Ilnacora henryi , Schwartz, Michael D., 2018
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Ilnacora henryi sp. n. Figs 1, 2, 3A, C, 4, 5, 6
Distinguished from congeners by practically smooth, uniformly black body with yellow legs and antennal segments 3 and 4 (Fig. 1); absence of black scale-like setae on pronotal disk posteriad of calli (Fig. 3A); elongate somewhat narrow anteocular portion of head with weakly rounded frons (Fig. 3A), transversely concave vertex and carinate posterior margin (Fig. 3A, C); mesepimeron ventrally and metepisternum with obvious microtrichia (Fig. 4B). Unequivocally recognized by unique structure of male genitalia especially narrow mostly straight tergal process, broad sensory lobe of left paramere, and three long apically serrate processes of right paramere (Figs 2, 4D).
Male: Macropterous, length 4.30-5.00 mm, width 1.40-1.65 mm (see Table 1); body moderately large, elongate.
Coloration: Black, except yellow on frons adjacent to medial margin of eyes, posterior margin of eyes, antennal segment 3, labial segment 2-3, and legs; variably dusky yellow to black on antennal segment 4, labial segment 4, tarsomere 3, and claw (Fig. 1).
Vestiture and dorsal sculpture: Sparsely distributed, long erect or reclining dark brown to black simple setae (Figs 1, 3A, 4A). Faintly rugose, without punctures (Figs 1, 3A).
Structure: Head (Figs 1, 3A, C): Strongly projecting, narrow in frontal view, gena broadly exposed, bucculae short, one-half length of labial segment 1; in lateral view (Fig. 3C); eyes small, posterior margin in dorsal view, slanted anteriad, removed from anterior margin of pronotum by diameter of antennal segment 1 (Fig. 3A), in lateral view occupying two-fifth head height of head; interocular space slightly more than twice as wide as dorsal width of eye; posterior margin of head carinate; antenna inserted just below ventral margin of eye, eyes very weakly emarginate dorsad of fossa; antennal segment 2 long (1.72 mm), 2 times width of head; labium reaching apex of mesocoxa. Thorax: Mesothoracic spiracle and metathoracic scent-efferent system with obvious microstructure surrounding openings; mesepimeron and metepisternum with microspicules on ventral margins (Fig. 4B). Pronotum in dorsal view subtriangular practically campanulate, lateral margin slightly concave, posterior margin gently convex; calli clearly demarcated, posterior lobe flat, rounded laterally; mesoscutum moderately exposed (Fig. 3A, C). Pretarsus: Claws medium sized, sharply curved, thickened proximally; parempodia wide, lamelliform, with converging apices; pulvilli fleshy, attached proximally on ventral surface of claw (Fig. 4C). Hemelytron: Elongate, parallel-sided, paracuneus depressed, cuneus deflected.
Genitalia: Pygophore: Dorsal margin of aperture with single, long, thin, marginally smooth, slightly curved, pointed tergal process, located just left of midline; ventroposterior margin of pygophore subquadrate, entire (without cleft) (Fig. 4D); subgenital plate raised dorsal to ventroposterior margin of aperture, forming deep cavity, ventral surface deeply notched with prominent posterior lobes-right side twice as large as left-projecting beyond aperture of pygophore posteriorly. Left paramere: Approximately L-shaped in ventral view; sensory lobe large, gently rounded; paramere gradually narrowed to subapical constriction, expanded to mitten-like apex formed by lateral and medial lobes of approximately equal size (Figs 2, 4D). Right paramere: Large, U-shaped, greatly extending beyond aperture of pygophore; posterior process (sensory lobe) as long as remainder of paramere, with fine needle-like subapical spine and slightly expanded serrate apex; middle of paramere with pair of relatively short, apically serrate lobes; anterior process (apical portion) of paramere long, distal one-half of dorsal surface serrate, subtended by fan-shaped spine (Figs 2, 4D). Phallotheca: Small, tubular, dorsal surface gently convoluted; aperture open distally (Figs 2, 4D). Endosoma: Small; formed by two needle-like spicules attached to membrane dorsal to base of ductus seminis; dorsal spicule gently curved, ventral spicule bifurcate with long, narrow spines (Fig. 2).
Female: Coloration, vestiture, and structure as in male, except body moderately larger, widest across cuneal fracture, costal margin slightly more convex, vertex wider, and antennal segment 2 pale yellow medially, narrower proximally; length 4.50-5.05 mm, width 1.58-1.80 mm (Fig. 1).
Genitalia: Posterior margin of sternite 7: Broadly triangular posteriorly directed flap-like projection, either side of projection incised anteriad. Vestibulum: First gonocoxae and fused paratergites 8 adhered to anterior surface of first gonapophyses (Fig. 5B); first gonapophyses with obvious posterior (attached to base of rami) and anterior (forming interior of vestibulum) regions (Fig. 5B, D). First gonapophyses: Right: Posterior region with narrow tubercle projecting across aperture of vulva (Fig. 5 B–D) and with condyle-like anterior surface adjoining anterior region of right gonapophysis and apex of left first gonapophyses (Fig. 5B); anterior region narrow, plate-like (Fig. 5 A–B). Left: Posterior region simple, smaller than right (Fig. 5B); anterior region with large crescent-shaped process in horizontal plane (Fig. 5 A–B) and ventrally projecting plate laterad (Fig. 5 B–C) and flat tubercle mediad (Fig. 5B). Ventral labiate plate: Strongly sclerotized with microspiculate dorsal surface (Fig. 5A), ventral surface broadly projecting into vulva (Fig. 5C). Dorsal labiate plate: Subrectangular, twice as wide and long, weakly sclerotized; paramedial sclerites microspiculate, separated at midline by membranous shield-shaped depression; lateral margins strongly infolded; sclerotized rings placed within lateral fold of dorsal labiate plate, obscure (Fig. 5 A–C). Second gonapophyses: Anteroproximal surface projecting ventrad at midline, flanked by small round paramedial projections (Fig. 5 E–F). Posterior Wall: Interramal sclerite: Thinly membranous, dorsomedial margin flat. Medial region: Strongly sclerotized, plate-like, broadly projecting posteriad abutting ovipositor bulb (Fig. 5F). Interramal lobes: Weakly sclerotized, broadly V-shaped, lateral surface of ventral projections and dorsal margins strongly microspiculate, middle projections sparsely microspiculate, practically meeting on midline (Fig. 5 E–F).
Named to honor Dr. Thomas J. Henry for his considerable contributions to hemipteran systematics over a long, active career.
Known from seven widely scattered localities spanning the southern foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental in southern Sinaloa to the western Sierra Nevada in Michoacan and east across the Sierra Madre del Sur from Colima to Oaxaca (Fig. 6).
Several congeners of I. henryi in the U.S. and Mexico have male genitalia of similar form. All are easily denoted by the very elongate sensory lobe of the right paramere ( Knight 1963, figs 1-4, 11, 13; Knight and Schaffner 1976, figs 1, 3; Carvalho and Costa 1992, figs 4, 8). All these species also share nongenitalic characters not found in I. henryi : generally yellowish to green coloration with major portions of the head, pronotum and hemelytron black; pronotal disk, and sometimes scutellum and hemelytron with tufts of black scale-like setae; and head with strongly convex or tumid frons. As presented in the diagnosis and description above, the overall black body with legs yellow, absence of setal patches on the pronotal disk, and only moderate curvature of the frons make I. henryi unique among the species of Ilnacora . The new species brings to 25 the number of species composing Ilnacora .
Only four species, I. inusta (Distant, 1884), I. mexicana Knight & Schaffner, 1976, I. schaffneri Knight, 1963, and I. tepicensis Carvalho & Costa, 1992, are distributed within the range of I. henryi . The coloration of all these sympatric species is generally greenish with various small or large areas of diffuse dark color and discrete patches of black scale-like setae on scattered regions of the dorsum; the almost entirely black I. henryi would not be mistaken for any of these other taxa.
The majority of host associations for other species of Ilnacora are in Asteraceae . The following probable asteraceous hosts are recorded in the Arthropod Easy Capture database: Ambrosia sp., A. trifida L., Artemisia sp., Chrysopsis villosa var. hispida (Hook.) A. Gray ex D.C. Eaton, Coreocarpus sp., Dyssodia papposa (Vent.) Hitchc., Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G.L. Nesom & G.I. Baird, Grindelia sp., G. hirsutula Hook. & Arn., G. perennis A. Nelson, Helianthus sp., Helianthus salicifolius A. Dietr., H. tuberosus L., Heterotheca canescens (DC.) Shinners, H. villosa (Pursh) Shinners, Iva axillaris Pursh, Parthenium sp., Solidago sp., S. rugosa Mill.
Type material. Holotype ♂: MEXICO: Sinaloa: "Santa Lucia [23.49755°N, 105.92295°W], Sin. MEX. 4000' [1219 m] 4 Aug. 1964 L.A. Kelton", (AMNH_PBI 00112931). Holotype Ilnacora henryi n. sp. det. M. D. Schwartz, 2010 [red label]. Deposited in the collection of the Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, D.F. Paratypes: MEXICO: Colima: 9 mi NE of Comala, 19.40916°N, 103.65196°W, 18 Jul 1983, Kovarik, Harrison, and Schaffner, 1♀ (00093269) ( TAMU). Guerrero: Acahuizotla, 17.3833°N, 99.45°W, 944 m, 22 Jun 1982, L. Torres, 1♀ (00093270) ( TAMU). Jalisco: El Molino, 20.12625°N, 103.14738°W, 1774 m, 10 Jul 1956, R. and K. Dreisbach, 1♀ (00070075) ( USNM). Michoacan: 10.6 mi S of Uruapan, 18.96534°N, 102.10035°W, 24 Jul 1983, Kovarik, Harrison, and Schaffner, 1♂ (00093267) ( TAMU). El Salitre, 20.16667°N, 102.66666°W, 1595 m, 29 Jul 1985, R. Barba, 1♂ (00094241), 1♀ (00094242) ( IBUNAM). Oaxaca: 20 mi N of Putla, 17.40206°N, 97.60865°W, 2320 m, 03 Aug 1976, Peigler, Gruetzmacher, R. and M. Murray, Schaffner, 1♀ (00093268) ( TAMU). Sinaloa: Santa Lucia, 23.49755°N, 105.92295°W, 1219 m, 16 Jul 1964, L.A. Kelton, 1♂ (00112960) ( CNC); 04 Aug 1964, L.A. Kelton, 1♂ (00112934), 1♀ (00112953) ( AMNH), 14♂ (00112917, 00112915, 00112921, 00112923-00112930, 00112932, 00112933, 00111000), 23♀ (00112922, 00112936-00112952, 00112955-00112959) ( CNC), 1♂ (00112935), 1♀ (00112954) ( USNM).
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