Inglisia vitrea Cockerell, 1894: 308,

Kondo, Takumasa & Hardy, Nate, 2008, Redescription of Inglisia vitrea Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae) and its transfer to the genus Pseudokermes Cockerell, ZooKeys 3 (3), pp. 11-21: 13-18

publication ID 10.3897/zookeys.3.21


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Inglisia vitrea Cockerell, 1894: 308


Inglisia vitrea Cockerell, 1894: 308  .

Pseudokermes correntinus Granara de Willink, 1999: 137  . Syn. nov.

Common names.

English: Glassy scale ( Hamon and Williams 1984). Proposed Spanish common name: Escama blanda vidriosa.

Type material studied. The type material consisted of one slide of 2 third-instar nymphs, one uncleared, with label “6409 / Inglisia  / vitrea Ckll.  / Acacia  sp. / Port of Spain, / Trinidad / F.W. Urich #16 / TYPE”, plus dry syntype coccids on two small pieces of twig, housed in a small cardboard box with two original labels inside, as follows: “Ckll. Coccidae  25. TYPE / Inglisia vitrea, Ckll  / on Acacia  sp. Port of Spain, Trinidad / Coll. F.W. Urich. (no. 16)” and “6049 / on / Acacia  / Port of Spain / Trinidad / W.I.”. These data exactly match those given in Cockerell’s (1894) original description. In order to preserve stability and the nomenclatural status of this species, a lectotype is here designated from the syntypes. Th e examined type material is as follows: Adult female, lectotype of Inglisia vitrea Cockerell    ; paralectotypes: 4 adult females on 4 slides, 3 third-instar nymphs on 2 slides, 1 second-instar nymph on 1 slide, plus several dry specimens still in box (USNM). 

Other material studied. Neotropical Region: Barbados: 10.VIII.1985, coll. K. Eng, JKF 100284, 88-04128, ex Annona  sp. leaf, 1 slide, 4 specimens (USNM)  . Brazil: 9.VIII.1962, coll. Kunishi and Hidalgo, ex leaves of Th ymelaeaceae, JFKIA, 66- 495, 1 slide, 2 specimens (USNM)  ; Sao Paulo, received 7.VI.1945, coll. H. L. Parker, 1003-61, 1 slide, 1 specimen (USNM)  ; Sao Paulo, IX.1998, coll. T. Kondo, ex leaf of Araliaceae  , 1 slide, 1 specimen (AUCC)  . Colombia: Valle del Cauca, Cali, Unicentro , 03°20’50”N, 76°34’15”W, 975 mts asl, 22.XII.2005, coll. Takumasa Kondo, ex Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.  ( Fabaceae  ), 1 slide, 1 specimen, No. TK 0188 (BME)GoogleMaps  . Costa Rica: 13.VIII.1981, coll. K. Niedzwiadek, ex orchid leaf, Miami quarantine intercept, 28981, 1 slide, 1 specimen (USNM)  . Dominican Republic: San Juan , 25.I.1974, coll. F. Rodriguez, ex leaf of undetermined tree, 5187, 1 slide, 1 specimen (USNM)  . Jamaica: Ocho Rios , 5.IX.2003, coll. Takumasa Kondo, ex undetermined tree, 1 slide, 1 specimen, No. TK 0057 (BME)  . U.S.A.: Florida, Naples , 15.II.1972, coll. W. A. Padgett, ex Calliandra  sp., 1 slide, 1 specimen (USNM)  . Venezuela: Las Delicias, Edo. Araqua , 13.X.1943, coll. Sr C. H. Ballou, Q. Vivas B, ex Cajanus indicus  , BFQ, 1 slide, 4 specimens (USNM)  .

Description. Adult female (measurements based on n=21).

Unmounted material ( Fig. 1View Fig). Cockerell (1894) wrote of the adult female in life: “On Acacia  sp., Port-of-Spain (Urich). 3 mm. long, 1½ wide, oval, moderately convex. Glassy scale white, with a conspicuous median longitudinal ridge; posterior cleft large, about one-third total length of scale. Surface of scale strongly but finely striate radiately on sides; the apparent striations, highly magnified, resolve themselves into rows of small dots (air cells?). Th e dorsal portion of this scale is divided into testudinoid plates; there are apparently six series of such plates, three along each side, but the two middle series are the sides of a single median row, divided only by the keel or ridge. Beyond these the broad margin is not divided into plates. The plates are concentrically striate, with a granular patch in the middle of each. The median row of plates consists of two large dorsal ones, and two smaller posterior ones. The second row consists of three plates on each side, and the third row of seven on each side. Margin with a fringe of rods at rather distant intervals. Th e subtransparent scale removed leaves the insect shiny red-brown, looking like a Lecanium  . Derm with large gland pits near the margin; margin with simple spines, varying in size.” Th e insects are commonly flat and almost round when infesting the leaves [ Fig. 1CView Fig; see also round-shaped specimen (rshs), upper right of Fig. 2View Fig, small inset drawing after Hamon and Williams (1984)], but are more convex and generally longer than broad when infesting twigs (pers. obs.).

Slide-mounted material. Body 1.72-4.70 mm long, 1.28-4.84 mm wide. Lectotype damaged, 2.04 mm long, approximately 1.30 mm wide. Note. The lectotype and adult female paralectotypes are much smaller than the rest of the adult specimens studied (except for the Florida specimen) because the types (and the Florida specimen) are young adult females.

Dorsum. Derm membranous, becoming entirely sclerotized on older adult females. Dorsal setae completely absent. Dorsal microducts (dmic) oval, bilocular, each about 5 µm wide, with a long terminal filament; present marginally, along inner margins of anal lobes and longitudinally in a mid-dorsal line; absent elsewhere. Simple pores (sp) each 2 µm wide, closely associated with dorsal microducts and showing a similar distribution; outline of simple pores and dorsal microducts on mid-dorsal line, especially anterior to anal plates, becoming sclerotized and thus resembling preopercular pores. Dorsal tubular ducts, preopercular pores, dorsal tubercles and pocket-like sclerotizations absent. Anal plates (aplt) together quadrate, with smooth rounded outer angles, plates located at about 1/4 to 1/3 of body length from posterior margin, each plate 133-160 (155) µm long, 70-95 (90) µm wide, anterolateral margin 93-113 (113) µm long, posterolateral margin 90-113 (110) µm long, with 6-10 setae on dorsal surface, plus 1 pair of fringe setae anteriorly and about 3 ventral subapical setae; hypopygial setae not detected. Anal ring (ar) with 6 setae. A narrow sclerotic area present around anal plates, in a narrow mid-dorsal line beginning on area anterior to anal plates and extending anteriorly to level of mouthparts along mid-dorsal line of microducts; on more mature specimens, sclerotizated area on mid-dorsum may be broader but generally confined to mid-dorsal areas (as illustrated in Hamon and Williams, 1984), and in older specimens the whole dorsum may become sclerotized.

Margin. Marginal setae (mset) sharply spinose, straight, each 20-60 µm long, arranged in a single row, with 8-12 (11) on each side between anterior and posterior stigmatic areas. Stigmatic clefts very shallow or absent, each with 1 stigmatic spine (stgsp) per stigmatic area, each sharply spinose and 68-90 µm long. Eyes not detected.

Venter. Derm entirely membranous. Perivulvar pores (pp) each 3-5 µm wide, with 5 loculi, restricted to a small area on either side of anal opening. Spiracular pores (spp) each 3-5 (4) µm wide, with 5 loculi, present in a narrow band as wide as peritreme (about 1 or 3 pores wide), extending laterally from each spiracle to body margin. Ventral microducts (vmic) scarce, scattered evenly throughout, each about 2 µm wide. Ventral tubular ducts present submarginally around body, absent elsewhere; each tubular duct with a terminal filament ending in a small flower-shaped gland. Ventral setae slender, scarce, straight or slightly bent, each 5-35 µm long, longest setae present just anterior of the vulva. Spiracles rather small, anterior spiracular peritremes each 28-43 (40) µm wide, posterior peritremes each 30-45 (45) µm wide, with a conspicuous sclerotization around each spiracle. Legs vestigial, represented by a pair of short setae, each seta about 3 µm long, hard to detect. Antennae (ant) very small, each 8-15 (13) µm long, 1 segmented, with about 9 setae. With about 6 interantennal setae, each interantennal setae 7-10 µm long. Mouthparts relatively small, clypeolabral shield 100-120 (120) µm wide; labium 1 segmented, with 4 pairs of labial setae.

Diagnosis. The adult female of P. vitreus  can be diagnosed by the combination of the following features: (1) insect in life covered in a glassy wax cover; (2) mid-dorsal line becoming sclerotized, often with margins also becoming sclerotized; (3) dorsal setae completely absent; (4) dorsal tubercles and dorsal tubular ducts absent; (5) stigmatic setae sharply spinose, one per stigmatic cleft; (6) antennae greatly reduced, one segmented; (7) legs vestigial, represented by a pair of very short setae; (8) ventral tubular ducts in a submarginal band, absent elsewhere; (9) spiracular pores in a narrow band, present in a line from each stigmatic margin towards each spiracular peritreme; and (10) perivulvar pores present in a small group around vulva.

Morphological variation. The specimens from Costa Rica and Florida had longer marginal setae (around 55 µm on specimens from those locations versus approximately 30 µm on specimens from elsewhere). Compared to the type material, in the specimens from Barbados, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic , the spiracular pore band becomes broader near the margin. This is, no doubt, in part due to the large size of the latter specimens. On the lectotype, a tight band of ca. 30 spiracular pores extends from each spiracle to the body margin. The Florida specimen has ca. 15 spiracular pores in a band from spiracle to margin. The margins of the insect are often as sclerotic as its midline. According to Dr Chris Hodgson (pers. comm.), specimens found on the leaves are often wider than long  ; older specimens can be entirely sclerotized dorsally, and often have a wide submarginal band of quite large areolations. Specimens found on twigs, including, the type material, are generally longer than wide (pers. obs.).

Biology. The insects can be found on twigs and on leaves, with specimens on twigs being often associated with tending ants (T. Kondo, personal observation). Cockerell (1894) reported a specimen infested by a hymenopterous parasite.

Distribution [adapted from Ben-Dov et al. 2006; new host records indicated by an asterisk, see material studied or notes within parentheses “()”].* Argentina (as P. correntinus in Granara de Willink 1999  ), * Barbados, * Costa Rica, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, * Jamaica, Panama, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, U.S.A. (Florida) and * Venezuela. Also known from the Galapagos Islands (C. Hodgson, pers. comm.).

Host plants [adapted from Ben-Dov et al. 2006; new host records indicated by double asterisk, see material studied or notes within parentheses “()”]. Annonaceae  : ** Annona  sp., Rollinia mucosa  ; Lauraceae  : Laurus nobilis  , Persea borbonia  ; Fabaceae  : Acacia  sp., ** Cajanus indicus  , Calliandra  sp., ** Pithecellobium dulce  ; Myricaceae  : Myrica cerifera  ; ** Orchidaceae  ; ** Thymelaeaceae  ; Vitaceae  : Vitis vinifera  (for P. correntinus in Granara de Willink 1999  ). In the Galapagos Islands, the insect has been collected on Annona cherimola  ( Annonaceae  ), and on Inga  sp. ( Fabaceae  ) (C. Hodgson, personal communication).

Taxonomic notes. The specific epithet “ vitrea  ” is amended to “ vitreus  ” in order to match the gender of the genus “ Pseudokermes  ”.

In the descriptions of Pseudokermes  spp. by Hodgson (1994) and Granara de Willink (1999), all species are described as having preopercular pores. In younger specimens of P. vitreus  , the area anterior to the anal plates clearly shows no preopercular pores, but instead there is a mid-dorsal line of bilocular microducts associated with simple pores in the same way that they are present around the body margin. In older specimens, a linear area anterior to the anal plates becomes sclerotized up to level dorsad to mouthparts, and at this point, the structure of the bilocular microducts and simple pores become unrecognizable. Th icker areolations are formed on this sclerotized area ( Fig. 2View Fig), giving the dorsal microducts and simple pores the appearance of preopercular pores. It is possible that this may be the same situation observed in other species of Pseudokermes  . However, this will only be confirmed by observing teneral adult females, and further studies are needed to test whether this may be the case in species of Pseudokermes  in general.

Pseudokermes vitreus  appears similar to P. nitens  (as described by Hodgson 1994), but the two differ in the following features (character states of P. nitens  in parentheses): (1) spiracular pores present in a line extending from stigmatic areas to spiracles (spiracular pores present in a small group around stigmatic area only and not extending towards spiracle); (2) ventral tubular ducts restricted to a submarginal band (ventral tubular ducts present in a submarginal band with a few present also around mouthparts); and (3) perivulvar pores restricted to a small group around vulva (perivulvar pores present around vulva with some pores also present posteriorly on submedial areas of posterior abdominal segments).

The morphological features of P. correntinus Granara de Willink  are almost identical to those of P. vitreus  and thus P. correntinus  is considered here to be junior synonym. All measurements and morphological features of P. correntinus  agree with the description of P. vitreus  , including the distribution of the spiracular pores, absence of ventral tubular ducts around the mouthparts, number of setae in the anal plates, and the length of marginal and stigmatic setae. Granara de Willink (1999) considered the antennae of P. correntinus  to be composed of two segments, however, she also counted two segments in P. eugenium  [ Hodgson’s (1994) P. nitens  according to Granara de Willink (1999)] for which species Hodgson (1994) only counted one antennal segment. Furthermore, in P. vitreus  there exists a single seta at the base of the one-segmented antennae and, in P. correntinus, Granara de Willink (1999)  counted this seta as part of the first segment. The apparent difference in the number of antennal segments may be due to differences in interpretation. Th e legs in P. vitreus  are vestigial, and represented by a pair of very short setae (each 3 µm long) and are not easy to detect. Indeed, Hamon and Williams (1984) in their redescription of the species considered the legs to be absent, but in their illustration showed a seta at the position of each leg.














Inglisia vitrea Cockerell, 1894: 308

Kondo, Takumasa & Hardy, Nate 2008

Pseudokermes correntinus Granara de Willink, 1999: 137

Pseudokermes correntinus Granara de Willink, 1999: 137