Mirandofures Gustafsson & Bush

Bush, Sarah E., 2017, Morphological revision of the hyperdiverse Brueelia - complex (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) with new taxa, checklists and generic key, Zootaxa 4313 (1), pp. 1-443: 66-68

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Mirandofures Gustafsson & Bush

new genus

Mirandofures Gustafsson & Bush  , new genus

Nirmus Nitzsch, 1818: 291  (in partim). Brueelia Kéler, 1936a: 257  (in partim).

Type species. Mirandofures kamena  new species

Diagnosis. The structure of the male genitalia of Mirandofures  n. gen. ( Figs 94–96View FIGURES 92 – 97, 102–104View FIGURES 100 – 105) suggests a close relationship with Brueelia  s. str. ( Figs 45–47View FIGURES 44 – 48), Teinomordeus  n. gen. ( Figs 79–81View FIGURES 77 – 82), Sychraella  n. gen. ( Figs 110– 112View FIGURES 108 – 113), and Anarchonirmus  n. gen. ( Figs 118–120View FIGURES 116 – 121), yet members of all these genera (except Br. phasmasoma  n. sp., Fig. 58View FIGURES 58 – 62) lack a dorsal preantennal suture and have uninterrupted marginal carina. In contrast, the marginal carina of Mirandofures  ( Figs 92View FIGURES 92 – 97, 100View FIGURES 100 – 105) is interrupted laterally, and these interruptions are connected transversally by a suture that does not reach or approach the anterior end of the head. This dorsal preantennal suture pattern is unique within the Brueelia  -complex. The marginal carina of some species within Brueelia  s. str. widens at the osculum, but this pattern is never as extreme in Brueelia  s. str. as in Mirandofures  where the wideing forms a marginal carinal plate ( Fig. 92View FIGURES 92 – 97). Male genitalia of Mirandofures  are variable ( Figs 94–96View FIGURES 92 – 97, 102–104View FIGURES 100 – 105), with some being more similar to those of Brueelia  s. str. ( Figs 45–47View FIGURES 44 – 48) and some more similar to those of Teinomordeus  ( Figs 79–81View FIGURES 77 – 82). In Mirandofures  ( Figs 96View FIGURES 92 – 97, 104View FIGURES 100 – 105) pst1 is distal to pst2, which is similar to Sychraella  ( Fig. 112View FIGURES 108 – 113), but unlike in Brueelia  s. str. ( Fig. 47View FIGURES 44 – 48), Teinomordeus  ( Fig. 81View FIGURES 77 – 82), Acronirmus ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 85 – 89), and Anarchonirmus  ( Fig. 120View FIGURES 116 – 121).

Description. Both sexes. Head drop-shaped to trapezoidal ( Figs 92View FIGURES 92 – 97, 100View FIGURES 100 – 105). Preantennal area much elongated in some species ( Fig. 92View FIGURES 92 – 97). Marginal carina interrupted only laterally, deeply displaced dorsally and posteriorly at osculum. Displaced section in many species widened into distinct marginal carinal plate. Ventral anterior plate present. Ventral carinae typically continuous with marginal carina but diffuse anteriorly in some species. Dorsal preantennal suture arises from lateral interruptions of marginal carina and is transversally continuous; dorsal anterior plate roughly triangular. Head setae as in Figs 92View FIGURES 92 – 97, 100View FIGURES 100 – 105; as3, pns, and pos absent; as1 often minute and hard to see; vsms1 much longer than vsms2; ads located in transversal suture. Coni moderate, blunt. Antennae sexually dimorphic, with male scapes ( Figs 92View FIGURES 92 – 97, 100View FIGURES 100 – 105) longer and thicker than female scapes ( Figs 93View FIGURES 92 – 97, 101View FIGURES 100 – 105). Pedicel and flagellomeres often slightly longer in male than in female. Temporal carinae not visible; mts  3 only macrosetae. Gular plate long, spade-shaped.

Prothorax ( Figs 90–91View FIGURES 90 – 91, 98–99View FIGURES 98 – 99) square to slightly rectangular; ppss on postero-lateral corner. Proepimera slender median ends; hook- or hammer-shaped. Pterothorax trapezoidal ( Figs 90–91View FIGURES 90 – 91, 98–99View FIGURES 98 – 99); lateral margins moderately divergent; posterior margin flat or rounded convergent to blunt median point; mms widely to moderately separated medianly. Meso- and metasterna not fused, either with one seta on postero-lateral corner on each side of both plates, or with setae only on postero-lateral corners of metasternum. Metasternum typically much larger than mesosternum. Metepisternum very broad: median ends blunt. Distance between coxae II –III much larger than between coxae I –II. Third pair of legs typically noticeably longer than others. Leg chaetotaxy as in Fig. 25View FIGURES 25 except fI-d1, fI-p2, fI-v4, fII-v2, fIII-v2 absent.

Abdomen drop-shaped in male ( Figs 90View FIGURES 90 – 91, 98View FIGURES 98 – 99), elongated oval in female ( Figs 91View FIGURES 90 – 91, 99View FIGURES 98 – 99). Abdominal chaetotaxy as in Tables 2 and 4. The most lateral tps  is often longer than more median tps  , but it is not associated with the sensillus of the psps, and therefore we do not interpret these as psps here (however Mirandofures fasciata Sychra  [in Sychra et al.], 2010a, has setae that appears to be psps and aps  ; but we have not examined any material of this species). Tergopleurites square to rectangular; tergopleurites II –IX+X in male and tergopleurites II –VIII in female narrowly divided medianly. Sternal plates medianly continuous, broad, approaching pleurites. Pleural incrassations with dorsal and ventral median margins. Re-entrant heads elaborate, hook-shaped. Male subgenital plate broadly trapezoidal ( Fig. 90View FIGURES 90 – 91) to T-shaped ( Fig. 98View FIGURES 98 – 99) reaching posterior margin of abdomen. Female subgenital plate variable ( Figs 97View FIGURES 92 – 97, 105View FIGURES 100 – 105; see also e.g. Mi. amandavae Rékási & Saxena, 2005  ). Vulval margin ( Figs 97View FIGURES 92 – 97, 105View FIGURES 100 – 105) with slender vms, thorn-like vss; vos forms transversal row on posterior end of segment VII, with some setae scattered posterior to subgenital plate in some species (e.g. Mi. kamena  n. sp., Fig. 97View FIGURES 92 – 97).

Male genitalia as in Figs 94–96View FIGURES 92 – 97, 102–104View FIGURES 100 – 105. Basal apodeme rectangular, with or without constriction at midlength; posterior margin indented medianly. Proximal mesosome oval or trapezoidal, small. Gonopore ( Figs 95View FIGURES 92 – 97, 103View FIGURES 100 – 105) closed proximally. Mesosomal lobes small, typically densely rugose along distal and lateral margins. Up to 3 pmes visible on each side near gonopore. Parameral heads blunt ( Fig. 104View FIGURES 100 – 105) or shallowly bifid ( Fig. 96View FIGURES 92 – 97) Parameral blades typically elongated triangular, but may be much extended distally as in Mirandofures altoguineae  ( Fig. 104View FIGURES 100 – 105); pst1 sensillus, located distal to pst2 and at or near distal tip of parameres; pst2 microseta, lateral. Both pst1–2 often hard to see.

Host distribution. Mirandofures  is so far known mainly from members of the Estrildidae  . Apart from the species listed below, we have seen material from a range of genera within this family, indicating that Mirandofures  may be found throughout the Estrildidae  .

Geographical range. Mirandofures  appears to occur throughout the range of the host family, with species described from Africa, Asia, and Australasia.

Etymology. Mirandofures  is a combination of Latin “ miranda  ”, meaning “worthy of admiration”, and Latin “fur ”, meaning “thief”, with the arbitrary ending “ es ”. Gender: feminine.

Remarks. Mirandofures  formed a monophyletic clade in the phylogenies of Balakrishnan & Sorensen (2006) and Bush et al. (2016). In the Balakrishnan & Sorensen (2006) study, the Brueelia  -complex lice on the Estrildidae  were placed in a polytomy with other clades which may all be Brueelia  s. str., but we have not studied their material, and no identifications to species level were given in their paper. In their COI-only tree ( Balakrishnan & Sorensen 2006: fig. 3), the group from the Estrildidae  is placed as a sister group to a taxon we suspect is Brueelia  s. str. This placement was echoed roughly in Bush et al. (2016), where Mirandofures  (“Clade J”) forms a sister group to Acronirmus, and together these are placed as a sister group to Brueelia  s. str. In Bush et al’s. (2016) analysis, the Mirandofures  terminal taxa show several deep divisions, possibly reflecting the large differences in male genitalia found in the genus. Mirandofures kamena  is placed as a sister to all other Mirandofures  , perhaps reflecting the unique shape of the female subgenital plate found in this species.

Included species

* Mirandofures altoguineae  new species

* Mirandofures amandavae ( Rékási & Saxena, 2005: 88)  n. comb. [in Brueelia  ] Mirandofures astrildae ( Tendeiro & Mendes, 1994: 124)  n. comb. [in Brueelia  ] Mirandofures fasciata  (Sychra [in Sychra et al.], 2010a: 61) n. comb. [in Brueelia  ]

* Mirandofures kamena  new species

Mirandofures lonchurae ( Tendeiro & Mendes, 1994: 125)  n. comb. [in Brueelia  ] Mirandofures munia ( Ansari, 1955b: 56)  n. comb. [in Brueelia  ]

* Mirandofures muniae ( Eichler, 1957: 580)  n. comb. [in Brueelia  ] [1] Brueelia eichleri Lakshminarayana, 1969: 62  new synonymy

* Mirandofures stenozona ( Kellogg & Chapman, 1902: 158)  n. comb. [in Brueelia  ]

[1] A single letter is technically sufficient to prevent homonymy according to article 57.6 of the I.C.Z. N (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999). We therefore reinstate Eichler's name. 












Mirandofures Gustafsson & Bush

Bush, Sarah E. 2017

Mirandofures amandavae ( Rékási & Saxena, 2005: 88 )

Sychra 2010: 61
Rekasi 2005: 88
Tendeiro 1994: 124


Keler 1936: 257
Nitzsch 1818: 291

Mirandofures lonchurae ( Tendeiro & Mendes, 1994: 125 )

Tendeiro 1994: 125
Ansari 1955: 56

Mirandofures muniae ( Eichler, 1957: 580 )

Lakshminarayana 1969: 62
Eichler 1957: 580

Mirandofures stenozona ( Kellogg & Chapman, 1902: 158 )

Kellogg 1902: 158