Actinarctus doryphorus doryphorus Schulz, 1935

Kaczmarek, Łukasz, Bartels, Paul J., Roszkowska, Milena & Nelson, Diane R., 2015, The Zoogeography of Marine Tardigrada, Zootaxa 4037 (1), pp. 1-189: 117-118

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4037.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:670819B1-3840-4C0A-ABFF-4D5AE3A263C0

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5632626

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A5435063-FFEA-FFE4-FF18-FE90FCF2FAB5

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Actinarctus doryphorus doryphorus Schulz, 1935
status

 

124. Actinarctus doryphorus doryphorus Schulz, 1935  

Actinarctus doryphorus   nov. gen. nov. spec. ( Schulz 1935)

Actinarctus doryphorus E. Schulz ( Grell 1937)  

Actinarctus doryphorus ( Grell 1939)  

Actinarctus doryphorus Schulz   ( Swedmark 1956, Swedmark & Teissier 1967) Actinarctus doryphorus Schulz, 1935   (Eibye-Jacobsen 1996, Villora-Moreno & Grimaldi de Zio 1996, D’Addabbo Gallo et al. 1999 a, b, Kristensen & Neuhaus 1999, Grimaldi de Zio 2003, D’Addabbo Gallo et al. 2007, Accogli et al. 2011)

Terra typica   : North Sea ( Germany, Europe)

Adriatic Sea:

• 40 ° 27.24 ′N, 18 ° 14.63 ′E [40 ° 22 ′N, 18 ° 20 ′E]; 10 m bsl: [FAO 37] Italy, Lecce Province, Ceisne (Marne protected area), coarse sand. Accogli et al. (2011)

• 40 ° 27.17 ′N, 18 ° 14.58 ′E [40 ° 22 ′N, 18 ° 20 ′E]; 10 m bsl: [FAO 37] Italy, Lecce Province, Ceisne (Marne protected area), coarse sand. Accogli et al. (2011)

Alboran Sea:

• 35 ° 11 ′N, 02° 27 ′W; 25 m bsl: [FAO 37] Morocco, Chafarinas Islands, Congreso Island [ Isla del Congres], very coarse sand and gravels with biodendritic sediments. Villora-Moreno & Grimaldi de Zio (1996)

• 35 ° 11 ′N, 02° 26 ′W; 0 m bsl: [FAO 37] Morocco, Chafarinas Islands, Congreso Island [ Isla del Congres], sublittoral mixed environment, Amphioxus   gravel. Villora-Moreno & Grimaldi de Zio (1996)

Atlantic Ocean:

• 4 ° 20 ′S to 4 ° 50 ′S, 36 °00′W to 37 ° 15 ′W [04° 35 ′S, 36 ° 38 ′W]; 20 m bsl: [FAO 41] Brazil, continental shelf off Ceará State and Rio Grande Do Norte State, medium sand. da Rocha et al. (2013), FAO: 41

• 8 ° 25 ′ 10 ′′S to 8 ° 25 ′ 20 ′′S, 34 ° 55 ′00′′W [08° 25 ′S, 34 ° 58 ′W]; 3 m bsl: [FAO 41] Brazil, Pernambuco State, Cupe beach, biogenic gravel. da Rocha et al. (2013)

Balearic Sea:

• 40 ° 20 ′N, 08° 22 ′E; 20 m bsl: [FAO 37] Italy, Sardinia, Sassari or Oristano Province, Gulf of Alghero, medium sand. D’Addabbo Gallo et al. (2007)

Celtic Sea:

• 48 ° 46 ′N, 04°05′W; 0 m bsl: [FAO 27] France, Brittany Region, Roscoff, Trezen ar Skoden shell dune, 2.5 miles [4 km] WNW of Ile de Batz, shelly sand with mollusc shells, plates of barnacles, skeletons of bryozoans, and Ophiuroideans, with no organic debris. Swedmark & Teissier (1967)

• 48 ° 44 ′N, 03° 59 ′W; 0 m bsl: [FAO 27] France, Brittany Region, Bloscon, Amphioxus   sand. Swedmark (1956)

Ionian Sea:

• 39 ° 55.55 ′N, 18 °02.81′E; 20 m bsl: [FAO 37] Italy, Lecce Province, Torre San Giovanni Mancaversa, fine sand. Accogli et al. (2011)

• 39 ° 55 ′ 55 ′′N, 18 °02′ 71 ′′E [39 ° 54 ′N, 18 °06′E]; 0 m bsl: [FAO 37] Italy, Lecce Province, San Giovanni [Torre San Giovanni]. Grimaldi de Zio et al. (2003)

• 39 ° 58.71 ′N, 18 ° 18.28 ′E [39 ° 49 ′N, 18 ° 18 ′E]; 10 m bsl: [FAO 37] Italy, Lecce Province, San Gregorio, coarse sand. Accogli et al. (2011)

• 39 ° 48 ′ 40 ′′N, 18 ° 40 ′ 38 ′′E [39 ° 49 ′N, 18 ° 19 ′E]; 0 m bsl: [FAO 37] Italy, Lecce Province, San Gregorio. Grimaldi de Zio et al. (2003)

Ligurian Sea:

• 43 ° 32 ′ N, 10 ° 12 ′E; 7 m bsl: [FAO 37] Italy, Livorno Province, 300 m NW of Meloria Shoals Lighthouse, pit bottom, salinity 38 PSU, coarse coralligenous detritus (granulometric max. = 1.4 mm). D’Addabbo Gallo et al. (1999 a, b)

North Sea:

• 59 ° 17 ′N, 11 ° 21 ′E; 0 m bsl: [FAO 27] Sweden, Västra Götalands Iän Region, Kattegat, Gunnarskär, shelly sand with shells, fragments of sea urchin tests and pieces of bryozoans. Swedmark & Teissier (1967)

• 58 ° 54 ′ 51.78 ′′N, 10 ° 48 ′ 55.38 ′′E – 58 ° 54 ′ 59.04 ′′N, 10 ° 48 ′ 51.90 ′′E; 0 m bsl: [FAO 27] Sweden, Västra Götaland County, Tjärnö area, Grisbådarna, sublittoral samples from dredge, carbonate sand. Willems et al. (2009)

• 58 ° 52 ′ 34.02 ′′N, 11 °06′ 40.56 ′′E – 58 ° 52 ′ 33.96 ′′N, 11 °06′ 45.06 ′′E; 0 m bsl: [FAO 27] Sweden, Västra Götaland County, Tjärnö area, Inre Vattenholmen, sublittoral samples from dredge, carbonate sand. Willems et al. (2009)

• 58 ° 49 ′02.16′′N, 11 °04′ 24.24 ′′E – 58 ° 49 ′ 25.62 ′′N, 11 °04′ 28.62 ′′E; 0 m bsl: [FAO 27] Sweden, Västra Götaland County, Tjärnö area, Ullvillarna, sublittoral samples from dredge, shell gravel or carbonate sand ( Amphioxus   sand). Willems et al. (2009)

• 58 ° 35 ′N, 11 °04′E; 0 m bsl: [FAO 27] Sweden, Västra Götalands Iän Region, Kattegat, Väderöarna, shelly sand with shells, fragments of sea urchin tests and pieces of bryozoans. Swedmark & Teissier (1967)

• 58 °06′N, 11 ° 20 ′E; 0 m bsl: [FAO 27] Sweden, Västra Götalands Iän Region, Kattegat, Bonden Island near Käringön, shelly sand with shells, fragments of sea urchin tests and pieces of bryozoans. Swedmark & Teissier (1967)

• 57 ° 30.2 ′N, 10 ° 39.4 ′W / 57 ° 30 ′N, 10 ° 39 ′E; 25 m bsl: [FAO 27] Denmark, Nordjylland Region, Kattegat of Fredrikshavn, NE of Hirsholmene, Amphioxus   sand (sand with shelly gravel). Jørgensen et al. (1999)

• 57 ° 28 ′N, 10 ° 42 ′E [57 ° 28 ′N, 10 ° 42 ′E]; 25 m bsl: [FAO 27] Denmark, Nordjylland Region, Kattegat, Fredrikshavn, NE of Hirsholmene, Amphioxus   sand. Kristensen & Neuhaus (1999)

• 57 ° 26 ′N, 10 ° 32 ′E; 0 m bsl: [FAO 27] Denmark, Nordjylland Region, Fredrikshavn, Kattegat, Amphioxus   sand. Eibye-Jacobsen (1996)

• 54 ° 11 ′N, 07° 53 ′E; 0 m bsl: [FAO 27] Type Locality: Germany, Schleswig-Holstein State, Helgoland Island, in Amphioxus   sand on echinoderm ( Echinocyamus pusillus   ) and in “Schell [shell]. Schulz (1935)

• 54 ° 11 ′N, 07° 53 ′E; 0 m bsl: [FAO 27] Germany, Schleswig-Holstein State, Helgoland Island, Skitt-Gatts, dune, coarse biogenic detritus ( Polygordius Bruchschill   ). Grell (1937, 1939)

Record numbers (Sea/Ocean classification): Adriatic Sea: 2, Alboran Sea: 2, Atlantic Ocean: 2, Balearic Sea: 1, Celtic Sea: 2, Ionian Sea: 4, Ligurian Sea: 1, North Sea: 11; total: 25.

Record numbers (FAO classification): FAO 27: 13, FAO 37: 10, FAO 41: 2; total: 25.

Remarks: This species is reported mainly from the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere; however, recently it has also been found in the tropical region in the southern hemisphere, but these records probably need confirmation. It is mainly an intertidal species, but it has also been found in the shallow subtidal zone often in Amphioxus   sand. D’Addabbo Gallo et al. (1999 b) redescribed this species in detail based on a large population (adults and larvae) from Livorno Province. These authors showed a large variability of some morphological features of A. d. doryphorus   and suggested that the subspecies A. d. ocellatus   should be considered as nonvalid. However, they did not state this definitively and we feel that this case needs further research and a reexamination of specimens from both type localities.

PSU

Portland State University, Vertebrate Biology Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Tardigrada

Class

Heterotardigrada

Order

Arthrotardigrada

Family

Halechiniscidae

Genus

Actinarctus

Loc

Actinarctus doryphorus doryphorus Schulz, 1935

Kaczmarek, Łukasz, Bartels, Paul J., Roszkowska, Milena & Nelson, Diane R. 2015
2015
Loc

Actinarctus doryphorus (

Grell 1939
1939
Loc

Actinarctus doryphorus E. Schulz ( Grell 1937 )

E. Schulz (Grell 1937
1937
Loc

Actinarctus doryphorus

Schulz 1935
1935
Loc

Amphioxus

Yarrell 1836
1836
Loc

Amphioxus

Yarrell 1836
1836
Loc

Amphioxus

Yarrell 1836
1836
Loc

Amphioxus

Yarrell 1836
1836
Loc

Amphioxus

Yarrell 1836
1836
Loc

Amphioxus

Yarrell 1836
1836
Loc

Amphioxus

Yarrell 1836
1836