Pelecinobaccha

Miranda, Gil Felipe Gonçalves, Marshall, Stephen A. & Skevington, Jeffrey H., 2014, Revision of the genus Pelecinobaccha Shannon, description of Relictanum gen. nov., and redescription of Atylobaccha flukiella (Curran, 1941) (Diptera: Syrphidae), Zootaxa 3819 (1), pp. 1-154: 12-17

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3819.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:355CBCD4-AB75-4F9F-A476-4B300143F8D6

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/191A7A05-0047-1258-FF7E-F8D0D6F6EF99

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pelecinobaccha
status

 

Pelecinobaccha  species key

1. Scutum entirely dark, usually without distinct patterns of pollinosity, never with 3 golden pollinose vittae ( Figs. 12 cView FIGURE 12. A – C & 15View FIGURE 15. a – d i); female 6 th segment divided into tergite and sternite or more broadly fused into a single conical sclerite ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 c).......... 4

- Scutum usually pale laterally and always with 3 golden pollinose vittae on a black background ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 j); female 6 th abdominal tergite and sternite fused only on apical ⅓................................................................. 2

2. Central pale vittae of 3 rd abdominal tergite wide, about ¼ as wide as tergite ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 j); vittae on 3 rd and 4 th abdominal tergites more than ½ as long as tergite ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 j)........................................ Pelecinobaccha pandora  [ Panama]

- Central pale vittae of 3 rd abdominal tergite narrow, less than 1 / 8 as wide as tergite ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 h & i); vittae on 3 rd and 4 th abdominal tergites less than ½ as long as tergite ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 h & i).......................................................... 3

3. Third tergite vittae about ⅓ the tergite’s length ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 h); short vittae of 4 th tergite disconnected from baso-lateral pale area............................................................... Pelecinobaccha susio  [central and southern Brazil]

- Third tergite vittae about ¼ the tergite’s length ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 i); short vittae of 4 th tergite connected to baso-lateral pale area.............................................................. Pelecinobaccha summa  [southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)]

4. Alula distinct, if reduced then at least ½ the width of c cell; 3 rd abdominal segment never so long and narrow, less than 4 times as long as smallest width ( Figs. 34View FIGURE 34. a – e f, 38 a & 42 b)............................................................ 8

- Alula greatly reduced or absent, visible membrane at most 1 / 5 of c cell width; 2 nd and 3 rd abdominal segments narrow, more than 10 times as long as smallest width ( Figs. 6View FIGURE 6 i & 9 i)....................................................... 5

5. Alula absent; metaepimera approximated dorsal to metacoxa, separated by a gap equal to or less than a ⅓ of the 1 st sternite width; metatarsus entirely dark.......................................................................... 7

- Alula present but less than 1 / 5 of c cell width; metaepimera widely separated dorsal to metacoxa, gap between both sclerites similar to 1 st sternite width; apex of metabasitarsomere and other metatarsomeres pale.............................. 6 Note: P. cyclops  may key through either option. See species redescription below.

6. Face dark above tubercle; frons/frontal triangle smooth........................ Pelecinobaccha aster  [southern Brazil]

- Face entirely pale; frons/frontal triangle rugose............................... Pelecinobaccha vera  [Amazon region]

7. Frons/frontal triangle entirely dark or, at most, slightly lightened latero-ventrally............................................................................... Pelecinobaccha invisibilis  [ Brazil; known from altitudes below 1000m]

- Frons/frontal triangle distinctly pale laterally.................................................................................................... Pelecinobaccha vesca  [ Peru and Venezuela; known from altitudes above 1000m]

8. Face mainly dark or with wide medial dark vitta ( Fig. 36 aView FIGURE 36. a – g).................................................. 10

- Face mainly pale, with central dark spot or small dark area extending medially from anterior extremity of the tubercle to antennal base............................................................................................ 9

9. Scutellum entirely dark ( Fig. 8 eView FIGURE 8. a – e); alula distinct although reduced to ½ the width of c cell; 4 th abdominal tergite with central pale vittae.............................................................. Pelecinobaccha portachueloi  [ Venezuela]

- Scutellum pale basally ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 i); alula linear, as wide as c cell, widening slightly at apex; 4 th abdominal tergite with baso-lateral quadrate pale maculae........................................... Pelecinobaccha gracilitas  [ Brazil and Colombia]

10. Female 6 th abdominal segment with tergite and sternite fused into single sclerite ( Figs. 16View FIGURE 16 c & 25g); all males through this option............................................................................................. 12

- Female 6 th abdominal segment divided into tergite and sternite; only females through this option.................... 11

11. Wing entirely microtrichose...................... Pelecinobaccha dracula  , in part [Central America and south to Peru]

- Wing bare medially on cell bm and anteriorly on cell cu p ....... Pelecinobaccha concinna  , in part [ Guatemala and Mexico]

12. Male posterior row of dorsal occiput with at least some simple black pile; all females through this option.............. 16

- Male posterior row of dorsal occiput with scale-like white pile; only males through this option...................... 13

13. Dorsal occiput with 3 rows of pile; katepisternum black pilose ventrally; dorsal lobe of calypter reduced (⅓ as long as ventral lobe)....................................................................... Pelecinobaccha pucallpa  [ Peru]

- Dorsal occiput with 2 rows of pile; katepisternum white pilose ventrally; dorsal lobe of calypter normal (½ as long as ventral lobe).............................................................................................. 14

14. Lunule with diffuse central macula; metacoxa with mainly black pile; phallapodeme enlarged medially ( Fig. 15View FIGURE 15. a – d g); postgonite narrow, apex with acute subapical dorsal extremity and rounded ventral extremity ( Fig. 15View FIGURE 15. a – d g)................................................................................................. Pelecinobaccha alucard  [ Costa Rica]

- Lunule with distinct central macula; metacoxa entirely white pilose; phallapodeme not enlarged ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 g & 27g); postgonite normal, apex with acute dorsal and ventral extremities ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 g & 27g)........................................ 15

15. Wing bare medially on cell bm and anteriorly on cell cu p; basiphallus with posterior extremity gently curved and long, dorsal surface almost quadrate in lateral view ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 g); apex of distiphallus strongly curved posteriorly ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 g)................................... Pelecinobaccha concinna  , in part [ Guatemala and Mexico; usually medium-sized flies (~ 12mm)]

- Cells bm and cu p microtrichose; basiphallus with posterior extremity short and bent posteriorly, dorsal surface slightly convex in lateral view ( Fig. 27View FIGURE 27 g); apex of distiphallus slightly curved posteriorly ( Fig. 27View FIGURE 27 g)....................................................... Pelecinobaccha dracula  , in part [Central America and south to Peru; usually small flies (~ 8mm)]

16. Ocellar triangle not protuberant; dorsal occiput with dull or sparse pollen....................................... 18

- Ocellar triangle distinctly protuberant; occiput uniformly covered by white pollen, sometimes dorsal area with differently oriented pollen........................................................................................ 17

17. Scutellum pale ( Fig. 13View FIGURE 13 h); pleuron white pilose.. Pelecinobaccha ovipositoria  [ Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and Suriname]

- Scutellum dark brown to black ( Fig. 12View FIGURE 12. A – C h); pleuron with black pile on anterior anepisternum and dorsally on posterior anepisternum................................................ Pelecinobaccha oviphora  [ Colombia, Peru and Suriname]

18. Female 2 nd to 6 th abdominal segments rectangular, very long and of similar length ( Figs. 34View FIGURE 34. a – e f & g); male 2 nd to 4 th abdominal segments rectangular and very long, 3 rd and 4 th segments wider than 2 nd; abdominal segments never very narrow; frons/frontal triangle with lateral small oval maculae of white pollen separated from facial pollen........ Pelecinobaccha peruvian  a [ Peru]

- At least one of these segments shorter than the remaining ones; if the male abdominal segments are of similar length, then either 2 nd and 3 rd segments very narrow ( Fig. 12 cView FIGURE 12. A – C) or pollinosity of frons/frontal triangle continuous from face pollinosity. 19

19. Legs mainly dark; metatarsus usually bicolored; if 2 nd abdominal segment rectangular and long, then more than 3 times as long as wide ( Fig. 15 dView FIGURE 15. a – d); female 5 th segment usually divided into tergite and sternite, at most with apex fused............... 21

- Legs pale, except for subapical light to dark brown macula on femora and dark brown metatibia ( Fig. 18View FIGURE 18 h); all tarsi black; female 2 nd abdominal segment rectangular and long, 3 times as long as wide ( Fig. 12 cView FIGURE 12. A – C); female 5 th tergite and sternite fused on apical ⅔.......................................................................................... 20

20. Wing with basal ½ dark ( Fig. 18View FIGURE 18 h); alula at least twice the width of c cell.................. Pelecinobaccha mima  [ Peru]

- Wing mostly hyaline, only bc, c and sc cells dark ( Fig. 12 cView FIGURE 12. A – C); alula narrow, around the same width as c cell......................................................................................... Pelecinobaccha menguali  [ Peru]

21. Metatarsus distinctly bicoloured (dark and pale), basimetatarsomere with at least apex pale ( Figs. 21 eView FIGURE 21. a – e & 22View FIGURE 22 i)........... 28

- Metatarsus completely dark; if apical metatarsomeres slightly paler, then basimetatarsomere entirely dark.............. 22

22. Some legs with pale regions........................................................................... 24

- Legs entirely black.................................................................................. 23

23. Dorsal katepisternum with only white pile; 3 rd and 4 th abdominal tergites with a pair of central and sublateral pale spots ( Fig. 11View FIGURE 11 f); frons/frontal triangle with lateral triangular spots of white pollen......................................................................................... Pelecinobaccha adspersa  [widespread in Central and South America]

- Dorsal katepisternum with some black pile; 3 rd and 4 th abdominal tergites at most with a central pair of pale spots ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8. a – e j); frontal triangle with lateral streaks of white pollen............................ Pelecinobaccha duopuncta  [ Costa Rica]

24. Third and 4 th abdominal tergites with lateral pale spots and median, short, pale vittae ( Fig. 15 dView FIGURE 15. a – d)........................................................................................ Pelecinobaccha waynei  [ Peru and Venezuela]

- Third and 4 th abdominal tergites without median pale vittae.................................................. 25

25. Second abdominal segment long, 3 rd abdominal segment trapezoidal (2 times as long as smallest width) ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14 e & 25g). 27

- Second and 3 rd abdominal segments very long and of similar length (5 times as long as smallest width) ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 i & 7g).... 26

26. Wing light to dark brown ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 g); alula narrow, apex twice the width of base; female 2 nd abdominal segment with sub-basal and subapical pair of dull black pollinose spots............................ Pelecinobaccha levissima  [ Brazil and Peru]

- Wing hyaline, anterior margin dark ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 i); alula narrow, with same width from base to apex; female 2 nd abdominal segment with subapical fascia of dull black pollen extending medially towards base....................................................................................... Pelecinobaccha brevipennis  [ Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela]

27. Third and 4 th (and 5 th on female) abdominal tergites with distinct baso-lateral sub-triangular pale maculae ( Fig. 25View FIGURE 25 g); pro- and mesoleg pale; basal ½ of metafemur pale............................ Pelecinobaccha costata  [eastern North America]

- 3 rd and 4 th (and 5 th on female) abdominal tergites with baso-lateral pale streaks; pro- and mesoleg mainly dark, all tibiae with basal half pale; metafemur entirely dark................... Pelecinobaccha squamagula  [ Bolivia, Brazil and Colombia]

28. Katepisternum white pilose, if with some black pile, then mesonotum, posterior anepisternum, scutellum and metacoxa without densely arranged pile.............................................................................. 31

- Katepisternum black pilose; mesonotum, posterior anepisternum, scutellum and metacoxa pile black, long, erect and densely arranged, distinctly long anterior to transverse suture ( Fig. 37View FIGURE 37 e–f)............................................. 29

29. Metafemur and metatibia with long and thick black pile ( Fig. 37View FIGURE 37 a); male with wing mainly hyaline except for dark region basally (until crossvein h); female wing almost all hyaline, dark basally from cell bm to anterior margin; female with basal 4 pro- and mesotarsomeres enlarged and widened... Pelecinobaccha pilipes  [northern South America and south to Paraguay]

- Metaleg without distinct pile; wing with dark anterior margin; females unknown.................................. 30

30. Antennal insertions separated ( Fig. 36 aView FIGURE 36. a – g); lateral white pollinosity restricted to ventral traces on frontal triangle and oriented ventro-dorsally between face and frontal triangle ( Fig. 36 aView FIGURE 36. a – g)................. Pelecinobaccha pilinigridensis  [ Costa Rica]

- Antennal insertions confluent; lateral pollinosity oriented dorso-ventrally between face and frontal triangle.......................................................................................... Pelecinobaccha tristis  [ Mexico]

31. Wing with distinct dark regions extending beyond basal cells, sometimes entirely dark or with dark areas faded to around the veins ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 b).................................................................................... 33

- Wing mostly hyaline, but antero-basal portion (stigma and/or cells r, c, and basal portions of r 1 and r 2 + 3) sometimes light gray/ brown ( Fig. 19View FIGURE 19 i); wing never distinctly marked............................................................ 32

32. Male with 2 nd abdominal segment long, narrow and cylindrical ( Fig. 19View FIGURE 19 i); 2 nd abdominal tergite of both sexes with central narrow pale fasciae ( Fig. 19View FIGURE 19 i); 3 rd and 4 th abdominal tergites with median pair of short pale vittae and a pair of small baso-lateral pale triangular maculae.......................... Pelecinobaccha avispas  [ Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and northern Brazil]

- 2 nd abdominal segment shorter, wider and non-cylindrical ( Fig. 29View FIGURE 29 g); female 2 nd abdominal tergite with lateral pale triangular maculae; 3 rd and 4 th abdominal tergites with pair of large baso-lateral pale triangular maculae.......................................................................... Pelecinobaccha hiantha  [ Costa Rica and south to southern Brazil]

33. Frons/frontal triangle entirely dark ( Fig. 37View FIGURE 37 e)............................................................... 46

- Frons/frontal triangle with pale maculae or entirely pale laterally ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 a)...................................... 34

34. Wing with hyaline regions; all females through this option................................................... 37

- Wing dark, apical cells sometimes lighter medially ( Fig. 38 aView FIGURE 38. a – d); only males through this option....................... 35

35. Second abdominal segment very long, around 3–3.5 x as long as wide ( Fig. 38 aView FIGURE 38. a – d); apical metatarsomere pale. Face mainly pale below tubercle, sometimes with a narrow black median vitta; abdomen long and narrow, slightly widening after 2 nd abdominal segment ( Fig. 38 aView FIGURE 38. a – d); only males through this option..................... Pelecinobaccha seara  [ Brazil (Santa Catarina)]

- Second abdominal segment usually less than 3 x as long as wide ( Fig. 17View FIGURE 17 a & b); apical metatarsomere dark, darker than 2 nd and 3 rd metatarsomeres; face mainly dark below tubercle; abdomen distinctly widening after 2 nd abdominal segment; all females through this option................................................................................... 36

36. Second abdominal segment usually with a median pair of oblique pale fasciae (sometimes inconspicuous or absent) ( Fig. 17View FIGURE 17 a); 3 rd and/or 4 th abdominal tergites with a central pair of narrow vittae, vittae either pale or subshining; usually small flies (6–8mm)....................................... Pelecinobaccha alicia  - para  variation [central and southern Brazil]

- 2 nd abdominal segment without maculae ( Fig. 17View FIGURE 17 b); 3 rd and 4 th abdominal tergites without central maculae; usually mediumsized flies (~ 10mm)........................................... Pelecinobaccha alicia  [central and southern Brazil]

37. Females without apical dark spot on wing; all males through this option........................................ 40

- Female wing with a distinct dark basal region, a pre-apical hyaline band and a dark apical spot ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 b); wing with all dark and hyaline regions well defined; if wing apical spot diffuse, then cu p cell and anal lobe mostly hyaline basally; only females through this option.................................................................................. 38

38. Apical ⅓ of metabasitarsomere pale; wing usually with cell cu p and anal lobe mostly hyaline basally........................................................................... Pelecinobaccha beatricea  [ Venezuela to southern Brazil]

- Metabasitarsomere with at most apex (less than a ⅓) pale; wing with cu p cell and anal lobe homogenously dark, with at least basal region of cu p dark.............................................................................. 39

39. Sixth abdominal segment long (2 times as long as basal width) ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 c & d); 3 rd to 5 th abdominal tergites with central pair of pale vittae; anterior anepimeron with white pile only; usually small flies (6–8mm)................................................................................. Pelecinobaccha alicia  - para  variation [central and southern Brazil]

- Sixth abdominal segment short (as long as basal width) ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 e); 3 rd to 5 th abdominal tergites without central pair of pale vittae; anterior anepimeron with at least some black pile dorsally; usually medium-sized flies (~ 10mm)............................................................................... Pelecinobaccha alicia  [central and southern Brazil]

40. Frons/frontal triangle with lateral pair of triangular/narrow oval maculae of white pollen ( Fig. 37View FIGURE 37 f)................... 43

- Frons/frontal triangle white pollinosity restricted laterally ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 a)........................................... 41

41. Cell cu p with basal ½ or more hyaline................ Pelecinobaccha beatricea  [ Venezuela and south to southern Brazil]

- Cell cu p mostly dark, always dark on apex and whole anterior margin (posterior to vein CuP)....................... 42

42. Subscutellar fringe either absent or with short black pile; basal ⅔ of mesotibia pale; cell dm with only apex or apical 1 / 5 hyaline........................................................... Pelecinobaccha hirundella  [ Brazil (Santa Catarina)]

- Subscutellar fringe with long white pile, pile not so long on female; basal ½ of mesotibia pale, almost basal ⅔ on female; cell dm with apical ¼ or ⅓ hyaline................................ Pelecinobaccha ida  [ Ecuador and south to Argentina]

43. Cell cu p with basal ½ or more hyaline ( Fig. 26View FIGURE 26 g), females with basal ¾ distinctly hyaline........................................................................................... Pelecinobaccha cryptica  [ Brazil and Paraguay]

- Cell cu p mostly dark ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 i), always dark on apex and whole anterior margin (posterior to vein CuP), females at most with basal ½ hyaline..................................................................................... 44

44. Notopleuron with black pile immediately anterior to transverse suture....... Pelecinobaccha cora  [ Bolivia, Brazil and Peru]

- Notopleuron with pale pile anterior to transverse suture...................................................... 45

45. Abdominal tergites with pale vittae ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 i); female 6 th segment as long as 5 th...................................................................................... Pelecinobaccha clarapex  [ Guatemala and south to central Brazil]

- Abdominal tergites immaculate ( Fig. 40View FIGURE 40 g); female 6 th segment twice the length of the 5 th......................................................................... Pelecinobaccha transatlantica  [ Costa Rica and south to southern Brazil]

46. Wing with distinct pre-apical hyaline band and apical dark spot ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 b); only females through this option................................................................... Pelecinobaccha alicia  , in part [central and southern Brazil]

- Wing without distinct apical spot ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 i); all males through this option......................................... 47

47. Frons/frontal triangle with white pollen restricted laterally and not extending towards middle ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 a)................ 65

- Frons/frontal triangle with lateral pair of triangular/semi-circular maculae of white pollen ( Fig. 37View FIGURE 37 f)................... 48

48. Only basal ½ of wing dark ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 i & Fig. 40View FIGURE 40 g); cell r 4 + 5 completely hyaline or only with a small basal portion dark..... 56

- Most of wing dark, with apical ¼ or less hyaline ( Fig. 34 eView FIGURE 34. a – e); cell r 4 + 5 with basal ½ or more dark (sometimes diffuse apically)..................................................................................................... 49

49. Abdominal tergites with central faint pale vittae; pleuron pile white; 2 nd abdominal tergite very narrow and long ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21. a – e j); small light brown fly similar to the genus Relictanum  ; only known from males.............................................................................................. Pelecinobaccha humillima  [ Costa Rica and Venezuela]

- Characters not in the above combination................................................................. 50

50. Posterior anepisternum entirely dark..................................................................... 52

- Posterior anepisternum pale on posterior ½................................................................ 51

51. Cell cu p entirely dark ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 i)...................... Pelecinobaccha clarapex  [ Guatemala and south to central Brazil]

- Cell cu p with basal ½ or more hyaline ( Fig. 26View FIGURE 26 g)....................... Pelecinobaccha cryptica  [ Brazil and Paraguay]

52. Some tibiae with pale basal regions; 2 nd abdominal segment ~ 2.5 times as long as smallest width ( Fig. 34 eView FIGURE 34. a – e); 3 rd abdominal segment trapezoidal and short; only males through this option.................................................... 54

- All tibiae mainly dark, with no distinct pale regions; 2 nd abdominal segment ~ 4 times as long as smallest width ( Fig. 41 eView FIGURE 41. a – e); 3 rd abdominal segment trapezoidal and long, slightly longer than 2 nd segment; female 6 th segment very long, 5–6 times as long as smallest width ( Fig. 39View FIGURE 39 a & h); all females through this option.................................................. 53

53. Lateral pollinose maculae of frontal triangle extended towards middle; subscutellar pile normal; 1 st abdominal segment with white and black pile..................................... Pelecinobaccha telescopica  [ Bolivia, Colombia and Peru]

- Lateral pollinose maculae of frontal triangle only slightly extended towards middle; subscutellar pile long; 1 st abdominal segment entirely white pilose.................................................. Pelecinobaccha unica  [ Costa Rica]

54. Dorsal region of posterior anepisternum and anterior anepimeron with black pile; 1 st abdominal tergite dorsal ½ with black pile........................................... Pelecinobaccha transatlantica  [ Costa Rica and south to southern Brazil]

- Pleuron entirely white pilose; 1 st abdominal tergite mainly white pilose, sometimes with some black pile dorso-basally.... 55

55. Protibia pale on basal ⅓, mesotibia pale on basal ½, metatibia pale on basal ¼ to 1 / 5; surstylus rectangular in lateral view ( Fig. 40View FIGURE 40 c); subepandrial sclerite trapezoidal ( Fig. 40View FIGURE 40 d); hypandrium with ventral notch on anterior ½ ( Fig. 40View FIGURE 40 f)........................................................... Pelecinobaccha transatlantica  [ Costa Rica and south to southern Brazil]

- Tibiae pale only at base; surstylus sub-oval in lateral view ( Fig. 34 aView FIGURE 34. a – e); subepandrial sclerite rectangular and wide ( Fig. 34 bView FIGURE 34. a – e); hypandrium with ventral notch on anterior ⅔ ( Fig. 34 dView FIGURE 34. a – e).............. Pelecinobaccha morgani  [ Bolivia, Brazil and Peru]

56. Tibiae either entirely dark or with only base pale; all males through this option.................................... 59

- Pro- and mesotibia with at least basal ½ pale; only females through this option.................................... 57

57. Basal ¼ of metatibia pale; female 2 nd abdominal segment sub-quadrate (1.5 times as long as wide) ( Fig. 40View FIGURE 40 g); female 6 th abdominal segment 2 times as long as 5 th segment. Pelecinobaccha transatlantica  [ Costa Rica and south to southern Brazil]

- Metatibia at most with base pale; female 2 nd abdominal segment long (≥ 3 times as long as wide) ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 i); female 6 th abdominal segment as long as 5 th segment....................................................................... 58

58. Cell cu p entirely dark ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 i)...................... Pelecinobaccha clarapex  [ Guatemala and south to central Brazil]

- Cell cu p distinctly dark only on apical ¼............................. Pelecinobaccha cryptica  [ Brazil and Paraguay]

59. With some black pile on anterior anepimeron and on the notopleuron anterior to the transverse suture; calypter or calypter margin dark brown to black............................................................................... 62

- Posterior anepisternum, anterior anepimeron and notopleuron anterior to transverse suture with white pile; calypter white to light brown......................................................................................... 60

60. Antennal insertions almost separated, with long medial sclerotized division................. Pelecinobaccha wyatti  [ Peru]

- Antennal insertions confluent.......................................................................... 61

61. Metabasitarsomere with only apex pale.............. Pelecinobaccha andrettae  (variation) [ Colombia, Ecuador and Peru]

- Metabasitarsomere with apical ½ pale............................... Pelecinobaccha cora  [ Bolivia, Brazil and Peru]

62. Metabasitarsomere with apical ⅓ pale; male 3 rd abdominal segment trapezoidal and long, apex slightly wider than base; female 2 nd abdominal segment rectangular (2 x as long as wide) ( Fig. 39View FIGURE 39 h); female 6 th abdominal segment cylindrical and very long (7 x as long as wide) ( Figs. 39View FIGURE 39 a & h)......................................................................... 64

- Metabasitarsomere with apical ½ or slightly less pale; male 3 rd abdominal segment trapezoidal, apex much wider than base ( Fig. 24View FIGURE 24 g); female 2 nd abdominal segment 2.5 times as long as wide ( Fig. 18View FIGURE 18 g); female 6 th abdominal segment conical and shorter than its basal width............................................................................. 63

63. Calypter light brown, pile darker than margin; apices of cells r 1 and r 2 + 3 light brown; ventral notch of hypandrium quadrate ( Fig. 24View FIGURE 24 f); only males through this option............................. Pelecinobaccha cora  [ Bolivia, Brazil and Peru]

- Calypter grey with black margin and black pile; apices of cells r 1 and r 2 + 3 hyaline; ventral notch of hypandrium oval ( Fig. 18View FIGURE 18 f); all females through this option.............................. Pelecinobaccha andrettae  [ Colombia, Ecuador and Peru]

64. Lunule entirely shining black; posterior anepisternum white pilose; subscutellar fringe with short pile; female 5 th abdominal tergite and sternite fused at the apex ( Fig. 39View FIGURE 39 a); only females through this option.......................................................................................... Pelecinobaccha telescopica  [ Bolivia, Colombia and Peru]

- Lunule pale above the antenna; posterior anepisternum with some black pile; subscutellar fringe with long pile; female 5 th abdominal tergite and sternite completely separated; all males through this option...................................................................................................... Pelecinobaccha eruptova  [ Brazil and Peru]

65. Antennal insertions separated; medial sclerotized division that separates antennal pits sometimes unsclerotized at the point it reaches the lunule................................................................................... 70

- Antennal insertions confluent.......................................................................... 66

66. Metabasitarsomere with apical 1 / 5 or more pale; 2 nd abdominal segment very long, usually more than 3.5 times as long as wide, if 3.5 as long as wide then apical ½ to ¼ of metabasitarsomere pale; all females through this option.................. 68

- Metabasitarsomere with only apex pale, less than apical 1 / 6 pale; 2 nd abdominal segment long, 2.5–3.5 times as long as wide; only males through this option......................................................................... 67

67. Third and/or 4 th abdominal tergites with a central pair of narrow vittae, vittae either pale or subshining ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16 i); 2 nd abdominal segment usually with a median pair of oblique pale fasciae (sometimes inconspicuous or absent) ( Fig. 17View FIGURE 17 b); usually small (6–8mm)...................................... Pelecinobaccha alicia  - para  variation [central and southern Brazil]

- Third and 4 th abdominal tergites without central maculae; 2 nd abdominal segment without maculae; usually medium-sized (~ 10mm).................................................... Pelecinobaccha alicia  [central and southern Brazil]

68. Anterior rows of pile on middle occiput mainly simple and dark; pleuron entirely dark............................. 69

- Anterior rows of pile on middle occiput mainly scale-like and pale; pleuron usually pale on posterior ½ of posterior anepisternum and dorso-posterior katepisternum................................ Pelecinobaccha mexicana  [Central America]

69. Metabasitarsomere pale on apical ½ or slightly less; 2 nd sternite with long, erect white pile on basal ½; postgonite apex rounded ventrally ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32 g); female 7 th tergite as long as wide medially ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32 a)........ Pelecinobaccha manuelorum  [ Costa Rica]

- Metabasitarsomere pale on apical ¼ or less; 2 nd sternite at most with sparse, short, appressed black pile; postgonite apex with acute ventral extremity ( Fig. 29View FIGURE 29 e); female 7 th tergite narrower, sclerite wider than long medially ( Fig. 29View FIGURE 29 a)............................................................... Pelecinobaccha hiantha  [ Costa Rica and south to southern Brazil]

70. Antennal insertions almost separated, medial division unsclerotized at the point it reaches the lunule; apical ¼ of cell r 1 and apical 2 / 5 of r 2 + 3 distinctly hyaline, no diffuse or small dark markings.............................................................................................. Pelecinobaccha hirundella  (some males) [ Brazil (Santa Catarina)]

- Antennal insertions separated; apical regions of cells r 1 and r 2 + 3 mainly dark or with diffuse dark markings.............. 71

71. At least dorso-posterior of the posterior anepisternum black pilose; all males through this option................................................................................... Pelecinobaccha nubilorum  [ Mexico and Costa Rica]

- Posterior anepisternum and anterior anepimeron white pilose; only females through this option...................... 72

72. Alula 3 times wider apically than c cell; 3 rd to 5 th abdominal tergites immaculate, except female 3 rd abdominal tergite with basal pair of pale maculae ( Fig. 38View FIGURE 38. a – d h); female 6 th abdominal segment long, 2 x the length of the 5 th; female 8 th tergite desclerotized medially ( Fig. 38View FIGURE 38. a – d f)........................................................... Pelecinobaccha tica  [ Costa Rica]

- Alula narrow, at most twice as wide as c cell; 3 rd to 5 th abdominal tergites with central pair of very long pale vittae ( Fig. 21 eView FIGURE 21. a – e); female 6 th segment as long as 5 th; female 8 th tergite sclerotized medially ( Fig. 35View FIGURE 35 b)................................. 73

73. Face pale on lateral ⅓; central macula of lunule connected to frons color by a narrow dark vitta; 7 th segment lateral sclerite subtriangular, narrowing apically ( Fig. 21 cView FIGURE 21. a – e); apices of 8 th tergite long ( Fig. 21 bView FIGURE 21. a – e)................................................................................... Pelecinobaccha capesorum  [ Peru; known from altitudes below 1600m]

- Face entirely black; central macula of the lunule continuous with frons color; 7 th segment lateral sclerite sub-rectangular, slightly narrower apically than basal width ( Fig. 35View FIGURE 35 c); apices of 8 th tergite short ( Fig. 35View FIGURE 35 b).......................................................... Pelecinobaccha nubilorum  [ Mexico and Costa Rica, known from altitudes above 2300m]

Kingdom

Metazoa

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Syrphidae