Laophontodes monsmaris

George, Kai Horst, 2018, Laophontodes typicus T. Scott (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Laophontodinae) - discovering a species complex by morphology, European Journal of Taxonomy 439, pp. 1-43: 26-30

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Laophontodes monsmaris

sp. nov.

Laophontodes monsmaris  sp. nov.

Figs 16–20View Fig. 16View Fig. 17View Fig. 18View Fig. 19View Fig. 20


The specific epithet is derived from the Latin 'mons' (mount) and 'maris' (from the sea), in reference to the seamount type locality.

Type material

The specimens were originally assigned to Laophontodes typicus  by George & Schminke (2002).


ATLANTIC OCEAN: ♂, upper slope of the north eastern plateau of the Great Meteor Seamount   GoogleMaps, 30°05.9′ N, 28°24.3′ W, station #521   GoogleMaps, depth 422 m, research cruise M42/3 of German RV METEOR (1998), 14 Sep. 1998, Dr Nils Brenke leg. ( SMF 37120 /1–2, on 2 slides).


ATLANTIC OCEAN: ♀, same locality as for holotype ( SMFAbout SMF 37121 /1, on 1 slide).GoogleMaps 


ATLANTIC OCEAN: 5 ♂♂, same locality as for holotype ( SMF 37123 /1, SMF 37124 /1, SMF 37125 /1, SMF 37126 /1, SMF 37127 /1; on 5 slides)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, upper slope of the Great Meteor Seamount 30°06.0′ N, 28°24.3′ W, station #520 , depth 511 m, research cruise M42/3 of German RV METEOR (1998) ( SMF 37122 /1, on 1 slide)GoogleMaps  ; copepodid CV, same locality as for holotype ( SMF 37128 /1, on 1 slide);GoogleMaps  copepodid CV, same locality as for holotype ( SMF 37129 /1, on 1 slide).GoogleMaps 



HABITUS ( Fig. 16A View Figure ). Cylindrical, body length (R to end of FR) 305–317 µm (n = 2). Cphth slightly longer than broad, ⅓ of total body length, posteriorly slightly bulged laterally; dorsally, 2 cuticular longitudinal ridges run towards but do not reach posterior margin. R small, fused to cphth, with 2 sensilla and 1 tube pore on apical margin. Body somites clearly distinct. Last thoracic and first abdominal somite fused to form GDS, juncture detectable by dorsal serration. Posterior margin of body somites, except penultimate somite, with row of fine setules; cphth, thoracic somites (except P5-bearing somite) and abdominal part of GDS with 1 pair of sensilla arising from small cuticular socles. First 3 free thoracic somites and abdominal part of GDS additionally with tooth-like cuticular projections, remaining somites dorsally serrated on posterior margin. P2–P5-bearing somites and thoracic part of GDS additionally with 1 tube pore centrally. Thoracic and Abdominal subunits of GDS with pair of tube pores; abdominal subunit additionally with serrated posterior margin. Second and third abdominal somites also with paired tube pores. Penultimate somite without sensilla or tube pores. Telson slightly smaller than preceding somite and mostly overlapped by it, with FR widely separated proximally. Anal operculum with pair of sensilla and with spinulose apical margin.

FURCAL RAMI ( Fig. 16A– BAbout B View Figure ). Slender, about 5 times longer than its broadest part, proximally with tube pore, and with 7 setae: IAbout I and II central on outer margin, II twice as long as IAbout I; III subapical on outer margin; IV and V apical, IV half of the length of VAbout V; VI apical on inner margin, slightly longer than III; VII dorsal, arising from pedestal, tri-articulated at base.

ANTENNULE ( Fig. 17 AAbout A View Figure ). 5-segmented. First segment with 1 bipinnate seta and some spinules apically; second segment without ‘bump’ on posterior margin, corresponding area covered with long spinules, distally with 9 bare setae; third segment as long as previous segments, with 7 bare setae and 1 aes; fourth segment smallest, partially overlapped by third segment, with 1 bare seta; fifth segment with 9 bare setae and apical trithek formed by 1 small aes and 2 bare setae.

SETAL FORMULA. 1-1/2-9/3-7+aes/4-1/5-11+aes.

A2, MXL AND MX. Described from male.

MANDIBLE ( Fig. 17 BAbout B View Figure ). Gnathobase bearing 5 teeth; palp 1-segmented, with 5 bare setae.

MAXILLIPED ( Fig. 17 EAbout E View Figure ). Very large (cf. Fig. 16 CAbout C View Figure ); syncoxa cylindrical, without spinules or setal elements; basis longer than syncoxa, also lacking ornamentation; enp produced into long, slender claw and accompanied by 1 minute seta at its base.

SWIMMING LEGS. PAbout P 1 ( Fig. 18 AAbout A View Figure ) coxa elongate; basis as long as coxa, with 1 bipinnate outer and inner seta, the latter displaced to anterior surface. Enp 2-segmented, enp-1 strong and elongate, with row of spinules on outer and the inner margins, inner spinules 2–3 times longer than outer spinules; enp-2 small, less than ⅓ length of enp-1, apically with 1 claw, 1 slender geniculate bare seta and 1 small subapical seta. Exp 3-segmented, less than ½ length of enp-1. Exp-1 with scant spinules and 1 uniplumose spine on outer margin; exp-2 with outer and inner spinules and 1 long bare geniculate outer seta; exp-3 with some outer spinules and 4 long bare geniculate setae. P2– PAbout P 4 ( Figs 18B View Figure , 19 AAbout A – BAbout B View Figure ) with transversely elongated bases, 3-segmented exopods and 2-segmented endopods. All exopodal segments with a row of spinules on outer margin, exp-1 and exp-2 additionally with fine spinules sparsely on inner margins and 1 bipinnate outer spine; exp-1 without, exp-2 with 1 inner seta; exp-3 longest segment, with 3 bipinnate outer spines and 2 bipinnate apical setae, additionally PAbout P 2 exp-3 ( Fig. 18B View Figure ) with 1 inner seta, PAbout P 3 and P4 exp-3 ( Fig. 19 BAbout B View Figure ) with 2 inner setae. P2– PAbout P 4 enp-1 small, without setae. Enp-2 elongated, with inner and outer spinules and 2 biplumose apical setae in PAbout P 2 and PAbout P 3 ( Figs 18B View Figure , 19 AAbout A View Figure ) and 1 additional bare seta in P4 ( Fig. 19 BAbout B View Figure ). P5 ( Fig. 18 CAbout C View Figure ) benp reduced to 2 setae, one bipinnate and one apically biplumose; tube pores not discernible. Setophore on outer apical margin accompanied by long spinules and 1 tube pore and carrying 1 bare seta. Exp fused to benp, slender, carrying 3 outer seta, one of which bipinnate, the others bare, and 2 apical bipinnate setae; additionally with small tube pore and spinules subapically.

GENITAL FIELD. Not drawn, almost identical to that in Laophontodes sarsi  sp. nov.


The male differs remarkably from the female in terms of body ornamentation and missing GDS. Further differences can be observed in AAbout A 1, PAbout P 3 and PAbout P 4 endopods, and PAbout P 5. Note that the AAbout A 2, mxl, and mx are described from the male being obscured/damaged in the female.

HABITUS ( Fig. 16 CAbout C View Figure ). Same length as female (body length, R– FRAbout FR: 300–317 µm; n = 3). Cephalothoracic longitudinal cuticular ridges absent, as are the sensillar socles, serrated posterior margins, and toothlike cuticular projections on the body somites. As in female fine setules on posterior margins of body somites, and additionally on penultimate body somite. As in female TAbout T mostly overlapped by the previous abdominal somite. FRAbout FR slightly smaller and more compact relative to female.

ANTENNULE ( Fig. 20A View Figure –A’). 6-segmented, chirocer. First segment as in female apically with 1 bipinnate seta and scant spinules; second segment without ‘bump’ or corresponding long spinules, with 9 bare setae; third segment with 7 bare setae; fourth segment minute, with 2 bare setae; fifth segment swollen, with 10 bare setae plus 1 strongly sclerotized bare spine, additionally with 1 aes and 1 accompanying seta arising together from pedestal; sixth segment bent and tapering distally, with 8 bare setae, and 1 small aes and 2 bare setae forming trithek.

SETAL FORMULA. 1-1/2-9/3-7/4-2/5-12+aes/6-10+aes.

ANTENNA ( Fig. 20 BAbout B View Figure ). Allobasis with 1 bare abexopodal seta and scant spinules; exp represented by small bare seta; enp slightly smaller than allobasis, anteriorly with row of spinules, 2 bipinnate distal setae and 2 bare and 3 geniculated apical setae, outermost apical seta accompanied by minute tube pore, additionally with cuticular dentate frill.

MAXILLULE ( Fig. 17C View Figure ). Praecoxal arthrite not described. Coxa unarmed, apically with 2 bare setae; basis without spinules, terminally with 3 bare setae, laterally with 1 bipinnate seta between basal endite and enp. Exp represented by 2, enp represented by 3 bare setae.

MAXILLA ( Fig. 17D View Figure ). Syncoxa bearing 1 row of spinules and 2 endites. Proximal and distal endites each with 3 bare setae. Basis distinct, produced into strong claw, with 2 bare setae. Enp 1-segmented, minute, with 2 bare setae.

SWIMMING LEGS. PAbout P 3 ( Fig. 19C View Figure ) exp as in female; enp 3-segmented; enp-1 minute and unarmed; enp-2 longest, with row of spinules on inner and outer margins, without setal elements but with apical apophysis not reaching apical margin of enp-3; enp-3 ¼ length of enp-2, with 2 biplumose apical setae. PAbout P 4 ( Fig. 19D View Figure ) exp as in female; enp 2-segmented; enp-1 minute and unarmed; enp-2 with row of spinules on inner and outer margins, 1 bare outer setae, 1 biplumose inner seta and 2 biplumose apical setae. PAbout P 5 ( Fig. 20 CAbout C View Figure ) benp small with 1 outer seta arising from elongated setophore; endopod virtually absent, represented by 1 bipinnate seta longer than exp. Exp fused to benp, with 1 outer bipinnate, 1 subapical bare, and 2 apical bipinnate setae.


Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg


Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet


"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


University of Copenhagen


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics