Proceraea Ehlers, 1864

Nygren, Arne, 2004, Revision of Autolytinae (Syllidae: Polychaeta)., Zootaxa 680, pp. 1-314: 40-42

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.157809

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:471A4E52-4C92-44F8-AB38-CD03071C0067

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CDB626-CC50-4E09-FEE8-7FB58A77874D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Proceraea Ehlers, 1864
status

 

Proceraea Ehlers, 1864 

Amytis Savigny, 1822: 46  . Nomen oblitum according to Article 23.9. 1 ( ICZN 1999).

Polynice Savigny, 1822: 46  . Nomen oblitum according to Article 23.9. 1 ( ICZN 1999).

Nereisyllis Blainville, 1828: 472  –474. Nomen oblitum according to Article 23.9. 1 ( ICZN 1999).

Polybostrichus Örsted, 1843: 30  –32, figs 62, 67, 71. Junior homonym to a genus of Cnidaria (Brandt, 1837)  .

Proceraea Ehlers, 1864: 256  –263, pl. 11, fig. 8–17, pl. 12, fig. 1–2. Nomen protectum according to Article 23.9. 1 ( ICZN 1999).

Stephanosyllis Claparède, 1864: 567  –569, pl. 7, fig. 5.

Pterautolytus Ehlers, 1907: 8  –10, figs 1–3.

Regulatus Imajima, 1966: 51  –52.

Nomenclatural remarks. None of the names Amytis  , Polynice  or Nereisyllis  has been in use since they were introduced; the conditions in Article 23.9. 1.1 ( ICZN 1999) are hence fulfilled. The name Proceraea  has been used by the following authors: Gidholm (1965; 1967), Hamond (1967; 1969 c; 1972; 1974), Banse (1972), Orensanz (1974), Rasmussen (1973), Westheide (1974), Gardiner (1976), Ben­Eliahu (1977), Cantone (1971), Cantone & Fassari (1980), Hartmann­Schröder (1983; 1989), Uebelacker (1984), San Martín & Alós (1989), Hartmann­Schröder & Rosenfeldt (1990), San Martín & Viéitez (1991), Kirkegaard (1992), San Martín (1994), Parapar, San Martín, Besteiro & Urgorri (1996), Çinar & Ergen (1998), Nygren & Gidholm (2001), Britayev & San Martín (2001), Capa, San Martín & López (2001), and Nygren & Sundberg (2003), thus the conditions in Article 23.9. 1.2 ( ICZN 1999) is met with.

Linnean name definition. Type species Proceraea picta Ehlers, 1864  by monotypy.

Node­based name definition. Proceraea  refers to the least inclusive clade comprising P. m u k a i s h i m a ( Imajima, 1966), and P. p i c t a Ehlers, 1864.

Apomorphies. Clade supported by 2 morphological apomorphies ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4): 1) number of different sizes in trepan equals 2 (character 41), character state change is a parallelism; 2) number of rings in trepan equals 2 (character 44), character state change is a parallelism.

General description.

Atokous form. Length 2.9–60 mm for 29–245 chaetigers; width, measured at level of proventricle and excluding parapodial lobes, 0.2–0.8 mm. Colour pattern often characteristic, critical for correct identification, sometimes retained in preserved specimens. Body shape, excluding parapodial lobes, cylindrical in transection, venter flattened; body width fairly constant with tapering end. Body in outline long and slender, sometimes nearly thread­like, due to small parapodial lobes and short dorsal cirri. Ciliation only present on prostomium, nuchal epaulettes, and ventrally on few segments (unknown in some taxa). Prostomium rounded rectangular, wider than long. Four eyes, with lenses, in trapezoid arrangement, anterior pair larger. Eyes confluent or separated, eye spots absent or present. Palps fused, in dorsal view projecting 1 / 5 – 1 / 2 of prostomial length. Extension of nuchal epaulettes from half of tentacular segment to end of chaetiger 2.

Prostomium with 3 antennae; median antenna inserted medially on prostomium, lateral antennae on anterior margin. Tentacular cirri 2 pairs. Dorsal cirri from chaetiger 3, of equal length (reported length compared to body width, excluding parapodial lobes); cirrophores present on tentacular cirri and first dorsal cirri; cirrophores otherwise absent. Anterior appendages cylindrical, dorsal cirri cylindrical or, rarely, ovoid to egg shaped.

Parapodial lobes small to medium in size, rounded to rounded conical. All chaetae, except bayonet chaetae, compound with uni­ or bidentate blades; blade serration absent or present. Compounds with small or large distal tooth. Single thick bayonet chaetae, distally denticulated, or single thin bayonet chaetae, subdistally denticulated (only in P. anopla (Monro, 1933 ))  .

Pharynx with single to multiple sinuations anterior and lateral to proventricle. Trepan teeth arranged in 2 rings, either 1 large tooth alternating with 1 small, or 1 large alternating with 2 small, or 2 large alternating with 1 small, or 1 large alternating with 2–4 small. Number of teeth either 18, 24, 27, or 34–44. Basal ring present; infradental spines absent. Proventricle with varying number of rows of square shaped muscle cells. Pygidium with 2 cirri (reported length compared to body width, excluding parapodial lobes at level of proventricle if not otherwise stated), median papilla absent.

Epitokes.

Male. Body divided into 3 regions, anterior with 6 uniramous chaetigers (region a), median with 20–34 biramous chaetigers (region b), and posterior with 4–65 uniramous chaetigers (region c). Body widest in anteromedian half of region b; body width measured in region a, as body width excluding parapodial lobes, and in region b, at widest part, as body width including parapodial lobes. Ciliation absent except for nuchal epaulettes.

Prostomium rounded rectangular, wider than long, anterior margin concave. Eyes large, 2 pairs, with lenses; eyes situated on dorsal and ventral side of prostomium, ventral pair larger. Palps absent. Nuchal epaulettes extending maximally to beginning of chaetiger 1.

Large median antenna inserted on posterior part of prostomium, lateral antennae inserted on anterior margin. Lateral antennae bifid, basal part 1 / 4 – 1 / 3 of total length; outer ventral rami 1 / 2 to equal in length to inner dorsal rami. Basal part and inner dorsal rami segmented with abundant cilia. Pair of small frontal processes inserted anterolaterally to dorsal pair of eyes. Tentacular cirri 2 pairs. First dorsal cirri (corresponding to "third pair of tentacular cirri" (e.g. Pettibone  1963; Gidholm 1967) or "lateral horns" ( Hamond 1974) in earlier literature, equal in shape and size to median antenna; achaetous knobs present. Second dorsal cirri situated above first chaetigerous lobes (referred to as cirri on chaetiger 1 to avoid confusion). Cirri length measured as body width excluding parapodial lobes in region a and c; as body width including parapodial lobes in region b. Median antenna with large ceratophore, small cirrophores on tentacular cirri, large cirrophores on first dorsal cirri; cirrophores absent or present on dorsal cirri. Appendages cylindrical or fusiform.

Parapodia in region a and c as in stock but generally smaller; in region b large, flattened and equipped with well­developed notopodia. Neuropodial aciculae 1–2; notopodia in region b supported by 2 anterodorsal aciculae, and 4–5 thick and 3–4 thin posteroventral aciculae. Neuropodial chaetae as in stock. Notopodial lobes with 15–30 swimming chaetae, in length equal to body width in region b, including parapodial lobes. Pygidium with 2 cirri (reported length compared to body width in region a, excluding parapodial lobes, if not otherwise stated).

Female. Body divided into 3 regions, anterior with 6 uniramous chaetigers (region a), median with 13–24 biramous chaetigers (region b), and posterior with 15–86 uniramous chaetigers (region c). Body width fairly constant, slightly wider in region b; body width measured in region a, as body width excluding parapodial lobes, and in region b, as body width including parapodial lobes. Ciliation absent except for nuchal epaulettes.

Prostomium rounded rectangular, wider than long, anterior margin straight or concave. Eyes large, 2 pairs, with lenses; eyes situated on dorsal and ventral side of prostomium, ventral pair larger. Palps absent. Nuchal epaulettes maximally extending to posterior part of chaetiger 1.

Median antenna inserted medially on prostomium, lateral antennae inserted on anterior margin. Tentacular cirri 2 pairs. First dorsal cirri (corresponding to "third pair of tentacular cirri" (e.g. Pettibone  1963; Gidholm 1967), inserted above achaetous knobs. Second dorsal cirri situated above first chaetigerous lobes (referred to as cirri on chaetiger 1 to avoid confusion). Cirri length measured as body width excluding parapodial lobes in region a and c; as body width including parapodial lobes in region b. Small cirrophores absent or present on tentacular cirri, often too small to be adequately assessed, cirrophores absent or present on dorsal cirri. Appendages cylindrical.

Parapodia in region a and c as in stock but generally smaller; in region b with notopodia, not as well developed as in male. Neuropodial aciculae 1–2; notopodia in region b supported by 2 anterodorsal aciculae, and 2–4 thick and 3–5 thin posteroventral aciculae. Neuropodial chaetae as in stock. Notopodial lobes with 15–20 swimming chaetae, in length equal to c. 1.5 times body width in region b, including parapodial lobes. Pygidium with 2 cirri (reported length compared to body width in region a, excluding parapodial lobes, if not otherwise stated).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Annelida

Class

Polychaeta

Order

Phyllodocida

Family

Syllidae

Loc

Proceraea Ehlers, 1864

Nygren, Arne 2004

2004
Loc

Amytis

Savigny 1822: 46

Loc

Polynice

Savigny 1822: 46

Loc

Nereisyllis

Blainville 1828: 472

Loc

Polybostrichus Örsted, 1843 : 30

Orsted 1843: 30

Loc

Proceraea

Ehlers 1864: 256

Loc

Stephanosyllis Claparède, 1864 : 567

Claparede 1864: 567

Loc

Pterautolytus

Ehlers 1907: 8

Loc

Regulatus

Imajima 1966: 51