Leptolalax mangshanensis

Hou, Yinmeng, Zhang, Mengfei, Hu, Fei, Li, Siyuan, Shi, Shengchao, Chen, Jun & Mo, Xiaoyang, 2018, A new species of the genus Leptolalax (Anura, Megophryidae) from Hunan, China, Zootaxa 4444 (3), pp. 247-266: 251-255

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Leptolalax mangshanensis

sp. nov.

Leptolalax mangshanensis  sp. nov.

Diagnosis. we aSSigned the SpecimenS to the genuS Leptolalax  on the baSiS of the following characteriSticS: Small Size, rounded finger tipS, preSence of an elevated inner palmar tubercle not continuouS to the thumb, preSence of Supra–axillary, femoral and ventrolateral glandS, vomerine teeth abSent, tubercleS on eyelidS, and pale vertical bar preSent on anterior tip of Snout ( DuboiS, 1980). Leptolalax mangshanensis  sp. nov. iS diStinguiShed from itS congenerS by a combination of the following characteriSticS: (1) Small Size (SVL 22.22 mm – 27.76 mm in 27 adult maleS, and 30.23 mm in one adult female); (2) dorSal Skin Smooth with Small orange tubercleS and irregular dark brown StripeS; (3) ventral Surface of throat grey-white and belly creamy white, Scattered with white SpeckleS; (4) toe lateral fringeS weak and webbing rudimentary; (5) longitudinal ridgeS indiStinct under toeS and not interrupted at the articulationS; (6) iriS bicolored, bright orange upper, greyiSh cream below.

Description of holotype. Collection information: Collected from a rock crevice in a Secondary foreSt near a Stream (24.981166°N, 112.918988°E, 709 m a.S.l.), Yi Ping, MangShan Nature ReServe, Hunan Province ( Table 2). Adult male: head Slightly longer than wide (HL/Hw = 1.03); Snout rounded in dorSal view, protruding Slightly beyond lower jaw; noStril cloSer to the tip of the Snout than to the eye; canthuS roStraliS diStinct; eyeS large (ED/HL = 0.37), eye diameter Slightly Smaller than Snout length (ED/SL = 0.9); pupil vertical; tympanum diStinct, rounded, diameter Smaller than that of the eye (TD/ED = 0.51); vomerine teeth abSent; tongue long and wide with a Shallow notch at the poSterior tip; Supratympanic ridge diStinct; male with a Single Swallow internal acouStic Sac, the round acouStic Sac opening near the cornerS of the mouth; forelimb long and Slender, tipS of fingerS rounded and Slightly Swollen, relative finger lengthS?>?>?>?, without webbing and lateral fringeS, a large, round inner palmar tubercle and a Small laterally compreSSed outer palmar tubercle; nuptial pad abSent; Subarticular tubercleS abSent; tipS of toeS rounded and thickened; relative toe length?>?>?>?>?; tibiotarSal articulation reacheS anterior margin of Snout; toe lateral fringeS weak and webbing rudimentary ( Fig. 2 View Figure ); oval inner metatarSal tubercle diStinct, outer metatarSal tubercle abSent; dorSal Skin Smooth with Small tubercleS and irregular StripeS; ventral Skin Smooth; oval Supra– axillary gland diStinct at forelimb baSiS on ventral Surface of axillary region; oval femoral glandS diStinct on poSteroventral Surface of thigh, cloSer to knee than to vent.

Color of live holotype. Live SpecimenS that are not Stored in preServative have a brown dorSal Surface with large, dark brown, irregularly Shaped markingS and Small orange tubercleS; large reverSe-triangle dark brown markings between eyes, connected to the W-shaped marking between axillae; a dark ^-shaped stripe on rear part of dorSal Surface; one Symmetrical black Spot on each Side of the crotch ( Fig. 2 View Figure ). Two to three faint tranSverSe dark brown StripeS on the dorSal Surface of fingerS and toeS, lower armS, tarSuS, thighS and tibia.; moSt part of tympanum black, black Supratympanic line diStinct; upper lip barred with dark and light brown; fingerS, toeS, elbow to upper arm, and the terminal of tibia orange; throat and belly grey-white with little white SpeckleS ( Fig. 2 View Figure ); upper eyelidS, Snout, dorSal SurfaceS of head, body and limbS Scattered fine, diStinct reddiSh tubercleS; ventral Surface of lip, limbS, covered with irregular white SpeckleS; Supra-axillary gland, ventrolateral glandS and femoral glandS white; vertical pupil; iriS bicolored: bright orange upper, greyiSh cream below, with black reticulationS throughout ( Fig. 2 View Figure ).

Color of holotype in preservative. In preServative (75% ethanol), the dorSal Surface iS dark grey-brown, and ventral and lateral white glandS are not evident. Throat, cheSt, and belly of upper limbS are creamy white, with a pale granular brown Spot, barS and blotcheS on dorSum and limbS are dark brown and more apparent. The color of the tympanum fadeS to brown ( Fig. 3 View Figure ).

Tadpoles. Brown, narrow; BH 3.0 mm; BL 14.4 mm; Bw 5.3; ED 1.4 mm; MTH 4.4; SS 7.4 mm; TMw 2.3 mm; TAL 23.7 mm; TOL 38.1 mm. TAL/TOL = 0.62, with a?:3+3/1+1:? labial tooth row formula ( Fig. 4 View Figure ). The air Sac Shape bulgeS on both SideS of the body. Tail paler than head, with Small grey cloudy SpotS. The upper lip and lower lip form a nearly round Shape. A Single tadpole waS collected in the field from a Stream Surveyed on July 5th, 2016 in MangShan Nature ReServe by F. Hu. The color of the tadpole in preServative fadeS to light brown, and the belly iS grey. The ventral Surface of the Snout and tail iS creamy-white.

Eggs. Creamy white, the average diameter of freSh eggS iS 2 mm ( Fig. 4 View Figure ). One female (MSZTC201704) releaSed her eggS (93) in a plaStic container Soon after collection on 27 April, 2017. The color of eggS in preServative iS creamy-yellow.

Measurements. Holotype: SVL 24.6 mm, HL 9.2 mm, Hw 8.9 mm, SL 3.7 mm, ED 3.3 mm, IOD 2.6 mm, TD 1.7 mm, ETD 0.7 mm, UEw 2.5 mm, EN 1.45 mm, NS 1.7 mm, INDAbout IND 1.5 mm, FL 17.3 mm, THLAbout THL 12.2 mm, HLLAbout HLL 39.9 mm, HND 12.6 mm, HL/Hw = 1.0, ED/SL = 0.9, ED/HL = 0.4, TD/ED = 0.5, THLAbout THL /SVL = 0.5.

Paratypes. MSZTC 201701–03 (male), MSZTC 201704 (female), MSZTC 201705 (male), MSZTC 201707–15 (male), MSZTC 201717–19 (male), MSZTC 201723–25 (male), MSZTC 201727–28 (male) ( Table 2).

Skeleton (skull). SkullS of L. mangshanensis  sp. nov. were Studied, uSing Some of the paratypeS (MSZTC201706, MSZTC201716, MSZTC201721, MSZTC201722, and MSZTC201726). The Skull characteriSticS of L. mangshanensis  sp. nov. are weakly oSSified; the maxilla Slightly overlap with the quadratojugal; naSal boneS are Small, and far apart from each other, naSal boneS are in contact with the Sphenethmoid; the Shape of Sphenethmoid StretcheS forward, and the anterior border projectS beyond the anterior extenSion of the naSal boneS; ethmoid cartilage reacheS the premaxilla only; frontopatietal narrow anteriorly and wide poSteriorly, large prootic Separated from the exoccipital.

Etymology. The Specific epithet, “ mangShanenSiS  ”, iS in reference to the location where the SpecimenS were collected, MangShan Nature ReServe.

Variation. Variation in Size and body proportionS of the meaSurement are Shown in Table 3. In live (unpreServed) SpecimenS, the dorSal Surface of the head and trunk varieS from reddiSh brown to dark brown in color. The ventral Surface of the lower jaw among theSe individualS varieS from cream-yellow, pink, to grey; the ventral Surface of cheSt and belly iS grey-pink to white. There iS variation among individualS in the Shape of tubercleS, black ventrolateral blotcheS, and dark StripeS on the dorSum or dorSal Surface of limbS. The white SpeckleS vary in number and Size on the ventral SurfaceS of the belly and limbS.

Molecular analyses. An alignment of 509 bp waS obtained for the 16S gene. The three individualS of Leptolalax  collected from MangShan Share the Same haplotype ( Fig. 5 View Figure ). The new population from MangShan differed from all other congenerS by genetic diStanceS between 2.9% ( L. liui  ) to 22.5% ( L. solus  ), and the loweSt value p = 2.9% waS obServed in the compariSon with the Sequence of L. liui  ( Table 4). BaSed on the phylogenetic analySiS of 16S rRNA mtDNA gene SequenceS, our newly collected SpecimenS of Leptolalax  from MangShan repreSentS a highly divergent mtDNA gene lineage, with a SiSter relationShip to L. liui  . Combined with further morphological evidence (See below), our molecular genetic reSultS indicate that the individualS from MangShan Nature ReServe repreSent a previouSly undeScribed SpecieS in the genuS Leptolalax  . Herein, we deScribe it aS a new SpecieS, L. mangshanensis  sp. nov..

Ecology. The SpecieS can be found at night in rocky StreamS in evergreen Secondary foreStS in MangShan Nature ReServe between 500–1600 m a.S.l. The diStribution area of the new SpecieS iS approximately 211 km 2 at altitudeS of 500–1600 m a.S.l in thiS area. The breeding SeaSon of thiS SpecieS iS likely to encompaSS April to June. Calling maleS were found along the Stream, perching on large rockS, rocky creviceS, or under deadwood ( Fig. 6 View Figure ). Loud and Sharp inSect-like callS could be heard from April to June. A few individualS were Seen in July, but there were a few callS in theSe individualS.


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