Agathocles limbatus Stål, 1876

Salini, S. & Kment, Petr, 2021, The genera Agathocles and Surenus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) tribal reassessment, redescription, new synonyms, and description of two new species, Zootaxa 4958 (1), pp. 510-559 : 524-529

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4958.1.31

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9E63F8E2-1CCA-4F58-9019-39AE7A3D0640

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4711367

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/038587F4-682D-FFF2-4E8D-6615FE5BF9F5

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Agathocles limbatus Stål, 1876
status

 

Agathocles limbatus Stål, 1876  

( Figs 1–8 View FIGURES 1–5 View FIGURES 6–13 , 16, 22 View FIGURES 14–22 , 25–30 View FIGURES 23–28 View FIGURES 29–32 , 33 View FIGURES 33–36 , 37–59 View FIGURES 37–43 View FIGURES 44–53 View FIGURES 54–59 , 139 View FIGURE 139 )

Agathocles limbatus Stål, 1876: 106   (original description). Holotype: ♂, Bangladesh, Silhet [= Sylhet] (NHRS:?lost).

Agathocles limbatus: Atkinson (1888)   : 153 (redescription, distribution); Lethierry & Severin (1893): 183 (catalogue); Distant (1902): 199, fig. 121 (redescription; figures of habitat in dorsal view, and mesothorax, metathorax and abdomen in ventral view; distribution); Kirkaldy (1909): 147 (catalogue); Ahmad (1981): 52 (list); Zhang & Lin (1985): 21 –22 (record); Zhang & Lin (1986): 61 (record); Rider (1997): 402 (checklist); Rider et al. (2002): 136 (Chinese distribution); Rider (2006): 342 (catalogue); Li et al. (2008): 212 (checklist); Fan (2011): 43 (key to species); Hoàng & Ðãng (2013): 789 (record).

Agathocles fimbatus   (incorrect subsequent spelling): Hua (2000): 171 (checklist).

Agathocles limbaatus   (incorrect subsequent spelling): Zhang (1994): 33 (catalogue).

Agothocles [sic!] limbatus   : Ahmad et al. (1974): 43 (list, host plant), 75: figs 63, 66, 88, 89 (drawings of habitus in dorsal view and meso- and metapleuron in ventral view).

Agathocles yunnanensis Zhang & Lin, 1984   in Lin & Zhang (1984): 268–270, figs 3, 4 (original description, line drawings of habitus in dorsal view and female terminalia in ventral view). Holotype: ♀, China, Yunnan, Cang-yuan County, 675 m a.s.l., 19.vii.1980 (IZAS). New junior subjective synonym.

Agathocles yunnanensis: Zhang et al. (1987)   : 144 (key to genera and species); Yang & Sun (1991): 28 (type depository); Rider (1997): 402 (checklist); Hua (2000): 171 (checklist); Rider et al. (2002): 136 (Chinese distribution); Rider (2006): 342 (catalogue); Fan (2011): 43 (key to species), 44–45, figs 2.14a–f (redescription, drawings of male genitalia), 555–556, figs 32–33 (photos of habitus in dorsal and ventral view).

Agathooles [sic!] yunnanensis   : Jiang (1985): 67 (checklist).

Type locality. Agathocles limbatus   . Bangladesh, Silhet [= Sylhet], 24°54′N 91°52′E GoogleMaps   . Agathocles yunnanensis   . China, Yunnan, Cangyuan Va Autonomous County, 23°09′N 99°14′E GoogleMaps  

Type material. Agathocles limbatus   . Not examined. The description was based on single specimen (holotype) as it is mentioned in the original description: ‘Antennae exempli descripti …’ [= antennae of examined specimen …]. The holotype should be deposited in NHRS (cf. Stål 1876; Rider 2006), but it is not included in the list of the collection by Gustafsson (2006). Dávid Rédei (pers. comm.) confirmed to us that he did not locate the holotype in NHRS during his carefull search of the collection.

Agathocles yunnanensis   . Holotype: ♀ ( Figs 3–5 View FIGURES 1–5 ), China, Yunnan, Cang-yuan County, 675 m a.s.l., 19.vii.1980 ( IZAS). The photographs of the holotype were provided by courtesy of D. Rédei.  

Material examined. CAMBODIA: Pailin env., [12°52′N 102°36′E], 200 m a.s.l., 16.–17.vi.2008, 1 ♂, S. Murzin lgt., P. Kment det. ( NMPC) GoogleMaps   . CHINA: Guangxi: 广NJkdfi.乡 550m 2000-VI-5 李rff. ḤflLj 物 ¶ [= Guangxi: Fangchenggang, 21°42′N 108°21′E, Tongzhong village , 550 m a.s.l., 5.vi.2000], 1 ♂, W.-Z. Li lgt., Z-H. Fan det. as A. yunnanensis, P. Kment   revid. ( IZAS → NKUM) GoogleMaps   . Tibet: Chanyu [= Zayü county], Xiachayu [= Xiazayü], 28°29′16″N 97°01′22″E, vi.2017, 3 ♀, local collector (1 ♀ NMPC, 2 ♀ MRCS) GoogleMaps   . LAOS: Houa Phan Province: Ban Saleui, Phou Pan ( Mt. ), 20°12′N 104°01′E, 1300–1900 m a.s.l., 13.vi.–6.vii.2013, 3 ♂ 4 ♀, C. Holzschuh lgt., Acq. Nr. 2013-13, P. Kment det. (2 ♂ 3 ♀ NHMW, 1 ♂ 1 ♀ NHMW → NMPC) GoogleMaps   ; Ban Saluey → Phou Pane Mt. , 20°12– 13.5′N 103°59.5′– 104°01′E, 1340–1870 m a.s.l., primary mountain forest, individual collecting, 1.–24.vi.2012, 1 ♂, Vít Kubáň & Lao collectors lgt., P. Kment det. ( NMPC)   ; Phu Pane Mt. , 20°12′N 103°50′E, 900–1400 m a.s.l., 10.–21.vi.2010, 1 ♀, S. Jakl & Lao collectors lgt., P. Kment det. ( NMPC) GoogleMaps   ; Phu Phan Mt. , iv.2016, 1 ♂, P. Kment det. ( MRCS)   . Louang Phrabang Province: Ban Song Cha (5 km W), 20°33 –34′N 102°14′E, ± 1200 m a.s.l., 24.iv.–16.v.1999, 1 ♂, V. Kubáň lgt., P. Kment det. ( MMBC)   . Phongsaly Province: Phongsaly env., 21°41‒42′N 102°6–8′E, ca. 1500 m a.s.l., 28.v.–30.vi.2003, 2 ♀, P. Pacholátko lgt., P. Kment det. ( MMBC)   . THAILAND: Loei Province: Phu Kradung NP, 16°53′N 101°47′E, 1300 m a.s.l., 11.–15.v.1999, 1 ♀, D. Hauck lgt., P. Kment det. ( NHMW) GoogleMaps   . VIETNAM: Cao Bang Province: Phia Oac NP, 7 km N to village, [22°35′N 105°53′E], 28.v.2014, light trap, 2 ♂ 2 ♀ ( NMNS ENT 7399-646 View Materials , 668 View Materials , 877 View Materials , 879 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , M. L. Jeng lgt., J.-F. Tsai det. as A. yunnanensis, P. Kment   revid. ( NMNS)   .

Redescription. Colouration ( Figs 1–4 View FIGURES 1–5 ). Head above and below, thorax ventrally, abdominal tergites V (medially) and VI–VIII (completely), and sternites, and pygophore posteroventrally black; pronotum, scutellum and hemelytra dark brown with mosaic of smaller to larger, irregular, yellowish- to orange-ochraceous callosities (largest callosity on corium at the end of median furrow). Lateral margin of pronotum (narrowly), costal margin of corium anteriad of connexivum, posterolateral margin of metapleuron, and connexivum ventraly largely orangeochraceous (connexival segments along margins narrowly black). Most of femora, tibiae, tarsi, and antennomeres I to III dark brown. Distiflagellum (IV) and labium yellowish. Coxae, trochanters, bases of femora, and basal portion of pygophore yellowish brown. Membrane dark brown, translucent. Thoracic pleura (outside evaporatorium), especially on acetabula, with variable distribution of yellowish callosities. Peritremal surface ochraceous.Abdominal tergites I–IV completely and V laterally brownish. Round fields surrounding abdominal trichobothria very small, brown, not much contrasting with their black surroundings.

Integument and vestiture. Body dorsally matt, ventrally shining. Body above (including inner portion of corium) covered with dense, coarse, black punctures, disc of pronotum (posteromedially) and scutellum (anteriorly) with fine transverse wrinkles; head underside and thoracic sterna with dense, coarse punctures; surface of abdominal sternites smooth with fine punctures. Body mostly glabrous (see generic redescription).

Structure. Head ( Figs 6–8 View FIGURES 6–13 ) slightly shorter than wide (across eyes), head length to width ratio 0.82–0.90. Mandibular plates with lateral margins strongly insinuate in front of eyes above small antenniferous tubercle, parallel-sided in about their midlength, and rather regularly rounded anteriad; apical incision in front of clypeus Vshaped; lateral margins of mandibular plates slightly raised, more prominent laterally than apically. Antennomeres from shortest to longest: I <IIa <IV <IIb <III. Scape (I) about reaching apex of head; basipedicellite IIa distinctly (1.70–2.66×) longer than scape (I), only slightly shorter than IIb (length of IIa: IIb ratio: 1.03–1.63×). Labiomeres from shortest to longest (n = 1): IV (1.32 mm) <I (1.52 mm) <III (1.96 mm) <II (2.21 mm). Labium reaching between mesocoxae or slightly beyond.

Pronotum ( Figs 1, 3 View FIGURES 1–5 ). Lateral tooth on anterolateral angles larger, directed laterad. Lateral pronotal margin anteriorly only minutely crenulate. Humeri rectangular, slightly surpassing laterad over base of corium. Posterior margin slightly concave.

Scutellum ( Figs 1, 3 View FIGURES 1–5 ). Disc of scutellum convex in prefrenal portion, its postfrenal portion flat, only slightly raised medially, apex narrowly rounded.

Hemelytra ( Figs 1, 3 View FIGURES 1–5 ). Costal margin of corium slightly more insinuated basally.

Thorax. Ostiole large, oval, opening posteriad; median furrow short and wide, not apparent in apical half of peritreme length ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 14–22 ). Metasternum wide ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 23–28 ).

Male genitalia. Genital capsule ( Figs 37–41 View FIGURES 37–43 ) nearly quadrangular in dorsal/ventral view, longer than wide. Ventral rim with double shallow insinuation submedially, posterolateral projections not prominent ( Fig. 41 View FIGURES 37–43 ); ventral rim infolding wide, semi-circular, biconcave, slightly raised medially ( Figs 37–39 View FIGURES 37–43 ). Ventral margin of genital capsule produced ventrally (see in lateral view, Figs 28 View FIGURES 23–28 , 40 View FIGURES 37–43 ). Superior processes of dorsal rim subquadrate ( Figs 37–39, 43 View FIGURES 37–43 ). Parameral socket open ( Fig. 38 View FIGURES 37–43 : ps). Proctiger trapezoid, laterally constricted about its midlength ( Figs 37, 42 View FIGURES 37–43 ). Paramere ( Figs 44–53 View FIGURES 44–53 ) with basal process (bp) foliaceous, roughly semicircular, apically with short row of long setae ( Figs 44, 47–48, 51 View FIGURES 44–53 ); apical process (ap) triangular, more pointed apically ( Figs 44, 46–47, 49, 52–53 View FIGURES 44–53 ); mesal angle of stem with an additional lamellate projection ( Figs 44, 46–47, 50–51 View FIGURES 44–53 ). Phallus ( Figs 54–59 View FIGURES 54–59 ): A pair of dorsal conjunctival processes, transversely placed and ending in sclerotised processes ( Figs 57, 59 View FIGURES 54–59 ); median penial plates or processes of aedeagus (pa) fused basally, outer margins broadly and thickly sclerotized, encircling short, curved aedeagus ( Fig. 59 View FIGURES 54–59 : ad).

Female genitalia ( Figs 29–30 View FIGURES 29–32 , 33 View FIGURES 33–36 ). Laterotergite VIII (lt 8) subtriangular. Laterotergites IX (lt9) widely rounded apically, not touching each other medially, segment X visible ( Figs 29–30 View FIGURES 29–32 ). Valvifers VIII (vf8) quadrant with median margins juxtaposed and dorsal margins slightly convex ( Figs 29–30 View FIGURES 29–32 ). Valvifers IX (vf9) fused, medially with impressed median fusion line. Ring sclerites drop-shaped, narrowly sclerotized ( Fig. 33 View FIGURES 33–36 : rs). Spermatheca: dilation long, narrow in the examined specimen ( Fig. 33 View FIGURES 33–36 : dil), distal invagination (‘sclerotized rod’; Fig. 33 View FIGURES 33–36 : div) distinctly broadened distally, subparallel in most of its length, basally straight and slightly broadened, distal flange tightly attached to apical receptacle ( Fig. 33 View FIGURES 33–36 : df); apical receptacle subhemispherical ( Figs 33 View FIGURES 33–36 : ar) with one long projection directed proximad and far surpassing proximal flange (pf), and three short processes of various orientation, not surpassing distal flange.

Measurements. See Table 2.

Variation. Among the specimens examined there is distinct variability in the following characters: Colouration: Dorsal connexival segments orange-ochraceous with concolorous punctures ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1–5 ) to dull ochraceous with dense black punctures ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 1–5 ); antennomeres I basally, IIa basally and in middle, III basally and apically, and tarsomeres I and II dorsally ochraceous; lateral margin of pronotum (including anterolateral angle or not) dark, concolorous with surrounding surface ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 1–5 ); small circles around trichobothria yellowish, more contrasting with surrounding surface; femora brown or blackish brown ( Figs 2, 4 View FIGURES 1–5 ). Distribution of callosities on body, e.g. abdominal ventrites with yellowish callosities or completely black. Mandibular plates meeting in front of clypeus ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 6–13 ) or not, leaving apex of clypeus free ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 6–13 ). Length of antennomeres (see Table 2) and their ratios, from shortest to longest: I <IV <IIa <IIb <III (2 specimens), I <IIa <IIb <IV <III (1 specimen), I <IIa = IV <IIb <III (1 specimen), I <IIa <IV <III <IIb (2 specimens). Ventral rim infolding of genital capsule medially with slightly raised keel ( Fig. 37 View FIGURES 37–43 ) or the keel is indistinct ( Fig. 38 View FIGURES 37–43 ). Apical process and lamellate projection of mesal angle of paramere slightly different in shape (cf. Figs 44–46, 50, 52 View FIGURES 44–53 versus 47–49, 51, 53).

Differential diagnosis. See key to species and Table 3. This species is easy to identify due to the wide yellow or orange stripe ventrally on connexivum.

Distribution ( Fig. 139 View FIGURE 139 ). Bangladesh ( Stål 1876; Atkinson 1888; Distant 1902); Cambodia (new record); China: Fujian ( Zhang & Lin 1985: ‘Sha County, Jianyang’; Rider et al. 2002), Guangxi ( Fan 2011 [unpubl.]; new record), Jiangxi ( Zhang & Lin 1985: ‘Xunwu, Guizhumao’, 1986; Zhang 1994; Li et al. 2008), Tibet (new record); Yunnan ( Lin & Zhang 1984; Jiang 1985, both as A. yunnanensis   ); India: Assam ( Distant 1902, without exact locality); Laos (new record); Thailand (new record); Vietnam ( Hoàng & Đăng 2013).

The Distant’s (1902) record from Assam may refer also to other Indian states later separated from the original territory of Assam.

Taxonomy. Zhang & Lin in Lin & Zhang (1984) described a new species, A. yunnanesis   from Yunnan, distinguishing it from A. limbatus   . The description was written in Chinese with only a short English summary. By the courtesy of D. Rédei, we provide here translation of the original description: ‘Female body length 23 mm, width 13 mm, humeral width 11 mm. Oval, ground colour blackish brown, with orange marmorated spots, finely and densely punctured. Mandibular plates longer than clypeus, anteriorly separated and forming a V-shaped interspace, lateral margin turned upwards; compound eyes black, ocelli pale yellowish. Antennomeres III, IV lacking; the bases and tips of the remaining antennomeres provided with a small protrusion on their outer sides, antennomeres I–IIb dark brown, bases and tips of each segments pale, lengths as 1.09, 3.00, 3.46 mm, antennomeres IIa–IIb pilose. Labium yellowish brown, reaching slightly before mesocoxae. Pronotum and basal half of scutellum with several irregular rugosities. Anterior margin of pronotum elevated at middle, anterior angle orange brown, tip sharp and directed outwards, anterolateral margin narrowly protruding, concave close to its middle; humeral angle slightly protruding, apex rounded, with crescent-shaped orange line, margin of callar area smooth, edge with several small, scattered, orange spots; pro- and mesosternum with low and narrow median carina, metasternum flat. Legs black, coxae, bases of femora, and tarsi yellowish brown. Scutellum with several small, marmorate, orange spots. Corium with several irregular orange markings, anterior margin marked with orange at base, slightly turned upwards; membrane blackish brown, not surpassing apex of abdomen. Connexivum exposed. Abdominal venter pitch-black, slightly shiny, densely and finely punctured, lateral margin of each segment with a broad orange band. Female terminalia in ventral view as in fig. 4.

Similar to A. limbatus   , but the latter is somewhat smaller, not surpassing 21 mm in length, dorsum decorated with fine, marmorate, orange markings, ventrally also with such fine, marmorate, orange markings, all femora and tibiae yellowish brown, labium reaching between mid coxae.’ ( Lin & Zhang 1984).

The English abstract by Lin & Zhang (1984) says that the labium reaches ‘beyond the middle of coxae’, however, the Chinese text clearly states that it extends to the area slightly anteriad of mesocoxae (D. Rédei, pers. comm.).

All the characters distinguishing between A. limbatus   and A. yunnanensis   provided by Lin & Zhang (1984) and observed on the photographs of the holotype of A. yunnanensis   fits within the variability of A. limbatus   as observed in our study. Therefore, we consider A. yunnanensis   as junior subjective synonym of A. limbatus   . The observed differences in structure of pygophore and paramere seems rather minor and we prefer to treat A. limbatus   as single though variable species.

NHRS

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections

IZAS

Institut Zoologii Akademii Nauk Ukraini - Institute of Zoology of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

NMPC

National Museum Prague

NKUM

Nankai University

NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

MMBC

Moravske Muzeum [Moravian Museum]

NMNS

National Museum of Natural Science

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Pentatomidae

Genus

Agathocles

Loc

Agathocles limbatus Stål, 1876

Salini, S. & Kment, Petr 2021
2021
Loc

Agathocles fimbatus

Hua, L. - Z. 2000: 171
2000
Loc

Agathocles limbaatus

Zhang, S. - M. 1994: 33
1994
Loc

Agathocles yunnanensis:

Fan, Z. - H. 2011: 43
Rider, D. A. 2006: 342
Rider, D. A. & Zheng, L. - Y. & Kerzhner, I. M. 2002: 136
Hua, L. - Z. 2000: 171
Rider, D. A. 1997: 402
Yang, X. - K. & Sun, H. - G. 1991: 28
Zhang, S. - M. & Lin, Y. - J. & Jiang, Z. - L. 1987: 144
1987
Loc

Agathocles limbatus:

Hoang, V. T. & Dang, D. K. 2013: 789
Fan, Z. - H. 2011: 43
Li, Z. - J. & Wu, X. - P. & Chen, X. - L. & Liu, C. - M. 2008: 212
Rider, D. A. 2006: 342
Rider, D. A. & Zheng, L. - Y. & Kerzhner, I. M. 2002: 136
Rider, D. A. 1997: 402
Zhang, S. - M. & Lin, Y. - J. 1986: 61
Zhang, S. - M. & Lin, Y. - J. 1985: 21
Ahmad, I. 1981: 52
Kirkaldy, G. W. 1909: 147
Distant, W. L. 1902: 199
Lethierry, L. & Severin, G. 1893: 183
Atkinson, E. T. 1888: 153
1888
Loc

Agathocles limbatus Stål, 1876: 106

Stal, C. 1876: 106
1876
Loc

Agathooles [sic!] yunnanensis

Jiang (1985) : 67