Hoplochaetella lavellei, Julka, J. M., Blanchart, Eric & Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie, 2004

Julka, J. M., Blanchart, Eric & Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie, 2004, New genera and new species of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Octochaetidae) from Western Ghats, South India, Zootaxa 486, pp. 1-27 : 20-22

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.157661

publication LSID




persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Hoplochaetella lavellei

sp. nov.

Hoplochaetella lavellei sp. nov.

Type material: INDIA: Karnataka: holotype ( HAZFS /ZSI An806), clitellate, 3 paratypes ( HAZFS /ZSI An807), clitellate, near Herbettu on way to Karni [13°56'N 74°44'E], 580m, edge (forest/pasture), October 1991 (E. Blanchart).

Additional material: INDIA: Karnataka: coll. E. Blanchart: 1 clitellate, 12 km from Kogar down to Bhatkal [14°04'N 74°41'E], 150m, forest, October 1991; 1 clitellate, Toskar Bare[13°54'N 74°46'E], 1000m, savanna, October 1991.

Diagnosis. Male pores combined with prostatic pores, paired, on setal arcs of 17 and 19; spermathecal pores paired, presetal, about equidistant from furrow 7/8 and setal arc on 8, and slightly anterior to setal arc on 9; some setae in region of spermathecal pores on 8 and 9 modified as copulatory; septum 6/7 absent; copulatory setal glands free; last pair of hearts in 12; parietal glands lateral to ectal ends of prostatic ducts in 17 and 19.

Relationships of H. lavellei are to be sought with a group of species with two pairs of male pores, paired spermathecal pores on 8 and 9 and last pair of hearts in 12. The species involved are H. karnatakensis Julka, 1988 , H. sanvordemensis Julka, 1988 and H. anomala Stephenson, 1920 . H. lavellei is distinguishable from these species by the combination of characteristics as given in Table 4 View TABLE 4 .

Description. Length 108–116 mm, diameter 4–4.5 mm, 76–97 segments. Prostomium epilobic, tongue open. First dorsal pore 4/5. Clitellum annular, ½13, 13–16, ½16. Setae perichaetine, aa = 2.4 ab = 3 bc = 3 yz = 0.4 zz on 12, aa = 2.5 ab = 2.5 bc = 2.5 yz = 0.4 zz on 24; 14–19 on 2, 47–60 on 7, 48–59 on 12, 59–63 on 20; 14–20 on 18 between male pore lines; setae f–h, sometimes a, d, e, i and j on 8 and 9 copulatory, usually arranged in a circle or semicircle around spermathecal pores. Combined male and prostatic pores paired, minute, at centres of depressed oval porophores, on setal arcs of 17 and 19, at f–h, 0.2 body circumference apart. Spermathecal pores paired, minute, on 8 and 9, presetal, at f–h, 0.21–0.22 body circumference apart; those on 8 about equidistant from setal arc and 7/8, those on 9 slightly anterior to setal arc ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 24 – 34 ). Genital markings, when present, single, postsetal, ventral to male pores lines, either on left or right side of 15.

Pigmented, pigment reddish­brown. Septa 4/5/6, 7/8 delicate, 8/9–12/13 slightly muscular, 6/7 aborted. Gizzard in a space between septa 5/6 and 7/8. Oesophagus with 4 pairs of discrete, shortly stalked, extramural calciferous glands in 10–13. Intestine begins in 16; intestinal caeca absent; typhlosole a low lamelliform ridge, in 23 to 63 (41 segments). Supra­oesophageal vessel single; subneural vessel absent; last pair of hearts in 12. Lymph glands absent. Testes and male funnels in 10 and 11, enclosed in unpaired sacs, formed by peripheral union of septa 9/10–11/12; vas deferens slightly enlarged into ejaculatory bulbs before joining prostatic ducts; seminal vesicles in 9, 10 and 12. Prostates paired, tubular, in 17 and 19. Penial setae ( Fig. 32 View FIGURES 24 – 34 ) ornamented with a few, slightly serrated ridges, tip pointed, 0.33–0.39 mm long, 14–16 diameter. Spermathecae ( Fig. 33 View FIGURES 24 – 34 ) paired in 8 and 9, each with a median and lateral uniloculate to multiloculate shortly stalked diverticula, duct shorter than ampulla. Copulatory setae ( Fig. 34 View FIGURES 24 – 34 ) ornamented with short serrated ridges, tip pointed and slightly excavated on one side, 0.62–0.83 mm long, 24–26 diameter. Copulatory setal glands 1–6, free (not enclosed in coelomic sacs) in 8 and 9, 1.7–3.3 mm long. Parietal glands paired in 17 and 19, lateral to ectal ends of prostatic ducts. Genital marking glands sessile, spheroidal, slightly protuberant into coelom.

Reproduction. Presumably biparental.

Ingesta. Brownish fine mineral soil with numerous tiny pieces of decaying leaves and stems, several quartz and some rock particles.

Ecological category. Intestinal ingesta, light body pigmentation and poorly developed intestinal typhlosole indicate that it is possibly anecic.

Ecological data. H. lavellei is found in altitude grassland, edges and forests with various soil properties: OM content 3.6–7.4 g 100g­1 soil, C/N 11.9–16.6, proportion of gravels (> 2 mm) 15–59%, clay content 19–43%, bulk density 0.94–1.29 Mg m­3, pH (water) 4.6–5.3, cations 3.9–9.3 cmol kg­1 soil, CEC 9.4–22.9 cmol kg­1 soil.

Etymology. It is named for Prof. Patrick Lavelle, an eminent authority on earthworm ecology.

Remarks. Referred as ‘ Hoplochaetella sp1 and Hoplochaetella sp2 (near karnatakensis Julka )’ in Blanchart and Julka (1997).

TABLE 4. Comparison of Hoplochaetella lavellei with related species.

Characteristics H. lavellei H. karnatakensis H. sanvordemensis H. anomala
Spermathecal pores on 8 equidistant from furrow 7/8 and setal arc just behind furrow 7/8 just in front of setal arc equidistant from furrow 7/8 and setal arc
Spermathecal pores on 9 just in front of setal arc just in front of setal arc just in front of setal arc on or just behind setal arc
Copulatory setae on 8 present absent present present
Copulatory setal glands free, in 8 and 9 in paired coelomic sacs, in 9 free, in 8 and rarely 9 in paired coelomic sacs, in 8 and 9
Septum 6/7 absent present present absent
Parietal glands in 17 and 19 lateral to ectal ends of prostatic ducts lateral to ectal ends of prostatic ducts lateral to ectal ends of prostatic ducts median and lateral to ectal ends of pro­ static ducts
Penial setae ornamented unornamented unornamented unornamented
Genital markings (if present) single, postsetal at 15, slightly ventral to male pore line single, postsetal at 19, close to midven­ tral line paired, at 15/16/17/ 18, 21/22/23, slightly ventral to male pore lines, sometimes single and median at 16/17 paired, at 15/16, presetal or postsetal 18, presetal 19, postsetal 20, slightly lateral to male pore lines
GBIF Dataset (for parent article) Darwin Core Archive (for parent article) View in SIBiLS Plain XML RDF