberect white hairs and a few long white hairs (longest> femur width); tibiae with sparse, short (<tibia width) appressed yellowish hairs, ventrally with a few longer, more erect hairs (especially on front tibiae); mesotibial spine blackish-brown; some specimens with slightly, but distinctly, sigmoid spine ventrally at apex of protibia, darker than other tibial hairs/spines.

Abdomen ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 5–8 ) black anteriorly, gradually lightened and browner posteriorly, with sparse, short white hairs; segments relatively wide, 2–5 at least as wide as long; pollinosity light grey, forming narrow band (may approach midlength on tergite 2) on tergites 1–5, and lateral margin of tergites 1–7, with slight medial expansion on posterior corners of tergites 2–6; sternites pale grey pollinose, with relatively sparse, short white hairs, not noticeably differing in length from anterior to posterior sternites.

Male genitalia ( Figs 49–50 View FIGURES 47–58 ). Apex of dorsal gonocoxite process moderately deeply bifid, inner lobe distinctly longer than outer, carina on outer lobe absent; dorsal process extending well past apex of ventral gonocoxite process; medial gonocoxite processes moderately thin, moderately curved towards phallus; gonostylus thin, arcuate, apex not truncate; phallus without distinct, subapical denticle on lateral margins; lateral margins evenly narrowed to apex.

Female ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 5–8 ). TL 4.2–7.9 mm; wing 4.1–5.7 mm; features similar to male, except for the following: light grey pollinosity of head and pleura with golden cast; tergites 1–5 or 6 with anterior band of light grey pollinosity, with lateral margins light grey pollinose, with medial expansion in posterior corners of tergites 2–5 ( Figs 6 View FIGURES 5–8 , 28 View FIGURES 26–29 ).

Notes. As noted below in the Discussion, W. painteri is unique among species of Wilcoxia in having at least some specimens with a short, sigmoidal spine at the apex of the front tibia ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 41–46 ). This feature has been mentioned and used by various authors for suprageneric groupings; its presence in W. painteri may indicate that the present generic placement of this species is in error. Couplet 8 in Wood (1981) involves the apicoventral “sigmoidal” spine(s) on the front tibia. Because this feature is variable among specimens of W. painteri , it is possible that this species will not key out to Wilcoxia . If the spine is present and is deemed by the user of the key to be “differentiated, enlarged, and/or sigmoidal”, the specimen will key to Cophura .

Natural history. Very little can be gleaned from labels on examined specimens. A “blue grama” label is on two specimens from Catron Co., New Mexico; presumably these individuals were collected in association with, or on, blue grama grass ( Bouteloua gracilis ). Another specimen (Kane Co., Utah) has a handwritten label indicating a genus of plant. However, the handwriting on this label is poor and the name cannot be read clearly. Wilcox (1972) mentioned this specimen and interpreted the name on the label as “ Sutienzia ”. An internet search failed to find any plant taxon with this genus name. A long series of specimens (2 males, 22 females) from Oneida Co., Idaho were collected in a Malaise trap. Specimens of W. painteri were collected from 23.vi–23.ix.

Distribution ( Fig. 61 View FIGURES 61–62 ). Known from seven states, this species exhibits the widest distribution of any Wilcoxia ; the range comprises a roughly diagonal area from SE Oregon at its northwest extent, to SW New Mexico at its southeast, with Utah at its center. That more localities are known from Utah than all other states combined is likely indicative of greater collecting effort in that state. Collection locality elevations range from 4,017 (Oregon) to 7,388 feet (New Mexico).

Non-primary type material examined. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Arizona. Apache Co. Chin Lee [= Chinle ] [36.15368, -109.552575], 26.vii.1935, Brues, ( EMFC, 1♀) GoogleMaps . Colorado. Moffat Co. Dinosaur NM, Echo Park [40.52014, -108.986618], 18.viii.1993, Kondratieff, Durfee, Fitzgerald, ( CSU, 1♀) GoogleMaps . Montezuma Co. Mesa Verde NP, Mancos R. Cyn [37.098663, -108.468964], 8.viii.1999, B. Kondratieff, S. Wells, W. Cranshaw, P. Pineda, W. Painter, ( CSU, 1♀) GoogleMaps . Idaho. Oneida Co. 5 mi. NE Holbrook [42.213372, -112.584019] ix.1971, Malaise trap, ( USUC, 2♂, 22♀) GoogleMaps . Nevada. Nye Co. Current [interpreted as “Currant”] Creek [38.7138228, -115.5800319], 15.viii.1945, ( BYUC, 1♂) GoogleMaps . Elko Co. Int. 80 Exit 360 Moor [41.116894, -114.815025] 24.viii.1995, P.H. Arnaud Jr., Field Note #01393, USNMENT 01457181, ( USNM, 1♀) GoogleMaps . New Mexico. Catron Co. Ake Ranch [33.85917, -107.74], 22.vii.1964, S.R. Race, blue grama, ( NMSU, 1♀; EMFC, 1♀) ; Datil [34.144856, -107.842938], Continental Di- vide, 17.vii.1930, T.F. Winburn & R.H. Painter, ( CAS, 1♂, 2♀; EMFC 1♀) GoogleMaps . Oregon. Harney Co. T34S R35E S10 [42.6034, -118.3815] dunes 1B, 1.ix.1979, Lightfoot & Cobb, ( OSAC, 1♂ [ OSAC _0001005826]) GoogleMaps ; T36S R35E S8 [42.4293, -118.4205] N1/2 A-M, 7.viii.1979, Lightfoot & Cobb, ( OSAC, 1♂ [ OSAC _0001005827]) GoogleMaps ; T34S R35E S10 [42.6034, -118.3815] NW, 3.viii.1979, ex malaise trap, N. Cobb, ( OSAC, 1♂ [ OSAC _0001005829]) GoogleMaps ; T34S R35E S10 [42.6034, -118.3815] off-dunes 1A, 1.ix.1979, Lightfoot & Cobb, ( OSAC, 1♀ [ OSAC _0001005828]) GoogleMaps ; T36S R35E S8 [42.4293, -118.4205] S1/2, off-dunes C-M, 5.ix.1979, Lightfoot & Cobb, ( OSAC, 1♀ [ OSAC _ 0001005830]) GoogleMaps . Utah. Emery Co. E. of Block Mt, Sinbad Cntry [38.819846, -110.694301], 24.vii.1981, Parker, Veirs, Griswold, ( USUC, 1♀) GoogleMaps . Garfield Co. Grand Staircase-Escalante Natl. Mon., Burr Trail , 7.9 miles SE of Boulder, 37°52’0.2”N 111°20’0.1”W [37.866722, -111.333361], 25.vii.2001, R.W. Baumann, D.J. Cavan, K.F. Kuehn, mercury vapor light, ( BYUC, 2♂) GoogleMaps ; Grand Staircase- Escalante National Monument, Mouth of Horse Can- yon at Wolverine Loop Road , 37°50’59”N 111°13’23”W [37.849722, -111.223055], 14-16.viii.2001, K.A. Clarke, E.C. Green, Malaise trap, ( BYUC, 1♂) GoogleMaps ; Calf Creek Cmpgd [37.793230, -111.414323] jct Hwy 12, 37°47’58N 111°24’92W, 23.vi.2000, R.W. Baumann, D.J. Cavan, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Invertebrate Survey, ( BYUC, 1♀) GoogleMaps ; Little Egypt [38.079425, -110.627371], S. of Hanksville, 23.viii.1984, Nelson and Bau- mann, ( BYUC, 1♀) GoogleMaps . Grand Co. 1.5 mi N. Crescent Jct. [38.966045, -109.817332], Thompson Pass Road, 21.viii- 29.ix.1987, B.A. Hava, C.R. Nelson, malaise trap in shadscale community, ( BYUC, 1♂, 1?) GoogleMaps . Juab Co. Yuba, Juniper 1, 39.45380°N 111.96674°W [39.45380, -111.96674], 5300’, 14-18.viii.2007, R.L. Johnson, E.T. Gardner, Malaise ( BYUC, 1♀) GoogleMaps ; Antelope Springs [39.886222, -112.698844], viii, D.E. Johnson, ( BYUC, 1♂) GoogleMaps . Kane Co. 16 mi W Glen Canyon [37.001056, -111.783152], 23.ix.1969, on Sutienzia [misspelled?] sp., ( UCRC, 1 [ UCRC ENT 458147 View Materials ]) GoogleMaps ; Grand Staircase—Escalante National Monument, Sheep Creek on Skutumpah Road , 37°29’44”N 112°03’56”W [37.495555, -112.065555], 5824 ft., 26.vii-17.viii.2000, E.C. Green, W.N. Mendel, sorted by C.R. Nelson, Malaise trap, ( BYUC, 2♂) GoogleMaps ; same locality, 17-26.vii.2000, ( BYUC, 2♂, 4♀) GoogleMaps ; Coral Pink Sand Dunes Pon- derosa Grove cmpgd. [37.088519, -112.672990], 4.ix.1998, R.C. Mower, ( BYUC, 1♀) GoogleMaps ; Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park , 1.5 miles N of Visitors Center, 37°03’02N 112°42’59W [37.050555, -112.716388], 20.vii.2001, D.J. Cavan, K.F. Kuehnl, C.R. Nelson, ( BYUC, 1♀) GoogleMaps ; 40 mi. E. Kanab [37.040383, -111.801370], 15.ix.1978, Hanson, Knowlton, ( USUC, 1♀) GoogleMaps . Millard Co. 23 mi. W. Delta [39.344624, -113.016238], 4900 ft, 4.ix.1965, R.H. and E.M. Painter, ( EMFC, 1♂) GoogleMaps ; Antelope Mt. [38.606799, -112.821891], viii.10, D.E. Johnson, ( BYUC, 1♀) GoogleMaps . Sanpete Co. Antelope Valley, Juniper 3, 39.23655°N 111.75351°W [39.23655, -111.75351], 5790’, 14-18.viii.2007, R.L. Johnson, E.T. Gardner, Malaise trap ( BYUC, 1♂, 1♀) GoogleMaps . Uintah Co. 16 mi. SW Vernal [40.284702, -109.745145], 5000 ft., 7.ix.1965, R.H. & E.M. Painter, ( CAS, 1♀) GoogleMaps . Wayne Co. E edge Capitol Reef [38.282904, -111.142685 est.], 16.ix.1979, Parker / Veirs, ( USUC, 1♂) GoogleMaps . County unknown. Showell , 20.viii.1932, G.F. Knowlton, ( CAS, 1♀) [given in Box Elder Co., by Nelson 1987] .


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Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Oregon State Arthropod Collection


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Wilcoxia painteri Wilcox

Pollock, Darren A. & Reichert, Lisa A. 2019

Poole, R. W. & Gentili, P. 1996: 64
Nelson, C. R. 1987: 73
Wilcox, J. 1972: 45