Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Richard) Vahl (1804: 208), Vahl, 1804

Cardoso, Pedro Henrique, Valério, Vanessa Imaculada Dos Reis, Neto, Luiz Menini & Salimena, Fátima Regina Gonçalves, 2021, Verbenaceae in Espírito Santo, Brazil: richness, patterns of geographic distribution and conservation, Phytotaxa 484 (1), pp. 1-43: 30-31

publication ID 10.11646/phytotaxa.484.1.1

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Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Richard) Vahl (1804: 208)


10.2. Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Richard) Vahl (1804: 208)   . (Figs. 3B, 7E)

Herbs 0.3‒1.2 m high, branches tetragonal, not winged, pubescent in both opposite faces, glabrescent in the other two. Leaves opposite, petiole 0.4‒1.4 cm long, blade 2.6‒8.1 × 1.3‒4 cm, chartaceous, ovate or oblong, apex acute, base attenuate, decurrent, nectaries near the base, margin entire near the base, crenate-serrate toward the apex, ciliate, adaxial surface puberulous to pubescent, abaxial surface pubescent. Inflorescences 9‒30 cm long, lax; bracts 3‒5 mm long, lanceolate, abaxial surface glabrescent, margin ciliate; calyx 3‒5.6 mm long, immersed in the depressions of the rachis, 4-toothed, 1 sinus adaxial, externally pubescent; corolla 5‒7.5 mm long, white or lilac. Fruit 3‒3.5 mm long, surrounded by the persistent calyx.

Distribution and habitat:— Stachytarpheta cayennesis   is widely distributed throughout the North America and South America, and is found in all the Brazilian regions, being considered a ruderal species ( Lorenzi 1991, Aktins 2005, Cardoso & Salimena 2020c). In Espírito Santo, it was found in restinga, inselberg, and dense rainforest, often in disturbed areas. This species occurs in the following SPAs of this state: Parque Nacional do Caparaó, Parque Estadual de Mata das Flores, Reserva Natural da Vale, and Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi.

Phenology:— Collected with flowers and fruits along all the year.

Preliminary conservation assessment: —This is a ruderal species, presents wide distribution ( Lorenzi 1991, Aktins 2005), and was recorded inside PAs in South America. Considered “Least Concern” (LC) ( IUCN 2019).

Selected material:— BRAZIL. Espírito Santo: Alfredo Chaves, 7 February 1999, fl., B. L   . Stannard et al. 1001 ( K, SPF); Anchieta , 18 November 1987, fr., J. M. L   . Gomes 271 ( CESJ, VIES); Alegre , 28 January 2009, fl. and fr., V. C   . Manhães et al. 203 ( MBML); Barra de São Francisco , 21 November 2000, fl., L   . Kollmann et al. 3283 ( CESJ, MBML); Castelo, Parque Estadual de Mata das Flores , 17 March 2014, fl., T. T   . Carrijo et al. 2055 ( VIES); Conceição da Barra , 10 June 1992, fl. and fr., O. J   . Pereira 3520 ( VIES); Divino de São Lourenço, Parque Nacional do Caparaó , 2007, fl., T   . Chimalli s.n. ( CESJ 65364 View Materials , VIES 27816 View Materials ); Guarapari, 1 December 2013, fr., A. C. S. Dal col & J   . Rodrigues Filho 219 ( CESJ, VIES); Linhares, Reserva Natural da Vale , 26 April 2011, fl. and fr., D. F   . Lima et al. 155 ( CESJ, ESA); Mimoso do Sul , 20 April 2010, D. R   . Couto 1580 ( VIES); Nova Venécia , 25 March 2010, fl., A. M   . Assis et al. 2434 ( CESJ, MBML); Santa Leopoldina , 13 April 2008, fl. and fr., M   . Simonelli et al. 1517 ( MBML); Santa Maria de Jetibá , 8 November 2008, fl., T. S   . Lorencini et al. 93 ( CESJ, VIES); Santa Teresa, Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi , 27 November 2001, fl., L   . Kollmann & E   . Bausen 5032 ( CESJ, MBML); São Mateus , 25 August 1996, fr., M. C. F   . Jesus 72 ( CESJ, VIES); Vila Velha , 1 March 2012, fr., P. H   . D. Barros et al. 81 ( CESJ, VIES); Viana , 28 June 2010, fl., P. T   . Neves 41 ( CESJ, MBML), Vitória , 17 February 1981, fr., T. B. J   . Pires s.n. ( CESJ 27022 View Materials )   .

Notes:— Stachytarpheta cayennensis   is characterized by the branches pubescent in two opposite faces and glabrescent in the other two; leaf blade with nectaries near the base, pubescent abaxial surface; 4-toothed calyx with a long adaxial sinus, externally pubescent and white or lilac corolla, shorter than 1 cm. It is similar to S. polyura   , a species not found in Espírito Santo, and according Atkins (2005) can be differentiated by the presence of 4-toothed calyx with a long adaxial sinus (vs. 5-toothed calyx and adaxial sinus absent or small in S. polyura   ). Stachytarpheta cayennesis   also is similar to S. restingensis   , but this species present glabrous to puberulous branches; glabrous calyx, and corolla longer than 1 cm.

Illustrations in Cardoso et al. (2018b)


Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet


Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch


Royal Botanic Gardens


Universidade de São Paulo


University of the Witwatersrand


Botanische Staatssammlung München


Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora


Federal University of Espírito Santo


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


University of Copenhagen


Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


Botanical Museum - University of Oslo


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department


Universidade de São Paulo


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


University of Helsinki